[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Hypercalciuria is one of the early manifestations of diabetic nephropathy. We explored here the role of α-Klotho, a protein expressed predominantly in distal convoluted tubules that has a role in calcium reabsorption. We studied 31 patients with early diabetic nephropathy and compared them with 31 patients with IgA nephropathy and 7 with minimal change disease. Renal α-Klotho expression was significantly lower and urinary calcium excretion (UCa/UCr) significantly higher in diabetic nephropathy than in IgA nephropathy or minimal change disease. Multiple regression analyses indicated that α-Klotho mRNA was inversely correlated with calcium excretion. We next measured these parameters in a mouse model of streptozotocin (STZ)-induced diabetic nephropathy, characterized by glomerular hyperfiltration, as seen in early diabetic nephropathy. We also confirmed a reduction of renal α-Klotho mRNA down to almost 50% and enhanced calcium excretion in mice with STZ-induced diabetic nephropathy in comparison with nondiabetic mice. Hypercalciuria was exacerbated in heterozygous α-Klotho knockout mice in comparison with wild-type mice, each with STZ-induced diabetic nephropathy. Thus, α-Klotho expression was decreased in distal convoluted tubules in diabetic nephropathy in humans and mice. Renal loss of α-Klotho may affect urinary calcium excretion in early diabetic nephropathy.
Kidney International 01/2012; 81(6):539-47. · 7.92 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: We previously reported that fibroblast-specific protein 1 (FSP1) is a marker of epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) in tubulointerstitial fibrosis. The EMT-like changes observed in podocytes are reportedly associated with podocyte detachment which may cause focal glomerulosclerosis.
In cross-sectional studies, we analyzed podocyte expression of FSP1 immunohistochemically using renal biopsy specimens from 31 patients with focal segmental glomerulosclerosis (FSGS) and 39 patients with minimal change disease (MCD). We also semiquantitatively analyzed glomerular expression of FSP1 mRNA using laser capture microdissection and real-time PCR.
We found that FSP1 was localized to podocytes in both FSGS and MCD patients; however, the number of FSP1(+) podocytes per glomerular profile was significantly higher in patients with FSGS than in those with MCD, and there was a corresponding difference in the levels of FSP1 mRNA. FSP1(+) podocyte counts per glomerular profile in FSGS patients correlated significantly with the prevalence of glomerulosclerosis and the extent of interstitial type-I collagen-positive areas.
Taken together, these data suggest that podocyte expression of FSP1 could shed light on the potential linkage between EMT-like changes, detachment of podocytes from the glomerular basal membrane and the pathophysiology underlying FSGS.
Nephron Clinical Practice 11/2011; 120(1):c1-7. · 1.65 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Fibroblast-specific protein 1 (FSP1)-expressing cells accumulate in damaged kidneys, but whether urinary FSP1 could serve as a biomarker of active renal injury is unknown. We measured urinary FSP1 in 147 patients with various types of glomerular disease using ELISA. Patients with crescentic GN, with or without antinuclear cytoplasmic antibody-associated GN, exhibited elevated levels of urinary FSP1. This assay had a sensitivity of 91.7% and a specificity of 90.2% for crescentic GN in this sample of patients. Moreover, we found that urinary FSP1 became undetectable after successful treatment, suggesting the possible use of FSP1 levels to monitor disease activity over time. Urinary FSP1 levels correlated positively with the number of FSP1-positive glomerular cells, predominantly podocytes and cellular crescents, the likely source of urinary FSP1. Even in patients without crescent formation, patients with high levels of urinary FSP1 had large numbers of FSP1-positive podocytes. Taken together, these data suggest the potential use of urinary FSP1 to screen for active and ongoing glomerular damage, such as the formation of cellular crescents.
Journal of the American Society of Nephrology 11/2011; 23(2):209-14. · 8.99 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Depletion of glomerular podocytes is an important feature of progressive diabetic nephropathy. Although the most plausible explanation for this podocyte depletion is detachment from the glomerular basement membrane after cellular apoptosis, the mechanism is unclear. Fibroblast-specific protein 1 (FSP1; encoded by the S100A4 gene) is a member of the S100 family of calcium-binding proteins and is constitutively expressed in the cytoplasm of tissue fibroblasts or epithelial cells converted into fibroblasts by means of epithelial-mesenchymal transition.
