Gen Sobue

Nagoya University, Nagoya, Aichi, Japan

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Publications (733)2736.02 Total impact

  • Clinical Neurophysiology - CLIN NEUROPHYSIOL. 01/2007; 118(9).
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    ABSTRACT: We describe an autopsy case of MM1-type sporadic Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease (CJD), the duration of which was 93 days. The patient was a 59-year-old Japanese man with no family history of prion disease or known iatrogenic exposure to CJD. His first symptom was dysesthesia in the left arm, suggestive of cervical cord involvement, and he showed rapidly progressive neurologic signs, such as dysarthria, dysphagia, lethargy, sleep apnea and respiratory failure, suggestive of brainstem involvement. Progressive mental deterioration combined with episodes of myoclonic seizure and periodic synchronous discharges on the electroencephalogram were observed in the later disease stage. Autopsy showed typical spongiform change to be wide-spread in the cerebral and cerebellar cortices, thalamus and basal ganglia. Synaptic-type PrP deposition was marked in the cerebral cortex, thalamus and basal ganglia. In the cerebellum, although the granular, molecular and Purkinje cell layers were well preserved from neuronal loss and gliosis, PrP deposition was marked in the molecular and granular cell layers. Spongiform degeneration and neuronal loss were not seen in the brainstem and spinal cord, but relatively marked PrP deposition was observed in the quadrigeminal body, substantia nigra, pontine nucleus, inferior olivary nucleus and posterior horn. Immunohistochemical staining for HLA-DR showed proliferation of activated microglia in the cerebral and cerebellar cortices, pontine nucleus, inferior olivary nucleus and posterior horn. The mechanisms underlying the neurologic symptoms and signs were unclear, but we speculate that, in addition to widespread involvement of the cerebral cortex, PrP deposition and microglial activation in the brainstem and spinal cord were responsible.
    Neuropathology 01/2007; 26(6):550-6. · 1.91 Impact Factor
  • Autonomic Neuroscience-basic & Clinical - AUTON NEUROSCI-BASIC CLIN. 01/2007; 137(1):105-105.
  • Autonomic Neuroscience-basic & Clinical - AUTON NEUROSCI-BASIC CLIN. 01/2007; 135(1):46-46.
  • Neuroscience Research - NEUROSCI RES. 01/2007; 58.
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    ABSTRACT: Although more than 130 years have gone by since the first description in 1869 by Jean-Martin Charcot, the mechanism underlying the characteristic selective motor neuron degeneration in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) has remained elusive. Modest advances in this research field have been achieved by the identification of copper/zinc superoxide dismutase 1 (SOD1) as one of the causative genes for rare familial ALS (FALS) and by the development and analysis of mutant SOD1 transgenic mouse models. However, in sporadic ALS (SALS) with many more patients, causative or critical genes situated upstream of the disease pathway have not yet been elucidated and no available disease models have been established. To approach genes causative or critical for ALS, gene expression profiling in tissues primarily affected by the disease has represented an attractive research strategy. We have been working on screening these genes employing and combining several new technologies such as cDNA microarray, molecular indexing, and laser capture microdissection. Many of the resultant genes are of intense interest and may provide a powerful tool for determining the molecular mechanisms of ALS. However, we have barely arrived at the starting point and are confronting an enormous number of genes whose roles remain undetermined. Challenging tasks lie ahead of us such as identifying which genes are really causative for ALS and developing a disease model of SALS with due consideration for the expression changes in those genes.
    Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences 12/2006; 1086:1-10. · 4.38 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Heat shock proteins (HSPs) that function mainly as molecular chaperones play an important role in the folding and quality control of proteins. Compared with these chaperones, Hsp90 is unique in that it binds to substrate proteins, called Hsp90 client proteins. Hsp90 is involved in the folding, activation, and assembly of its client proteins in association with its co-chaperones. Because numerous oncoproteins belonging to the Hsp90 client protein family are selectively degraded by Hsp90 inhibitors, 17-allylamino-17-demethoxygeldanamycin (17-AAG), a first-in-class Hsp90 inhibitor, is now under clinical trials as a novel molecular-targeted agent for a wide range of malignancies. In spinal and bulbar muscular atrophy (SBMA), the pathogenic gene product is polyglutamine (polyQ)-expanded androgen receptor (AR), which belongs to the Hsp90 client protein family and is known to be degraded by 17-AAG. We have recently demonstrated that administration of an anticancer agent 17-AAG significantly ameliorated polyQ-mediated motor neuron degeneration by reducing the total amount of mutant AR. The ability of 17-AAG to degrade mutant protein would be directly applicable to SBMA and other neurodegenerative diseases in which the disease-causing proteins also belong to the Hsp90 client protein family. Our proposed therapeutic approach using a novel anticancer agent 17-AAG has emerged as a candidate for molecular-targeted therapies for neurodegenerative diseases.
    Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences 12/2006; 1086:21-34. · 4.38 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Spinal and bulbar muscular atrophy (SBMA) is a hereditary neurodegenerative disease caused by an expansion of a trinucleotide CAG repeat encoding the polyglutamine tract in the androgen receptor (AR) gene. To elucidate the pathogenesis of polyglutamine-mediated motor neuron dysfunction, we investigated histopathological and biological alterations in a transgenic mouse model of SBMA carrying human pathogenic AR. In affected mice, neurofilaments and synaptophysin accumulated at the distal motor axon. A similar intramuscular accumulation of neurofilament was detected in the skeletal muscle of SBMA patients. Fluoro-gold labeling and sciatic nerve ligation demonstrated an impaired retrograde axonal transport in the transgenic mice. The mRNA level of dynactin 1, an axon motor for retrograde transport, was significantly reduced in the SBMA mice resulting from pathogenic AR-induced transcriptional dysregulation. These pathological events were observed before the onset of neurological symptoms, but were reversed by castration, which prevents nuclear accumulation of pathogenic AR. Overexpression of dynactin 1 mitigated neuronal toxicity of the pathogenic AR in a cell culture model of SBMA. These observations indicate that polyglutamine-dependent transcriptional dysregulation of dynactin 1 plays a crucial role in the reversible neuronal dysfunction in the early stage of SBMA.
    Journal of Neuroscience 12/2006; 26(47):12106-17. · 6.91 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: We analyzed neuropathologic features of 23 Japanese patients with sporadic Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease (sCJD) by means of prion protein (PrP) immunolabeling associated with codon 129 polymorphism of the PrP gene and western blot analysis of protease-resistant PrP (PrP type). Clinical features, particularly age at onset, disease duration, periodic synchronous discharge and presence of myoclonus, were also analyzed. This study included 11 cases of subacute spongiform encephalopathy (SSE), 10 cases of panencephalopathic (PE)-type sCJD and two cases of thalamic-type sCJD, classified according to cerebral pathology findings. According to PrP gene polymorphism and PrP type, 18 cases were classified as MM1-type, two as MV1-type, two as MM2-type and one as MM1 + 2-type sCJD. SSE and PE-type sCJD showed similar clinical features, with the exception of disease duration, codon 129 polymorphism and PrP type. Thalamic-type sCJD showed different clinical features and PrP type. We suggest that SSE and PE-type sCJD comprise the sCJD subtype and that PE-type sCJD is a prolonged pathologic phenotype of SSE. When we compare our results with those from a series of Caucasian sCJD patients, the percentages of codon 129 polymorphisms differed, as did classification based on PrP gene polymorphism and PrP type; our series included many PE-type sCJD cases and disease duration was relatively long and MM2-type cases showed clinicopathologic variability.
