[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: We aimed to evaluate the long-term safety and efficacy of the STENTYS self-apposing paclitaxel-eluting stent (STENTYS-PES) in bifurcation lesions in routine clinical practice.
The primary endpoint of the study was the composite major adverse cardiac events (MACE: cardiac death, myocardial infarction, clinically driven target lesion revascularisation, or emergent bypass surgery) assessed at six months after enrolment. This was reported in 21 patients (10.1%), mainly due to clinically driven target lesion revascularisation (TLR). At 12 months, 27 patients experienced MACE (13.0%).
The long-term results of OPEN II show that the STENTYS-PES is safe and effective in the treatment of all-comers with coronary bifurcation lesions.
EuroIntervention: journal of EuroPCR in collaboration with the Working Group on Interventional Cardiology of the European Society of Cardiology 06/2015; 11(2). DOI:10.4244/EIJY15M06_02 · 3.77 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Objectives. To assess the safety and efficacy of Biolimus A9-eluting stents (BES, BioMatrix™ and BioMatrix Flex™) in routine clinical practice.Background. The LEADERS randomized trial has documented equivalent efficacy and superior safety of the BES when compared to a first generation Sirolimus-eluting CypherTM stent.Methods. 5,472 patients from 57 centers, treated with BES, were enrolled in an international multicenter registry and followed clinically up to 2 years.Results. Mean patient age was 63.2 ± 11 years, 24% of patients had diabetes, and 49.8% presented with an acute coronary syndrome. 99.3% of patients were discharged on dual antiplatelet therapy [DAPT], 83.3% remained on DAPT at 1 year and 30.6% at 2 years. The incidence of the composite primary endpoint (Major Adverse Cardiac [MACE] at 12 months) was 4.5% (cardiac death 0.9%, myocardial infarction 1.7%, clinically indicated target vessel revascularization [ci-TVR] 2.8%). MACE incidence was 6.8% at 24 months (cardiac death 1.5%, myocardial infarction 2.4%, ci-TVR 4.3%). At 12 months, 32 patients (0.6%) had suffered at least one definite or probable stent thrombosis [ST], and 91 patients (1.7%) a major bleed [MB]. Nine patients with ST (27.3%) and 7 patients with a MB (7.7%) died during the first year after the index procedure. Between 12 and 24 months after implantation, there were 18 (0.4%) additional MB and 8 (0.2%) additional ST.Conclusions. This large international cohort documents a low 12 and 24 months MACE incidence and a very low ST incidence in an unselected patient population undergoing BES implantation. The results are in keeping with those of the randomized controlled LEADERS trial. Even though ST with this stent was a rare event, it was still associated with significant mortality. MB remains a problem, and warrants improved tailoring of DAPT in recipients of drug eluting stents. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
Catheterization and Cardiovascular Interventions 02/2015; DOI:10.1002/ccd.25892 · 2.11 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: -Biodegradable-polymer drug-eluting stents (BP-DES) were developed to be as effective as second-generation durable-polymer drug-eluting stents (DP-DES) and as safe >1 year as bare-metal stents (BMS). Thus, very late stent thrombosis (VLST) attributable to durable polymers should no longer appear.
-To address these early and late aspects, 2291 patients presenting with acute or stable coronary disease needing stents ≥3.0 mm in diameter between April 2010 and May 2012 were randomly assigned to biolimus-A9-eluting BP-DES, second-generation everolimus-eluting DP-DES, or thin-strut silicon-carbide-coated BMS in 8 European centers. All patients were treated with aspirin and risk-adjusted doses of prasugrel. The primary end point was combined cardiac death, myocardial infarction, and clinically indicated target-vessel revascularization within 2 years. The combined secondary safety end point was a composite of VLST, myocardial infarction, and cardiac death. The cumulative incidence of the primary end point was 7.6% with BP-DES, 6.8% with DP-DES, and 12.7% with BMS. By intention-to-treat BP-DES were noninferior (predefined margin, 3.80%) compared with DP-DES (absolute risk difference, 0.78%; -1.93% to 3.50%; P for noninferiority 0.042; per protocol P=0.09) and superior to BMS (absolute risk difference, -5.16; -8.32 to -2.01; P=0.0011). The 3 stent groups did not differ in the combined safety end point, with no decrease in events >1 year, particularly VLST with BP-DES.