Retrospective cross-sectional analysis.
109 patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus, of whom 43 (39%) underwent kidney biopsy.
Clinical stage (4 categories) and histological grade (5 categories) of diabetic nephropathy.
FSP1 expression in podocytes in urine and glomeruli in kidney biopsy specimens.
Immunohistochemistry, real-time polymerase chain reaction, and in situ hybridization.
38 of 109 patients (35%) were normoalbuminuric, 16 (15%) had microalbuminuria, 8 (7%) had macroalbuminuria, and 47 (43%) had decreased kidney function. Approximately 95% of podocytes in urine sediment were not apoptotic, and 86% expressed FSP1. The number of FSP1-positive podocytes in urine sediment was significantly larger in patients with macroalbuminuria than in those with normoalbuminuria (P = 0.03). Intraglomerular expression of FSP1 occurred almost exclusively in podocytes from patients with diabetes, and the number of FSP1-positive podocytes was larger in glomeruli showing diffuse mesangiopathy than in those showing focal mesangiopathy (P = 0.01). The number also was larger in glomeruli with nodular lesions than in those without nodular lesions (P < 0.001). FSP1-positive podocytes selectively expressed Snail1 and integrin-linked kinase, a known trigger for epithelial-mesenchymal transition.
Nonrepresentative study population.
These results suggest that the appearance of FSP1 in podocytes of patients with diabetes is associated with more severe clinical and pathological findings of diabetic nephropathy, perhaps because of induction of podocyte detachment through epithelial-mesenchymal transition-like phenomena.
American Journal of Kidney Diseases 08/2009; 54(4):653-64. · 5.29 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Chronic hypoxia accelerates renal fibrosis. The chief mediator of the hypoxic response is hypoxia-inducible factor 1 (HIF-1) and its oxygen-sensitive component HIF-1alpha. HIF-1 regulates a wide variety of genes, some of which are closely associated with tissue fibrosis. To determine the specific role of HIF-1 in renal fibrosis, we generated a knockout mouse in which tubular epithelial expression of von Hippel-Lindau tumor suppressor (VHL), which acts as a ubiquitin ligase to promote proteolysis of HIF-1alpha, was targeted. We investigated the effect of VHL deletion (i.e., stable expression of HIF-1alpha) histologically and used the anti-HIF-1alpha agent [3-(5'-hydroxymethyl-2'-furyl)-1-benzyl indazole] (YC-1) to test whether inhibition of HIF-1alpha could represent a novel approach to treating renal fibrosis. The area of renal fibrosis was significantly increased in a 5/6 renal ablation model of VHL-/- mice and in all VHL-/- mice at least 60 wk of age. Injection of YC-1 inhibited the progression of renal fibrosis in unilateral ureteral obstruction model mice. In conclusion, HIF-1alpha appears to be a critical contributor to the progression of renal fibrosis and could be a useful target for its treatment.
American journal of physiology. Renal physiology 08/2008; 295(4):F1023-9. · 3.61 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Corticosteroids are frequently used to treat patients with active IgA nephropathy (IgAN); however, there have been few reports describing factors that are predictive of the response to corticosteroid treatment. The purpose of this study is to determine the extent to which fibroblast-specific protein 1-positive (FSP1(+)) cells are predictive of corticosteroid responsiveness in patients with IgAN.
Fifty biopsy-proven IgAN patients who received corticosteroid therapy were enrolled and followed for 7.1 +/- 3.0 years. FSP1(+) cells were identified using an anti-FSP1 antibody.