    Acta Neuropathologica 12/2006; 112(5):561-71. · 9.73 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Tenderness in the limb muscles has been reported anecdotally in patients with beriberi neuropathy, but clinical effects of thiamine deficiency on skeletal muscle have received little attention. To describe a patient with thiamine deficiency who manifested myopathic symptoms and responded well to thiamine supplementation. A 26-year-old woman with neuropathy and heart failure associated with thiamine deficiency also complained of myalgia and weakness, most troublesome in the proximal portions of the limbs. Serum creatine kinase, myoglobin, and aldolase concentrations were abnormally elevated. Magnetic resonance imaging of lower limb muscles demonstrated areas of high signal intensity in T2-weighted images and showed Gd-DTPA enhancement. A biopsy specimen from the quadriceps muscle showed myopathic changes without neurogenic changes. Abnormalities improved well with thiamine administration. Myopathy may occur in patients with thiamine deficiency.
    Journal of the Neurological Sciences 12/2006; 249(2):175-9. · 2.24 Impact Factor
  • Haruki Koike, Gen Sobue
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    ABSTRACT: The concept of alcoholic neuropathy has been obscured because of an often undetected or overestimated influence of thiamine deficiency. We describe clinicopathologic features of alcoholic neuropathy, taking the effect of thiamine status into consideration, and recent progress associated with the pathogenesis. Clinical features of alcoholic neuropathy without thiamine deficiency are characterized by slowly progressive, sensory-dominant symptoms. Superficial sensation is predominantly impaired and painful symptoms are the major complaint. Pathologic features are characterized by small-fiber-predominant axonal loss. In contrast, the clinicopathologic features of alcoholic neuropathy with concomitant thiamine deficiency are variable, constituting a spectrum ranging from a picture of a pure form of alcoholic neuropathy to a presentation of nonalcoholic thiamine-deficiency neuropathy. One possible mediator of the direct neurotoxic effects among the metabolites of ethanol is acetaldehyde. Axonal transport and cytoskeletal properties are impaired by ethanol exposure. Protein kinase A and protein kinase C may also play a role in the pathogenesis, especially in association with painful symptoms. Nutritional deficiency as well as the direct neurotoxic effects of ethanol or its metabolites can cause alcoholic neuropathy. Although clinicopathologic features of the pure form of alcoholic neuropathy are uniform, they show extensive variation when thiamine deficiency is present.
    Current Opinion in Neurology 11/2006; 19(5):481-6. · 5.42 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: We report a 69-year-old man who developed paralytic poliomyelitis in childhood and then decades later suffered from fatal respiratory failure. Six months before this event, he had progressive weight loss and shortness of breath. He had severe muscular atrophy of the entire right leg as a sequela of the paralytic poliomyelitis. He showed mild weakness of the facial muscle and tongue, dysarthria, and severe muscle atrophy from the neck to proximal upper extremities and trunk, but no obvious pyramidal signs. Electromyogram revealed neurogenic changes in the right leg, and in the paraspinal, sternocleidomastoid, and lingual muscles. There was a slight increase in central motor conduction time from the motor cortex to the lumbar anterior horn. Pulmonary function showed restrictive ventilation dysfunction, which was the eventual cause of death. Some neuropathological features were suggestive of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS), namely Bunina bodies. In patients with a history of paralytic poliomyelitis who present after a long stable period with advanced fatal respiratory failure, one may consider not only respiratory impairment from post-polio syndrome but also the onset of ALS.
    Clinical Neurology and Neurosurgery 11/2006; 108(7):670-4. · 1.23 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Laminin A, B1, and B2 chain mRNA levels in degenerating and regenerating mouse sciatic nerves were examined using northern blot analysis. In normal intact nerves, B1 and B2 mRNA steady-state levels were high, but when the nerves were crushed, the steady-state levels of B1 and B2 mRNA per milligram wet tissue weight of the distal segments of the nerves increased five- to eightfold over that of control levels as the total RNA and β-actin mRNA levels increased, suggesting that these increases were the consequence of Schwann cell proliferation after axotomy. When the steady-state levels of B1 and B2 mRNA were normalized as the ratio to total RNA or β-actin mRNA levels, however, they drastically decreased to about 20% of the normal nerve levels in the nerve segments distal to both the crush and transaction sites 1 day after injury. In the crushed nerves, B1 and B2 mRNA levels gradually increased as the regenerating nerves arrived at the distal segments and reestablished normal axon–Schwann cell contact, and then returned to normal levels on the 21 st day. In the transected nerves, where Schwann cells continued to be disconnected from axons, both B1 and B2 mRNA levels remained low. Cultured Schwann cells expressed detectable levels of B1 and B2 chain mRNA which significantly increased when the cells were cocultured with sensory neurons. However, mRNA for A chain was not detectable in the normal, axotomized nerves or in cultured Schwann cells. These data indicate that Schwann cells express laminin B1 and B2 chain mRNA that are up-regulated by axonal or neuronal contact, but they do not express A chain mRNA.