-In large vessel stenting, BP-DES appeared barely noninferior compared with DP-DES and more effective than thin-strut BMS, but without evidence for better safety nor lower VLST rates >1 year. Findings challenge the concept that durable polymers are key in VLST formation. Clinical Trial Registration-URL: http://www.clinicaltrials.gov. Unique identifier: NCT01166685.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Objectives To examine the safety and effectiveness of cobalt-chromium everolimus eluting stents compared with bare metal stents.
Design Individual patient data meta-analysis of randomised controlled trials. Cox proportional regression models stratified by trial, containing random effects, were used to assess the impact of stent type on outcomes. Hazard ratios with 95% confidence interval for outcomes were reported.
Data sources and study selection Medline, Embase, the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials. Randomised controlled trials that compared cobalt-chromium everolimus eluting stents with bare metal stents were selected. The principal investigators whose trials met the inclusion criteria provided data for individual patients.
Primary outcomes The primary outcome was cardiac mortality. Secondary endpoints were myocardial infarction, definite stent thrombosis, definite or probable stent thrombosis, target vessel revascularisation, and all cause death.
Results The search yielded five randomised controlled trials, comprising 4896 participants. Compared with patients receiving bare metal stents, participants receiving cobalt-chromium everolimus eluting stents had a significant reduction of cardiac mortality (hazard ratio 0.67, 95% confidence interval 0.49 to 0.91; P=0.01), myocardial infarction (0.71, 0.55 to 0.92; P=0.01), definite stent thrombosis (0.41, 0.22 to 0.76; P=0.005), definite or probable stent thrombosis (0.48, 0.31 to 0.73; P<0.001), and target vessel revascularisation (0.29, 0.20 to 0.41; P<0.001) at a median follow-up of 720 days. There was no significant difference in all cause death between groups (0.83, 0.65 to 1.06; P=0.14). Findings remained unchanged at multivariable regression after adjustment for the acuity of clinical syndrome (for instance, acute coronary syndrome v stable coronary artery disease), diabetes mellitus, female sex, use of glycoprotein IIb/IIIa inhibitors, and up to one year v longer duration treatment with dual antiplatelets.
Conclusions This meta-analysis offers evidence that compared with bare metal stents the use of cobalt-chromium everolimus eluting stents improves global cardiovascular outcomes including cardiac survival, myocardial infarction, and overall stent thrombosis.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Background
Refinements in stent design affecting strut thickness, surface polymer, and drug release have improved clinical outcomes of drug-eluting stents. We aimed to compare the safety and efficacy of a novel, ultrathin strut cobalt-chromium stent releasing sirolimus from a biodegradable polymer with a thin strut durable polymer everolimus-eluting stent.
We did a randomised, single-blind, non-inferiority trial with minimum exclusion criteria at nine hospitals in Switzerland. We randomly assigned (1:1) patients aged 18 years or older with chronic stable coronary artery disease or acute coronary syndromes undergoing percutaneous coronary intervention to treatment with biodegradable polymer sirolimus-eluting stents or durable polymer everolimus-eluting stents. Randomisation was via a central web-based system and stratified by centre and presence of ST segment elevation myocardial infarction. Patients and outcome assessors were masked to treatment allocation, but treating physicians were not. The primary endpoint, target lesion failure, was a composite of cardiac death, target vessel myocardial infarction, and clinically-indicated target lesion revascularisation at 12 months. A margin of 3·5% was defined for non-inferiority of the biodegradable polymer sirolimus-eluting stent compared with the durable polymer everolimus-eluting stent. Analysis was by intention to treat. The trial is registered with ClinicalTrials.gov, number NCT01443104.
