Philip C Mack

University of Southern California, Los Angeles, California, United States

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Publications (100)457.57 Total impact

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    ABSTRACT: Papillary renal cell carcinoma (pRCC) represents the second most common histologic variant of kidney cancer. It exhibits a different molecular signature than clear-cell carcinoma and is typically not associated with mutations in the VHL (von Hippel-Lindau) tumor suppressor gene. pRCC is less responsive to modern drugs introduced in the management of kidney cancer in the past decade. In this article, the heredity and biology of 2 main variants of pRCC are outlined. New targets that are being explored in the treatment of this disease are discussed, with particular emphasis on inhibition of mesenchymal epithelial transition (MET) and epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) pathways. We discuss preclinical data providing rationale for the combination of MET and EGFR inhibitors and review recently completed and ongoing clinical trials that attempt to expand our therapeutic options for this important subset of kidney cancer.
    Clinical Genitourinary Cancer 04/2014; 12(2):74-79. · 1.43 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Circulating tumor cell (CTC) enumeration has not been prospectively validated in standard first-line docetaxel treatment for metastatic castration-resistant prostate cancer. We assessed the prognostic value of CTCs for overall survival (OS) and disease response in S0421, a phase III trial of docetaxel plus prednisone with or without atrasentan. CTCs were enumerated at baseline (day 0) and before cycle two (day 21) using CellSearch. Baseline counts and changes in counts from day 0 to 21 were evaluated for association with OS, prostate-specific antigen (PSA), and RECIST response using Cox regression as well as receiver operator characteristic (ROC) curves, integrated discrimination improvement (IDI) analysis, and regression trees. Median day-0 CTC count was five cells per 7.5 mL, and CTCs < versus ≥ five per 7.5 mL were significantly associated with baseline PSA, bone pain, liver disease, hemoglobin, alkaline phosphatase, and subsequent PSA and RECIST response. Median OS was 26 months for < five versus 13 months for ≥ five CTCs per 7.5 mL at day 0 (hazard ratio [HR], 2.74 [adjusting for covariates]). ROC curves had higher areas under the curve for day-0 CTCs than for PSA, and IDI analysis showed that adding day-0 CTCs to baseline PSA and other covariates increased predictive accuracy for survival by 8% to 10%. Regression trees yielded new prognostic subgroups, and rising CTC count from day 0 to 21 was associated with shorter OS (HR, 2.55). These data validate the prognostic utility of CTC enumeration in a large docetaxel-based prospective cohort. Baseline CTC counts were prognostic, and rising CTCs at 3 weeks heralded significantly worse OS, potentially serving as an early metric to help redirect and optimize therapy in this clinical setting.
    Journal of Clinical Oncology 03/2014; · 18.04 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Prior studies suggest that elevated markers of bone turnover are prognostic for poor survival in castration-resistant prostate cancer (CRPC). The predictive role of these markers relative to bone-targeted therapy is unknown. We prospectively evaluated the prognostic and predictive value of bone biomarkers in sera from CRPC patients treated on a placebo-controlled phase III trial of docetaxel with or without the bone targeted endothelin-A receptor antagonist atrasentan (SWOG S0421). Markers for bone resorption (N-telopeptide and pyridinoline) and formation (C-terminal collagen propeptide and bone alkaline phosphatase) were assayed in pretreatment and serial sera. Cox proportional hazards regression models were fit for overall survival. Models were fit with main effects for marker levels and with/without terms for marker-treatment interaction, adjusted for clinical variables, to assess the prognostic and predictive value of atrasentan. Analysis was adjusted for multiple comparisons. Two-sided P values were calculated using the Wald test. Sera from 778 patients were analyzed. Elevated baseline levels of each of the markers were associated with worse survival (P < .001). Increasing marker levels by week nine of therapy were also associated with subsequent poor survival (P < .001). Patients with the highest marker levels (upper 25th percentile for all markers) not only had a poor prognosis (hazard ratio [HR] = 4.3; 95% confidence interval [CI] = 2.41 to 7.65; P < .001) but also had a survival benefit from atrasentan (HR = 0.33; 95% CI = 0.15 to 0.71; median survival = 13 [atrasentan] vs 5 months [placebo]; P interaction = .005). Serum bone metabolism markers have statistically significant independent prognostic value in CRPC. Importantly, a small group of patients (6%) with highly elevated markers of bone turnover appear to preferentially benefit from atrasentan therapy.