    Journal of Neurochemistry 10/2006; 60(2):543 - 551. · 3.97 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The 20 S proteasome is a ubiquitous, barrel-shaped protease complex responsible for most of cellular proteolysis, and its reduced activity is thought to be associated with accumulations of aberrant or misfolded proteins, resulting in a number of neurodegenerative diseases, including amyotrophic lateral sclerosis, spinal and bulbar muscular atrophy, Parkinson disease, and Alzheimer disease. The 20 S proteasomes of archaebacteria (archaea) are structurally simple and proteolytically powerful and thought to be an evolutionary precursor to eukaryotic proteasomes. We successfully reproduced the archaeal proteasome in a functional state in mammalian cells, and here we show that the archaeal proteasome effectively accelerated species-specific degradation of mutant superoxide dismutase-1 and the mutant polyglutamine tract-extended androgen receptor, causative proteins of familial amyotrophic lateral sclerosis and spinal and bulbar muscular atrophy, respectively, and reduced the cellular toxicities of these mutant proteins. Further, we demonstrate that archaeal proteasome can also degrade other neurodegenerative disease-associated proteins such as alpha-synuclein and tau. Our study showed that archaeal proteasomes can degrade aggregation-prone proteins whose toxic gain of function causes neurodegradation and reduce protein cellular toxicity.
    Journal of Biological Chemistry 09/2006; 281(33):23842-51. · 4.65 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Patients having neuropathy associated with Sjögren's syndrome may present with pain and superficial sensory involvement in the absence of sensory ataxia. Treatment for this form of associated neuropathy has not been established. The case of a patient with painful sensory neuropathy associated with Sjögren's syndrome, whose symptoms, particularly pain, responded well to intravenous immunoglobulin both at onset and in a relapse, is reported. Other patients with painful sensory neuropathy associated with Sjögren's syndrome may also be candidates for intravenous Ig treatment.
    Journal of neurology, neurosurgery, and psychiatry 09/2006; 77(8):967-9. · 4.87 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Abnormal accumulation of disease-causing protein is a commonly observed characteristic in chronic neurodegenerative disorders such as Alzheimer's disease, Parkinson's disease, and polyglutamine (polyQ) diseases. A therapeutic approach that could selectively eliminate would be a promising remedy for neurodegenerative disorders. Spinal and bulbar muscular atrophy (SBMA), one of the polyQ diseases, is a late-onset motor neuron disease characterized by proximal muscle atrophy, weakness, contraction fasciculations, and bulbar involvement. The pathogenic gene product is polyQ-expanded androgen receptor (AR), which belongs to the heat shock protein (Hsp) 90 client protein family. 17-Allylamino-17-demethoxygeldanamycin (17-AAG), a novel Hsp90 inhibitor, is a new derivative of geldanamycin that shares its important biological activities but shows less toxicity. 17-AAG is now in phase II clinical trials as a potential anti-cancer agent because of its ability to selectively degrade several oncoproteins. We have recently demonstrated the efficacy and safety of 17-AAG in a mouse model of SBMA. The administration of 17-AAG significantly ameliorated polyQ-mediated motor neuron degeneration by reducing the total amount of mutant AR. 17-AAG accomplished the preferential reduction of mutant AR mainly through Hsp90 chaperone complex formation and subsequent proteasome-dependent degradation. 17-AAG induced Hsp70 and Hsp40 in vivo as previously reported; however, its ability to induce HSPs was limited, suggesting that the HSP induction might support the degradation of mutant protein. The ability of 17-AAG to preferentially degrade mutant protein would be directly applicable to SBMA and other neurodegenerative diseases in which the disease-causing proteins also belong to the Hsp90 client protein family. Our proposed therapeutic approach, modulation of Hsp90 function by 17-AAG treatment, has emerged as a candidate for molecular-targeted therapies for neurodegenerative diseases. This review will consider our research findings and discuss the possibility of a clinical application of 17-AAG to SBMA and other neurodegenerative diseases.