Between Feb 24, 2012, and May 22, 2013, we randomly assigned 2119 patients with 3139 lesions to treatment with sirolimus-eluting stents (1063 patients, 1594 lesions) or everolimus-eluting stents (1056 patients, 1545 lesions). 407 (19%) patients presented with ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction. Target lesion failure with biodegradable polymer sirolimus-eluting stents (69 cases; 6·5%) was non-inferior to durable polymer everolimus-eluting stents (70 cases; 6·6%) at 12 months (absolute risk difference −0·14%, upper limit of one-sided 95% CI 1·97%, p for non-inferiority <0·0004). No significant differences were noted in rates of definite stent thrombosis (9 [0·9%] vs 4 [0·4%], rate ratio [RR] 2·26, 95% CI 0·70–7·33, p=0·16). In pre-specified stratified analyses of the primary endpoint, biodegradable polymer sirolimus-eluting stents were associated with improved outcome compared with durable polymer everolimus-eluting stents in the subgroup of patients with ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction (7 [3·3%] vs 17 [8·7%], RR 0·38, 95% CI 0·16–0·91, p=0·024, p for interaction=0·014).
In a patient population with minimum exclusion criteria and high adherence to dual antiplatelet therapy, biodegradable polymer sirolimus-eluting stents were non-inferior to durable polymer everolimus-eluting stents for the combined safety and efficacy outcome target lesion failure at 12 months. The noted benefit in the subgroup of patients with ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction needs further study.
Clinical Trials Unit, University of Bern, and Biotronik, Bülach, Switzerland.
The Lancet 09/2014; DOI:10.1016/S0140-6736(14)61038-2 · 45.22 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Aims: We conducted a pooled post hoc analysis (RESOLUTE All Comers and RESOLUTE International) of patients who had the Resolute® zotarolimus-eluting stent (R-ZES) implanted in revascularised total occlusions (TO) compared with patients treated with R-ZES for non-occluded lesions. Methods and results: Patients were divided into three groups: chronic TO (CTO; n=256), non-chronic TO (n=292), and no occlusion (n=2,941). Clinical and safety outcomes assessed through two years included target lesion failure (TLF: cardiac death, target vessel myocardial infarction, and clinically driven target lesion revascularisation) and Academic Research Consortium definite or probable stent thrombosis. The rate of TLF at two years was not significantly different among patients in the CTO (9.1%), TO (9.8%), and no occlusion (10.4%) groups (log-rank p=0.800); neither were the components of TLF. Definite or probable stent thrombosis occurred more frequently in the TO group (2.8% vs. 1.2% in the CTO and 1.1% in the group with no occlusion, p=0.027). There were 10 late and six very late stent thrombosis events. Conclusions: Apart from a higher rate of stent thrombosis in patients with TO, patients with totally occluded coronary arteries who receive revascularisation with an R-ZES have clinical outcomes comparable to those who receive a similar stent in non-occluded lesions.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The tradeoff between stent thrombosis (ST) and major bleeding (MB) of 12- versus 6-months dual antiplatelet therapy (DAPT) after coronary stent implantation has not been clearly defined.
Definite/probable ST and MB (TIMI major and BARC ≥3) were compared in 2 subsequent trials with similar inclusion criteria but different DAPT duration, i.e., BASKET (6 months, n = 557) and BASKET-PROVE (12 months, n = 2,314), between months 0–6 (DAPT in both trials), 7–12 (DAPT in BASKET-PROVE only), and 13–24 (aspirin in both trials) using propensity score adjusted time-stratified Cox proportional-hazard models.
Overall, event rates were low with fewer ST but similar MB in prolonged DAPT. Analysis of the 3 periods showed a uniform pattern for ST (interaction DAPT/period p = 0.145) but an inconsistent pattern for MB (interaction DAPT/period p < 0.001 for TIMI major and p = 0.046 for BARC ≥3), with more MB occurring during months 7–12 with prolonged DAPT. Considering observed case-fatality rates of 31% with ST and 11% with MB, the extrapolated prevention of 27 ST-deaths and the excess of 5 MB-deaths resulted in an expected benefit of 22 survivors/10’000 patients treated over 2 years with prolonged DAPT.
Despite overall low event rates, prolonged DAPT was associated with more MB during months 7–12 according to the interaction DAPT/period. Given the higher observed case fatality rates of ST vs. MB, 12-vs. 6-months DAPT was associated with an extrapolated reduction in mortality. Effective treatment periods and case fatality rates seem important in the analysis of different DAPT durations, specifically with regard to ongoing trials.