    CancerSpectrum Knowledge Environment 02/2014; · 14.07 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Cetuximab and bevacizumab have each been demonstrated to prolong survival when added to chemotherapy in patients with advanced non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC). However, the potential benefit of combining cetuximab and bevacizumab together with a platinum-based doublet had not been explored. We designed this phase II trial to evaluate the safety, tolerability, and efficacy of the combination of carboplatin, paclitaxel, cetuximab, and bevacizumab in chemotherapy-naive patients with advanced, nonsquamous NSCLC. Patients received with up to six cycles of carboplatin (area under curve 6), paclitaxel (200 mg/m), cetuximab (400 mg/m day 1 then 250 mg/m weekly), and bevacizumab (15 mg/kg) every 21 days. Patients with an objective response or stable disease received maintenance cetuximab (250 mg/m weekly) and bevacizumab (15 mg/kg every 21 days) until disease progression. The primary endpoint was safety as defined by the frequency and severity of hemorrhagic toxicities. Secondary endpoints included response rate, progression-free survival, overall survival, and toxicity. Molecular biomarkers were assessed in an exploratory manner. The primary endpoint of grade 4 or higher hemorrhage of 2% (95% confidence interval: 0%-7%) met prespecified criteria for safety. One hundred ten patients were enrolled. There were four treatment-related deaths including lung hemorrhage (2), infection (1), and unknown (1). Median progression-free survival was 7 months and median overall survival was 15 months. The response rate was 56% with an overall disease control rate of 77%. This regimen was safe, feasible, and effective as a frontline treatment of advanced NSCLC, providing the basis for the ongoing phase III trial S0819.
    Journal of thoracic oncology: official publication of the International Association for the Study of Lung Cancer 11/2013; · 4.55 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: In the emerging era of targeted therapy for advanced-stage non-small-cell lung cancer, it is becoming increasingly important to anticipate underlying driver oncogene alterations at the time of initial diagnosis and tumor-tissue acquisition, so that patients can be selected in a timely fashion for first-line tyrosine kinase inhibitor (TKI) therapy if their cancers are found to harbor tyrosine-kinase-activating mutations in the epidermal growth factor receptor gene or gain-of-function rearrangements in the anaplastic lymphoma kinase gene. However, despite the clear benefits of TKI therapy over chemotherapy in these settings, the eventual emergence of acquired resistance and progressive disease (PD) is universal. How to best approach oncogene-driven non-small-cell lung cancer at the time of acquired resistance to initial TKI therapy is an increasingly complex question because of variability in mechanisms of resistance, extent of PD, and inter- and intrapatient tumor heterogeneity. Here we propose an approach to subtyping PD in the setting of acquired resistance as well as subsequent clinical implications.
    Clinical Lung Cancer 10/2013; · 2.04 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Background Despite advances in targeted therapies, there is an ongoing need to develop new and effective cytotoxic drug combinations in non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). Based on preclinical demonstration of additive cytotoxicity, we evaluated the safety and efficacy of combining pemetrexed and nanoparticle albumin bound (nab) paclitaxel with a focus on NSCLC for phase II expansion. Methods A 3 + 3 dose-escalation design was used to determine the maximum tolerated dose (MTD) and the recommended phase II dose (RP2D). Three dose levels were tested: pemetrexed 500 mg/m(2) day 1 and nab-paclitaxel day 1 at 180, 220, & 260 mg/m(2) every 21 days. Phase II eligibility included advanced NSCLC, ≤2 line prior therapy, PS 0-1, adequate organ function. Primary endpoint for further study was response rate (RR) ≥ 25 %. Results Planned dose escalation was completed without reaching the MTD. The RP2D was pemetrexed 500 mg/m(2) and nab-paclitaxel 260 mg/m(2). The phase II portion accrued 37 pts before early closure due to increasing first-line pemetrexed/platinum doublet use in non-squamous NSCLC. In 31 assessable phase II patients there were 5 partial responses, 12 stable disease, 14 progressive disease. The median overall survival was 8.8 months; progressive disease 4.4 months and disease control 15.6 months. Conclusions Pemetrexed 500 mg/m(2) day 1 with nab-paclitaxel 260 mg/m(2) was feasible and well tolerated. The phase II component demonstrated activity in second/third-line therapy of advanced NSCLC; response rate 14 % and disease control rate 46 %. Treatment practice patterns of advanced NSCLC have evolved; further trials of this regimen are not planned.