    Journal of Molecular Medicine 09/2006; 84(8):635-46. · 4.77 Impact Factor
  • Jun-ichi Niwa, Gen Sobue
    Tanpakushitsu kakusan koso. Protein, nucleic acid, enzyme 09/2006; 51(10 Suppl):1423-7.
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    ABSTRACT: Spinal and bulbar muscular atrophy (SBMA) is a hereditary neurodegenerative disease characterized by slowly progressive muscle weakness and atrophy of bulbar, facial, and limb muscles. The cause of SBMA is expansion of a trinucleotide CAG repeat, which encodes the polyglutamine tract, in the first exon of the androgen receptor (AR) gene. SBMA chiefly occurs in adult males, whereas neurological symptoms are rarely detected in females having mutant AR gene. The cardinal histopathological finding of SBMA is loss of lower motor neurons in the anterior horn of spinal cord as well as in brainstem motor nuclei. Animal models carrying human mutant AR gene recapitulate polyglutamine-mediated motor neuron degeneration, providing clues to the pathogenesis of SBMA. There is increasing evidence that testosterone, the ligand of AR, plays a pivotal role in the pathogenesis of neurodegeneration in SBMA. The striking success of androgen deprivation therapy in SBMA mouse models has been translated into clinical trials. In addition, elucidation of pathophysiology using animal models leads to emergence of candidate drugs to treat this devastating disease: HSP inducer, Hsp90 inhibitor, and histone deacetylase inhibitor. Utilizing biomarkers such as scrotal skin biopsy would improve efficacy of clinical trials to verify the results from animal studies. Advances in basic and clinical researches on SBMA are now paving the way for clinical application of potential therapeutics.
    Experimental Neurology 08/2006; 200(1):8-18. · 4.65 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Spinal and bulbar muscular atrophy (SBMA) is an adult-onset motoneuron disease caused by a CAG-repeat expansion in the androgen receptor (AR) gene and for which no curative therapy exists. However, since recent research may provide opportunities for medical treatment, information concerning the natural history of SBMA would be beneficial in planning future clinical trials. We investigated the natural course of SBMA as assessed by nine activities of daily living (ADL) milestones in 223 Japanese SBMA patients (mean age at data collection = 55.2 years; range = 30-87 years) followed from 1 to 20 years. All the patients were diagnosed by genetic analysis. Hand tremor was an early event that was noticed at a median age of 33 years. Muscular weakness occurred predominantly in the lower limbs, and was noticed at a median age of 44 years, followed by the requirement of a handrail to ascend stairs at 49, dysarthria at 50, dysphagia at 54, use of a cane at 59 and a wheelchair at 61 years. Twenty-one of the patients developed pneumonia at a median age of 62 and 15 of them died at a median age of 65 years. The most common cause of death in these cases was pneumonia and respiratory failure. The ages at onset of each ADL milestone were strongly correlated with the length of CAG repeats in the AR gene. However CAG-repeat length did not correlate with the time intervals between each ADL milestone, suggesting that although the onset age of each ADL milestone depends on the CAG-repeat length in the AR gene, the rate of disease progression does not. The levels of serum testosterone, an important triggering factor for polyglutamine-mediated motoneuron degeneration, were maintained at relatively high levels even at advanced ages. These results provide beneficial information for future clinical therapeutic trials, although further detailed prospective studies are also needed.