American Heart Journal 07/2014; 168(5). DOI:10.1016/j.ahj.2014.07.019 · 4.46 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND: This study sought to determine whether the 1-year differences in major adverse cardiac event between a stent eluting biolimus from a biodegradable polymer and bare-metal stents (BMSs) in the COMFORTABLE trial (Comparison of Biolimus Eluted From an Erodible Stent Coating With Bare Metal Stents in Acute ST-Elevation Myocardial Infarction) were sustained during long-term follow-up.
METHODS AND RESULTS: A total of 1161 patients were randomly assigned to biolimus-eluting stent (BES) and BMS at 11 centers, and follow-up rates at 2 years were 96.3%. A subgroup of 103 patients underwent angiography at 13 months. At 2 years, differences in the primary end point of cardiac death, target-vessel myocardial infarction, and target lesion revascularization continued to diverge in favor of BES-treated patients (5.8%) compared with BMS-treated patients (11.9%; hazard ratio = 0.48; 95% confidence interval, 0.31-0.72; P < 0.001) with a significant risk reduction during the second year of follow-up (hazard ratio 1-2 years = 0.45; 95% confidence interval, 0.20-1.00; P = 0.049). Differences in the primary end point were driven by a reduction in target lesion revascularization (3.1% versus 8.2%; P < 0.001) and target-vessel reinfarction (1.3% versus 3.4%; P = 0.023). The composite of death, any reinfarction and revascularization (14.5% versus 19.3%; P = 0.03), and cardiac death or target-vessel myocardial infarction (4.2% versus 7.2%; P = 0.036) were less frequent among BES-treated patients compared with BMS-treated patients. The 13-month angiographic in-stent percent diameter stenosis amounted to 12.0 ± 7.2 in BES- and 39.6 ± 25.2 in BMS-treated lesions (P < 0.001).
CONCLUSIONS: Among patients with ST-segment-elevation myocardial infarction undergoing primary percutaneous coronary intervention, BES continued to improve cardiovascular events compared with BMS beyond 1 year.
CLINICAL TRIAL REGISTRATION URL: http://www.clinicaltrials.gov. Unique identifier: NTC00962416.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Importance In phase 2 studies, evolocumab, a fully human monoclonal antibody to PCSK9, reduced LDL-C levels in patients receiving statin therapy.
Objective To evaluate the efficacy and tolerability of evolocumab when used in combination with a moderate- vs high-intensity statin.
Design, Setting, and Patients Phase 3, 12-week, randomized, double-blind, placebo- and ezetimibe-controlled study conducted between January and December of 2013 in patients with primary hypercholesterolemia and mixed dyslipidemia at 198 sites in 17 countries.
Interventions Patients (n = 2067) were randomized to 1 of 24 treatment groups in 2 steps. Patients were initially randomized to a daily, moderate-intensity (atorvastatin [10 mg], simvastatin [40 mg], or rosuvastatin [5 mg]) or high-intensity (atorvastatin [80 mg], rosuvastatin [40 mg]) statin. After a 4-week lipid-stabilization period, patients (n = 1899) were randomized to compare evolocumab (140 mg every 2 weeks or 420 mg monthly) with placebo (every 2 weeks or monthly) or ezetimibe (10 mg or placebo daily; atorvastatin patients only) when added to statin therapies.
Main Outcomes and Measures Percent change from baseline in low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) level at the mean of weeks 10 and 12 and at week 12.
Results Evolocumab reduced LDL-C levels by 66% (95% CI, 58% to 73%) to 75% (95% CI, 65% to 84%) (every 2 weeks) and by 63% (95% CI, 54% to 71%) to 75% (95% CI, 67% to 83%) (monthly) vs placebo at the mean of weeks 10 and 12 in the moderate- and high-intensity statin-treated groups; the LDL-C reductions at week 12 were comparable. For moderate-intensity statin groups, evolocumab every 2 weeks reduced LDL-C from a baseline mean of 115 to 124 mg/dL to an on-treatment mean of 39 to 49 mg/dL; monthly evolocumab reduced LDL-C from a baseline mean of 123 to 126 mg/dL to an on-treatment mean of 43 to 48 mg/dL. For high-intensity statin groups, evolocumab every 2 weeks reduced LDL-C from a baseline mean of 89 to 94 mg/dL to an on-treatment mean of 35 to 38 mg/dL; monthly evolocumab reduced LDL-C from a baseline mean of 89 to 94 mg/dL to an on-treatment mean of 33 to 35 mg/dL. Adverse events were reported in 36%, 40%, and 39% of evolocumab-, ezetimibe-, and placebo-treated patients, respectively. The most common adverse events in evolocumab-treated patients were back pain, arthralgia, headache, muscle spasms, and pain in extremity (all <2%).