    Investigational New Drugs 09/2013; · 3.50 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Histologic subtyping has been advocated to select chemotherapy for patients with advanced-stage non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC). To determine whether histologic subtype was associated with efficacy for the commonly used antimicrotubule (AMT) agents, paclitaxel, docetaxel, and vinorelbine plus a platinum compound, we examined the Southwest Oncology Group (SWOG) lung cancer database. Data from 4 randomized trials (S9308, S9509, S9806, and S0003) administering an AMT agent plus platinum in patients receiving first-line treatment for advanced-stage NSCLC were analyzed. Overall survival (OS) and progression-free survival (PFS) comparisons were performed using Cox proportional hazard regression, adjusting for sex. Median survival times were estimated by Kaplan-Meier. Of 1146 patients included in this analysis, 640 had adenocarcinoma (56%), 220 had squamous cell carcinoma (19%), 121 had large cell carcinoma (11%), and 165 had NSCLC not otherwise specified (NOS) (14%). Median OS times by histologic subtypes were 8.5, 8.4, 8.2, and 9.6 months, respectively, and median PFS times were 4.2, 4.3, 4.3, and 4.6 months, respectively. No difference in OS or PFS was observed by histologic subtype and, specifically, between nonsquamous and squamous histologies. This pooled analysis from 4 SWOG trials using an AMT-platinum regimen did not show a difference in survival outcomes by histologic subtype. Because the majority of patients with advanced NSCLC continue to receive chemotherapy, defining molecular-based predictive markers of responsiveness is warranted.
    Clinical Lung Cancer 07/2013; · 2.04 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The endothelin pathway has a role in bone metastases, which are characteristic of advanced prostate cancer. Atrasentan, an endothelin receptor antagonist, has shown activity in prostate cancer. We therefore assessed its effect on survival in patients with castration-resistant prostate cancer with bone metastases. In a double-blind phase 3 trial, men with metastatic castration-resistant prostate cancer, stratified for progression type (prostate-specific antigen or radiological), baseline pain, extraskeletal metastases, and bisphosphonate use, were randomly assigned in a 1:1 ratio to docetaxel (75 mg/m(2) every 21 days, intravenously) with atrasentan (10 mg/day, orally) or placebo for up to 12 cycles and treated until disease progression or unacceptable toxicity. Patients who did not progress on treatment were permitted to continue atrasentan or placebo for up to 52 weeks. Coprimary endpoints were progression-free survival (PFS) and overall survival. Analysis was by intention to treat. This trial is registered with ClinicalTrials.gov, number NCT00134056. 498 patients were randomly assigned to the atrasentan group and 496 to the placebo group. The trial was halted early for futility in April, 2011, after a planned interim analysis. Median PFS was 9·2 months (95% CI 8·5-9·9) in the atrasentan group and 9·1 months (8·4-10·2) in the placebo group (hazard ratio 1·02, 0·89-1·16; p=0·81). Median overall survival was 17·8 months (16·4-19·8) in the atrasentan group versus 17·6 months (16·4-20·1) in the placebo group (1·04, 0·90-1·19; p=0·64). 278 (57%) of 492 patients in the atrasentan group had grade 3 and greater toxicity compared with 294 (60%) of 486 in the placebo group (p=0·22). Three deaths in the atrasentan group and seven in the placebo group were judged to be possibly or probably due to protocol treatment. Atrasentan, when added to docetaxel, does not improve overall survival or PFS in men with castration-resistant prostate cancer and bone metastases; therefore, single-agent docetaxel should remain as one of the standard treatments. National Cancer Institute, Sanofi-Aventis, and Abbott Laboratories.