Twelve patients showed progression of renal impairment or no reduction of urinary protein (non-responders) after steroid therapy. In the remaining 38 patients, renal function was stable during follow-up, and their urinary protein declined to <1.0 g/day (responders). Serum creatinine, estimated GFR, severity of mesangial proliferation, percent glomerulosclerosis/total glomeruli, extent of interstitial damage and FSP1(+) cell number were all significantly higher in non-responders than in responders. Cox regression analysis using two covariates with every possible combination of factors indicated that FSP1(+) cell number was the strongest and most significant predictor of corticosteroid responsiveness. When IgAN patients had >32.6 FSP1(+) cells/HPF at diagnosis, they were the more likely to show steroid resistance.
FSP1(+) cell number can serve as an excellent predictor of corticosteroid responsiveness in patients with IgAN.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: To obtain a better understanding of the pharmacokinetics of atrial and brain natriuretic peptides (ANP and BNP, respectively), two peptide mediators used in the treatment of congestive heart failure (CHF). Although both peptides exert their effects by binding to a common receptor (natriuretic peptide receptor A) with about the same affinity, their respective loading and maintenance doses differ.
Sixteen CHF patients were randomized to be infused for 2 h with alpha-human ANP (0.05 microg/kg per minute) or BNP (0.01 microg/kg per minute). Plasma concentrations of both peptides were measured 0, 2, 5, 15, 30, 60 and 120 min post-infusion. The pharmacokinetic parameters were then calculated using a 1-compartment model.
The plasma BNP concentrations in the ANP and BNP groups before infusion were 464.7 +/- 339.8 and 506.8 +/- 332.5 pg/ml, respectively. Following infusion, ANP disappeared from the circulation more rapidly than BNP: their plasma half-lives were 2.4 +/- 0.7 and 12.1 +/- 3.0 min, and their total body clearance volumes were 48.2 +/- 24.1 and 10.1 +/- 2.7 ml/min per kilogram, respectively.
ANP has a shorter half-life in the plasma of CHF patients than BNP, which suggests that it controls hemodynamics more readily than BNP.
European Journal of Clinical Pharmacology 08/2007; 63(7):699-702. · 2.74 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: There is little direct evidence that fibroblasts are involved in the progression of the renal interstitial fibrosis in human glomerulonephritis. With the availability of a new specific marker for fibroblasts, we determined the presence of fibroblasts in kidneys with IgA nephropathy (IgAN) and correlated their numbers with various clinical parameters. In particular, we also prospectively asked if the number of fibroblasts in the renal interstitium correlates with prognosis.
Cells positive for fibroblast-specific protein 1 (FSP1) were localized in renal biopsy specimens using immunohistochemistry with anti-FSP1 antibody. Clinical features were analyzed by one-way analysis of variance (ANOVA) with the Bonferroni correction. To assess the prognostic impact of the number of FSP1+ fibroblasts on renal survival in 142 patients with normal serum creatinine, the relationship between covariates to renal survival were evaluated univariately using the log-rank test and multivariately using Cox proportional hazards.
Fibroblasts identified by their expression of FSP1 accumulate in areas showing severe interstitial fibrosis. Some tubular epithelial cells undergoing epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) in fibrotic areas also express FSP1. Numbers of FSP1+ fibroblasts directly correlate with serum creatinine (r = 0.74, P < 0.0001) and inversely correlate with estimated creatinine clearance (r = -0.54, P < 0.0001), and by multivariate analysis, the clinical factors influencing renal survival are urinary protein excretion [> or = 1.0 g/day, relative risk (RR) = 4.20, P= 0.032], hypertension (RR 5.85, P = 0.0027), and > or = 20 FSP1+ fibroblasts per high power field (HPF) (RR 7.39, P = 0.0015). Staining for FSP1+ fibroblasts is largely nonoverlapping with alpha-smooth muscle actin+ (alpha-SMA) cells in the interstitium.
The target protein FSP1 identifies human fibroblasts and tubular epithelium undergoing EMT, and distinguishes them from the diaspora of alpha-SMA+ vascular smooth muscle cells. FSP1+ fibroblasts are critically related to the progression of IgAN; consequently, staining FSP1 in renal biopsy specimens provides a valuable histologic index of progression.
Kidney International 10/2005; 68(3):1078-85. · 7.92 Impact Factor