Conclusions and Relevance In this 12-week trial conducted among patients with primary hypercholesterolemia and mixed dyslipidemia, evolocumab added to moderate- or high-intensity statin therapy resulted in additional LDL-C lowering. Further studies are needed to evaluate the longer-term clinical outcomes and safety of this approach for LDL-C lowering.
Trial Registration clinicaltrials.gov Identifier: NCT01763866
JAMA The Journal of the American Medical Association 05/2014; 14(311(18)):1870-82. DOI:10.1001/jama.2014.4030. · 35.29 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Objective:
This study aimed to assess the impact of individual comorbid conditions as well as the weight assignment, predictive properties and discriminating power of the Charlson Comorbidity Index (CCI) on outcome in patients with acute coronary syndrome (ACS).
A prospective multicentre observational study (AMIS Plus Registry) from 69 Swiss hospitals with 29 620 ACS patients enrolled from 2002 to 2012. The main outcome measures were in-hospital and 1-year follow-up mortality.
Of the patients, 27% were female (age 72.1 ± 12.6 years) and 73% were male (64.2 ± 12.9 years). 46.8% had comorbidities and they were less likely to receive guideline-recommended drug therapy and reperfusion. Heart failure (adjusted OR 1.88; 95% CI 1.57 to 2.25), metastatic tumours (OR 2.25; 95% CI 1.60 to 3.19), renal diseases (OR 1.84; 95% CI 1.60 to 2.11) and diabetes (OR 1.35; 95% CI 1.19 to 1.54) were strong predictors of in-hospital mortality. In this population, CCI weighted the history of prior myocardial infarction higher (1 instead of -0.4, 95% CI -1.2 to 0.3 points) but heart failure (1 instead of 3.7, 95% CI 2.6 to 4.7) and renal disease (2 instead of 3.5, 95% CI 2.7 to 4.4) lower than the benchmark, where all comorbidities, age and gender were used as predictors. However, the model with CCI and age has an identical discrimination to this benchmark (areas under the receiver operating characteristic curves were both 0.76).
Comorbidities greatly influenced clinical presentation, therapies received and the outcome of patients admitted with ACS. Heart failure, diabetes, renal disease or metastatic tumours had a major impact on mortality. CCI seems to be an appropriate prognostic indicator for in-hospital and 1-year outcomes in ACS patients. ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier: NCT01305785.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Aims: We examined what type of STEMI patients are more likely to undergo multivessel PCI (MPCI) in a "real-world" setting and whether MPCI leads to worse or better outcomes compared with single-vessel PCI (SPCI) after stratifying patients by risk. Methods and results: Among STEMI patients enrolled in the Swiss AMIS Plus registry between 2005 and 2012 (n=12,000), 4,941 were identified with multivessel disease. We then stratified patients based on MPCI use and their risk. High-risk patients were identified a priori as those with: 1) left main (LM) involvement (lesions, n=263); 2) out-of-hospital cardiac arrest; or 3) Killip class III/IV. Logistic regression models examined for predictors of MPCI use and the association between MPCI and in-hospital mortality. Three thousand eight hundred and thirty-three (77.6%) patients underwent SPCI and 1,108 (22.4%) underwent MPCI. Rates of MPCI were greater among high-risk patients for each of the three categories: 8.6% vs. 5.9% for out-of-hospital cardiac arrest (p<0.01); 12.3% vs. 6.2% for Killip III/IV (p<0.001); and 14.5% vs. 2.7% for LM involvement (p<0.001). Overall, in-hospital mortality after MPCI was higher when compared with SPCI (7.3% vs. 4.4%; p<0.001). However, this result was not present when patients were stratified by risk: in-hospital mortality for MPCI vs. SPCI was 2.0% vs. 2.0% (p=1.00) in low-risk patients and 22.2% vs. 21.7% (p=1.00) in high-risk patients. Conclusions: High-risk patients are more likely to undergo MPCI. Furthermore, MPCI does not appear to be associated with higher mortality after stratifying patients based on their risk.