    The Lancet Oncology 07/2013; · 25.12 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: INTRODUCTION:: On the basis of the results of recent clinical trials, histology-based decision-making for therapy of non-small-cell lung cancer has been advocated. We hypothesized associations of the biomarkers excision repair cross-complementing 1 (ERCC1), ribonucleotide reductase M1 (RRM1), and thymidylate synthase (TS) with histology as a contributing factor to reported differences in chemotherapy outcomes between squamous cell carcinoma (SCCA) and adenocarcinoma (AC) subtypes. Here, we report analysis of the Response Genetics Inc., database and implications for histology-based therapy. METHODS:: RNA from microdissected formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded tumors was extracted and analyzed as previously described. Specimens from 2540 individual non-small-cell lung cancer patients were analyzed for one or more biomarkers, of which 1457 were categorized as AC or SCCA. RESULTS:: For each biomarker, gene expression was lower in AC compared with SCCA (<0.001), although there was a wide range between individual patients. Gene expression was higher in men versus women: ERCC1: 2.51 versus 2.22 (p = 0.005); RRM1: 1.41 versus 1.24 (p = 0.004); TS: 3.23 versus 2.83 (p < 0.001). However, SCCA was more frequent in men versus women (30%/19%; p < 0.001). When AC and SCCA were assessed separately, the statistical significance between gene expression and sex was lost (in SCCA: ERCC1, p = 0.14; RRM1, p = 0.26; TS, p = 0.11). CONCLUSIONS:: This analysis represents the largest data set for gene expression of these biomarkers reported so far. Significant histology-related associations for ERCC1, RRM1, and TS are seen. However, marked heterogeneity exists in individual patient tumor expression levels. Randomized phase III trials assessing the predictive value of these chemotherapy-related biomarkers are warranted.
    Journal of thoracic oncology: official publication of the International Association for the Study of Lung Cancer 03/2013; · 4.55 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Substantial advances have been made in understanding critical molecular and cellular mechanisms driving tumor initiation, maintenance, and progression in non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC). Over the last decade, these findings have led to the discovery of a variety of novel drug targets and the development of new treatment strategies. Already, the standard of care for patients with advanced-stage NSCLC is shifting from selecting therapy empirically based on a patient's clinicopathologic features to using biomarker-driven treatment algorithms based on the molecular profile of a patient's tumor. This approach is currently best exemplified by treating patients with NSCLC with first-line tyrosine kinase inhibitors when their cancers harbor gain-of-function hotspot mutations in the epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) gene or anaplastic lymphoma kinase (ALK) gene rearrangements. These genotype-based targeted therapies represent the first step toward personalizing NSCLC therapy. Recent technology advances in multiplex genotyping and high-throughput genomic profiling by next-generation sequencing technologies now offer the possibility of rapidly and comprehensively interrogating the cancer genome of individual patients from small tumor biopsies. This advance provides the basis for categorizing molecular-defined subsets of patients with NSCLC in whom a growing list of novel molecularly targeted therapeutics are clinically evaluable and additional novel drug targets can be discovered. Increasingly, practicing oncologists are facing the challenge of determining how to select, interpret, and apply these new genetic and genomic assays. This review summarizes the evolution, early success, current status, challenges, and opportunities for clinical application of genotyping and genomic tests in therapeutic decision making for NSCLC.
    Journal of Clinical Oncology 02/2013; · 18.04 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Background KRAS mutations are associated with diverse biologic functions as well as prognostic and predictive impact in non-small cell-lung cancer (NSCLC) and colorectal cancer (CRC). In CRC, benefit from monoclonal antibody therapies targeting EGFR is generally limited to patients whose tumors have wild-type (WT) KRAS, whereas data suggest that this association is not present for NSCLC. We hypothesized that the unique tobacco-related carcinogenesis of NSCLC results in a divergence of KRAS MT genotype compared with CRC, contributing to differences in outcomes from EGFR-targeted therapies. Material and Methods Tumor from 2603 patients (838 CRC and 1765 NSCLC) was analyzed for KRAS mutations. DNA was extracted from microdissected formalin-fixed-paraffin-embedded specimens (FFPE) and 7 different base substitutions in codons 12 and 13 of KRAS were determined.≤ABS-P ≥ Results KRAS mutation genotype differed significantly between NSCLC and CRC in frequency (25% vs. 39%; p < 0.001), smoking-associated G > T transversions (73% versus 27%; p < 0.001), and ratio of transversions to transitions (3.5 vs. 0.79; p < 0.001). In NSCLC GLY12Cys mutations, resulting from a codon 12 GGT > TGT substitution, were observed in 44% compared to 10% for CRC. In contrast, codon 12 or 13 GLY > ASP substitutions (resulting in a G > A transition) were more frequent in CRC (42%) compared with NSCLC (21%). Conclusion In this large dataset, KRAS mutation patterns are quantitatively and qualitatively distinct between NSCLC and CRC, reflecting in part differences in tobacco-related carcinogenesis. In light of differences in predictive value for EGFR-directed monoclonal antibody therapy and prognosis for specific KRAS mutations between NSCLC and CRC, these data provide an underlying biologic rationale.