    Brain 07/2006; 129(Pt 6):1446-55. · 9.92 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: A 35-year-old patient with hemophilia A presented with rapidly progressive polyarteritis nodosa (PAN). He had been infected with hepatitis B virus (HBV) by repeated transfusion and was positive for hepatitis B surface antigen but negative for hepatitis B surface antibody. The patient presented symptoms of acute epididymitis followed by emergency admission because of acute appendicitis. On day 7 of admission, he complained of severe back pain, and computerized tomography (CT) showed massive perirenal hematoma. On day 49, mild monoplegia in the left arm suddenly developed, and CT and magnetic resonance imaging revealed multiple cerebral infarctions. Factor VIII replacement therapy was attenuated; however, cerebral infarction was progressive and extended throughout the cerebral hemispheres. He was diagnosed with classic polyarteritis nodosa (cPAN), and pulse methylprednisolone was continued. The patient died of supratentorial herniation, and autopsy revealed that vasculitis associated with intimal thickening was present in the liver, pancreas, intestine, kidneys, and larger-sized cerebral arteries. The development of cPAN appeared to have originated from chronic HBV infection, and this is the first report of cPAN in hemophilia patients. Concomitant hemorrhagic and thrombotic manifestations of cPAN are hardly treatable in patients with coagulation disorders, and the current case may represent a rare transfusion-related complication in hemophilia patients.
    International Journal of Hematology 07/2006; 83(5):420-5. · 1.68 Impact Factor

Publication Stats

11k Citations
2,736.02 Total Impact Points


  • 1996–2014
    • Nagoya University
      • • Division of Neurology
      • • Institute for Advanced Research (IAR)
      • • Graduate School of Medicine
      • • Division of Higher Nervous Control
      Nagoya, Aichi, Japan
  • 2013
    • University of Tsukuba
      Tsukuba, Ibaraki, Japan
    • Yokkaichi Municipal Hospital
      Yokkaiti, Mie, Japan
  • 2008–2013
    • Chubu Rosai Hospital
      Nagoya, Aichi, Japan
    • The University of Tokyo
      • Department of Neuroscience
      Tokyo, Tokyo-to, Japan
  • 1993–2013
    • Kyoto Daini Red Cross Hospital
      Kioto, Kyōto, Japan
  • 2012
    • Juntendo University
      • Department of Neurology
      Tokyo, Tokyo-to, Japan
  • 2004–2012
    • Keio University
      • • Faculty of Pharmacy
      • • Department of Physiology
      Edo, Tōkyō, Japan
  • 2007–2011
    • Kumamoto University
      • Graduate School of Pharmaceutical Sciences
      Kumamoto-shi, Kumamoto Prefecture, Japan
    • Dokkyo Medical University
      • Department of Neurology
      Totigi, Tochigi, Japan
  • 1987–2006
    • Aichi Medical University
      • • Division of Internal Medicine
      • • Department of Neurology
      Okazaki, Aichi, Japan
  • 2005
    • Osaka City University
      Ōsaka, Ōsaka, Japan
  • 2002
    • Nagoya Second Red Cross Hospital
      Nagoya, Aichi, Japan
    • Shinshu University
      Shonai, Nagano, Japan
  • 2000–2002
    • Kasugai Municipal Hospital
      Касугай, Aichi, Japan
    • Tachikawa Hospital
      Edo, Tōkyō, Japan
  • 2001
    • National Center of Neurology and Psychiatry
      Кодаиры, Tōkyō, Japan
  • 1998
    • Social Insurance Chukyo Hospital
      Nagoya, Aichi, Japan
  • 1984–1988
    • University of Pennsylvania
      • Department of Neurology
      Philadelphia, PA, United States
    • The Children's Hospital of Philadelphia
      • Department of Neurology
      Philadelphia, PA, United States