EuroIntervention: journal of EuroPCR in collaboration with the Working Group on Interventional Cardiology of the European Society of Cardiology 12/2013; 9(8):909-15. DOI:10.4244/EIJV9I8A153 · 3.77 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Abstract
Background: Data on temporal trends in outcomes, gender differences, and adherence to evidence-based therapy (EBT) of diabetic patients with ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI) are sparse.
Methods: We performed a retrospective analysis of prospectively acquired data on 3565 diabetic (2412 males and 1153 females) STEMI patients enrolled in the Swiss AMIS Plus registry between 1997 and 2010 and compared in-hospital outcomes and adherence to EBT with the nondiabetic population (n=15,531).
Results: In-hospital mortality dramatically decreased in diabetic patients, from 19.9% in 1997 to 9.0% in 2010 (ptrend<0.001) with an age-adjusted decrease of 6% per year of admission. Similar trends were observed for age-adjusted reinfarction (OR 0.86, p<0.001), cardiogenic shock (OR 0.88, p<0.001), as well as death, reinfarction, or stroke (OR 0.92, p<0.001). However, the mortality benefit over time was observed in diabetic males (ptrend=0.006) but not females (ptrend=0.082). In addition, mortality remained twice as high in diabetic patients compared with nondiabetic ones (12.1 vs. 6.1%, p<0.001) and diabetes was identified as independent predictor of mortality (OR 1.23, p=0.022). Within the diabetic cohort, females had higher mortality than males (16.1 vs. 10.2%, p<0.001) and female gender independently predicted in-hospital mortality (OR 1.45, p=0.015). Adherence to EBT significantly improved over time in diabetic patients (ptrend<0.001) but remained inferior – especially in women – to the one of nondiabetic individuals.
Conclusions: In-hospital mortality and morbidity of diabetic STEMI patients in Switzerland improved dramatically over time but, compared with nondiabetic counterparts, gaps in outcomes as well as EBT use persisted, especially in women.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: To investigate the importance of vessel size on outcome differences by comparing the effects of drug-eluting stents (DES) versus bare-metal stents (BMS) in women and men with large coronary vessels.
All 2314 BASKET-PROVE patients randomized to DES versus BMS were followed for 2years with a primary endpoint of major adverse cardiac events (MACE: cardiac death, non-fatal myocardial infarction, target-vessel revascularization). Cox proportional hazard models were used to evaluate the relative risk for women and men, respectively. All comparisons were adjusted for vessel size.
Age, risk factors and complexity of coronary artery disease differed between women and men. DES reduced MACE rates at 2years compared to BMS - in women: 4% vs. 15%, p<0.0001 with a hazard ratio (HR) of 0.27 (0.15-0.51), and men: 6% vs. 10%, p=0.003 (HR=0.60 (0.43-0.84)), respectively. The association persisted in both women (HR=0.25 (0.13-0.46)) and men (HR=0.60 (0.42-0.84)) following multivariable adjustments. A significant gender-treatment interaction was present (p=0.02). The reduced risk of MACE following DES vs. BMS implantation was present until 6months in both women (HR=0.15 (0.06-0.36)) and men (HR=0.32 (0.17-0.59)) and remained significant until 2years in women (HR=0.36 (0.15-0.87)), but not in men (HR=0.87 (0.49-1.55)).
In women and men with similarly sized large coronary arteries, DES reduced 2-year MACE rates compared to BMS, but the significant gender-treatment interaction indicated a greater benefit of DES in women. Thus, factors other than vessel size seem to determine this gender difference.
International journal of cardiology 09/2013; 169(1). DOI:10.1016/j.ijcard.2013.08.091 · 4.04 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: This study sought to report the final 5 years follow-up of the landmark LEADERS (Limus Eluted From A Durable Versus ERodable Stent Coating) trial.
The LEADERS trial is the first randomized study to evaluate biodegradable polymer-based drug-eluting stents (DES) against durable polymer DES.