    Lung cancer (Amsterdam, Netherlands) 01/2013; · 3.14 Impact Factor
  • Philip C Mack, David R Gandara, Primo N Lara
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    ABSTRACT: Historically, notable variability has been observed in clinical trial outcomes between different regions and populations worldwide, even when employing the same cytotoxic regimen in lung cancer. These divergent results underscore the inherent challenges in interpreting trials conducted abroad and raise questions regarding the general applicability of transnational clinical trials. Various reasons have been postulated to account for these differences in efficacy and toxicity, including trial design, eligibility criteria, patient demographics and, perhaps most intriguingly, population-related pharmacogenomics. However, without methodology to control for such variables, these hypotheses remain largely untested. The authors previously developed the 'common arm' approach in order to directly compare efficacy and toxicity results of trials simultaneously performed in different countries. By standardizing clinical trial-associated variables such as treatment regimens (dose, schedule, and so on), eligibility, staging, response and toxicity criteria, this approach has the potential to determine the underlying reasons for divergences in trial outcomes across countries, and whether population-associated polymorphisms contribute to these differences. In the past decade, Japanese and US investigators have applied the common arm analytic method to trials in both extensive-stage small-cell lung cancer (SCLC) and advanced nonSCLC. In the SCLC analysis, a comparison of the cisplatin/irinotecan arms from both trials revealed significant differences in response rates and overall survival. Significant differences were also observed in the distribution of gender and performance status. The common arm analysis in nonSCLC included two trials from Japan and one from the USA, each containing a 'common' carboplatin/paclitaxel arm. Clinical results were similar in the two Japanese trials, but were significantly different from the US trial with regard to survival, neutropenia, febrile neutropenia and anemia. The underlying basis for these divergent outcomes is discussed. The common arm methodology provides a template for identifying and interpreting patient outcome differences across populations, and is an instructive lesson in the burgeoning era of clinical trials globalization.
    Expert Review of Anti-infective Therapy 12/2012; 12(12):1591-6. · 2.07 Impact Factor
  • Clinical Lung Cancer 06/2012; 13(5):321-5. · 2.04 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Chemotherapies that target thymidylate synthase (TS) continue to see considerable clinical expansion in non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). One drawback to TS-targeted therapies is drug resistance and subsequent treatment failure. Novel therapeutic and biomarker-driven strategies are urgently needed. The enzyme deoxyuridine triphosphate nucleotidohydrolase (dUTPase) is reported to protect tumor cells from aberrant misincorporation of uracil during TS inhibition. The goal of this study was to investigate the expression and significance of dUTPase in mediating response to TS-targeted agents in NSCLC. The expression of dUTPase in NSCLC cell lines and clinical specimens was measured by quantitative real-time reverse transcriptase PCR and immunohistochemistry. Using a validated RNA interference approach, dUTPase was effectively silenced in a panel of NSCLC cell lines and response to the fluoropyrimidine fluorodeoxyuridine (FUdR) and the antifolate pemetrexed was analyzed using growth inhibition and clonogenic assays. Apoptosis was analyzed by flow cytometry. Significant variation in the quantity and cellular expression of dUTPase was observed, including clear evidence of overexpression in NSCLC cell line models and tumor specimens at the mRNA and protein level. RNA interference-mediated silencing of dUTPase significantly sensitized NSCLC cells to growth inhibition induced by FUdR and pemetrexed. This sensitization was accompanied by a significant expansion of intracellular dUTP pools and significant decreases in NSCLC cell viability evaluated by clonogenicity and apoptotic analyses. Together, these results strongly suggest that uracil misincorporation is a potent determinant of cytotoxicity to TS inhibition in NSCLC and that inhibition of dUTPase is a mechanism-based therapeutic approach to significantly enhance the efficacy of TS-targeted chemotherapeutic agents.