The LEADERS trial was a 10-center, assessor-blind, noninferiority, "all-comers" trial (N = 1,707). All patients were centrally randomized to treatment with either biodegradable polymer biolimus-eluting stents (BES) (n = 857) or durable polymer sirolimus-eluting stents (SES) (n = 850). The primary endpoint was a composite of cardiac death, myocardial infarction (MI), or clinically indicated target vessel revascularization within 9 months. Secondary endpoints included extending the primary endpoint to 5 years and stent thrombosis (ST) (Academic Research Consortium definition). Analysis was by intention to treat.
At 5 years, the BES was noninferior to SES for the primary endpoint (186 [22.3%] vs. 216 [26.1%], rate ratio [RR]: 0.83 [95% confidence interval (CI): 0.68 to 1.02], p for noninferiority <0.0001, p for superiority = 0.069). The BES was associated with a significant reduction in the more comprehensive patient-orientated composite endpoint of all-cause death, any MI, and all-cause revascularization (297 [35.1%] vs. 339 [40.4%], RR: 0.84 [95% CI: 0.71 to 0.98], p for superiority = 0.023). A significant reduction in very late definite ST from 1 to 5 years was evident with the BES (n = 5 [0.7%] vs. n = 19 [2.5%], RR: 0.26 [95% CI: 0.10 to 0.68], p = 0.003), corresponding to a significant reduction in ST-associated clinical events (primary endpoint) over the same time period (n = 3 of 749 vs. n = 14 of 738, RR: 0.20 [95% CI: 0.06 to 0.71], p = 0.005).
The safety benefit of the biodegradable polymer BES, compared with the durable polymer SES, was related to a significant reduction in very late ST (>1 year) and associated composite clinical outcomes. (Limus Eluted From A Durable Versus ERodable Stent Coating [LEADERS] trial; NCT00389220).
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Background: Few data are available concerning the impact of gender on temporal trends in patients with acute ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI). Methods: All STEMI patients consecutively enrolled in the AMIS (Acute Myocardial Infarction in Switzerland) Plus project from 1997−2011 were included. Temporal trends in presentation, treatment and outcomes were analyzed using multiple logistic regressions with generalized estimations. Results: Of 21,620 STEMI patients, 5786 were women and 15,834 men from 78 Swiss hospitals. Women were 8.6 years older, presented 48 minutes later with less pain, but more dyspnea, and more frequently had atrial fibrillation (5.5 vs. 3.9%, p<0.001), heart failure (Killip class >2) (9.7 vs. 7.3%, p<0.001), and moderate or severe comorbidities (24.8 vs. 18.2%, p<0.001). Women were less likely to undergo primary reperfusion treatment after adjustment for baseline characteristics and admission year (OR 0.80, 95% CI 0.71−0.90, p<0.001) or receive early and discharge drugs, such as thienopyridines, angiotensin-converting-enzyme inhibitors, angiotensin II receptor antagonists, and statins. In 1997, thrombolysis was performed in 51% of male and 39% of female patients; its use rapidly decreased during the 1990s and has now become negligible. Primary percutaneous coronary intervention increased from under 10% in both genders in 1997 to over 70% in females and over 80% in males since 2006. Patients admitted in cardiogenic shock increased by 8% per year in both genders. The incidence of both reinfarction and cardiogenic shock developing during hospitalization decreased significantly over 15 years while in-hospital mortality decreased from 10 to 5% in men and from 18 to 7% in women. This corresponds to a relative reduction of 5% per year for males (OR 0.95, 95% CI 0.92−0.99, p=0.006) and 6% per year for female STEMI patients (OR 0.94, 95% CI 0.91−0.97, p<0.001). Despite higher crude in-hospital mortality, female gender per se was not an independent predictor of in-hospital mortality (OR 1.07, 95% CI 0.84−1.35, p=0.59). Conclusion: Substantial changes have occurred in presentation, treatment, and outcome of men and women with STEMI in Switzerland over the past 15 years. Although parallel trends were seen in both groups, ongoing disparities in certain treatments remain. However, these did not translate into worse risk-adjusted in-hospital mortality, suggesting that the gender gap in STEMI care may be closing.