    Molecular Cancer Therapeutics 12/2011; 11(3):616-28. · 5.60 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Multidrug-resistant protein-3 (MRP3), a membrane-bound transporter, facilitates efflux of toxic compounds, including certain chemotherapies, out of cells. Aberrant MRP3 expression has been linked to drug resistance in non-small cell lung carcinoma (NSCLC). We sought to determine if tumor MRP3 expression patterns correlate with the mutational status of upstream regulators, including nuclear factor erythroid-2-related factor 2 (Nrf2) and its functional repressor Keap1 in NSCLC cell lines and patient samples. To identify putative Nrf2-binding sites in the MRP3 promoter and to evaluate Keap1, Nrf2, and p53 mutation status in four cell lines and 33 NSCLC surgically resected tumor specimens with regard to their impact on MRP3 levels. Chromatin immunoprecipitation analysis of the MRP3 promoter revealed an almost threefold increase in Nrf2 binding to the third putative Nrf2-binding sequence distal to the start site, demonstrating direct regulation of MRP3 by Nrf2. In NSCLC cell lines, elevated Nrf2 protein was observed in cell lines with increased MRP3 RNA expression. In patient tumor specimens, the presence of mutations in Keap1/Nrf2 correlated with MRP3 RNA levels (p < 0.05). p53 mutations were observed in 33% of cases, and all Keap1 mutant-positive tumors possessed a p53 mutation (n = 5; p = 0.0019). We demonstrate direct involvement between the transcription factor Nrf2 and the MRP3 promoter, which leads to the up-regulation of the MRP3 gene. In addition, we found a statistically significant correlation between the presence of Keap1/Nrf2 mutations and increased MRP3 messenger RNA levels in our NSCLC patient samples.
    Journal of thoracic oncology: official publication of the International Association for the Study of Lung Cancer 11/2011; 7(1):34-9. · 4.55 Impact Factor
  • Thomas J Semrad, Philip C Mack
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    ABSTRACT: Despite recent progress in the treatment on non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC), outcomes remain suboptimal. Treatment advances that target the epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) and vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) signaling pathways highlight the need to understand the multiple convergent growth factor signaling pathways involved in the pathogenesis of NSCLC. Signaling through fibroblast growth factors (FGF), long recognized for its pro-angiogenic activity, has recently emerged as a contributing factor in the pathogenesis and progression of NSCLC through an autocrine signaling loop. In addition, this pathway may function as a mechanism of resistance to anti-EGFR and anti-VEGF treatment. Clinical experience with FGF receptor (FGFR) inhibitors is mounting, and more specific inhibitors of this signaling pathway are in development. This review describes the structure of the FGF signaling pathway, delineates its dual roles in angiogenesis and proliferation in NSCLC, evaluates FGF ligand and receptor expression as prognostic biomarkers in NSCLC, and discusses the development of FGF pathway inhibitors for the treatment of lung malignancies.
    Clinical Lung Cancer 09/2011; 13(2):90-5. · 2.04 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Epidermal growth factor receptor tyrosine kinase inhibitors given concurrently with chemotherapy do not improve patient outcomes compared with chemotherapy alone in advanced non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). On the basis of preclinical models, we hypothesized pharmacodynamic separation, achieved by intermittent delivery of epidermal growth factor receptor tyrosine kinase inhibitors intercalated with chemotherapy, as a reasonable strategy to deliver combination therapy. A phase I dose-escalating trial using two scheduling strategies (arms A and B) was conducted in patients with advanced solid tumors to determine the feasibility of intermittent erlotinib and docetaxel. Phase II efficacy evaluation was conducted in an expanded cohort of patients with previously treated advanced NSCLC using arm B scheduling. Docetaxel was given every 21 days (70-75 mg/m intravenously) in both arms. In arm A, erlotinib was administered on days 2, 9, and 16 (600-1000 mg); in arm B, erlotinib was delivered on days 2 through 16 (150-300 mg). Patients without progression or unacceptable toxicity after six cycles continued erlotinib alone. Eighty-one patients were enrolled in this study (17 arm A; 25 arm B; and 39 at phase II dose). Phase I patients had advanced solid tumors and 22 with NSCLC (10 and 12 patients for arms A and B, respectively). Treatment was well tolerated for both arms, with dose-limiting toxicities including grade 3 infection and febrile neutropenia in arm A (maximum tolerated dose [MTD] of erlotinib 600 mg/docetaxel 70 mg/m) and grade 4 rash, febrile neutropenia, grade 3 mucositis, and grade 3 diarrhea in arm B (MTD of erlotinib 200 mg/docetaxel 70 mg/m). The MTD for arm B was chosen for phase II evaluation given the feasibility of administration, number of responses (one complete response and three partial responses), and achievement of pharmacodynamic separation. The response rate for patients treated at the phase II dose was 28.2%, and the disease control rate was 64.1%. Median progression-free and overall survival were 4.1 and 18.2 months, respectively. Common grade ≥3 toxicities were neutropenia (36%) and diarrhea (18%). Pharmacodynamic separation using intercalated schedules of erlotinib delivered on an intermittent basis together with docetaxel chemotherapy is feasible and tolerable. Further studies using this approach together with interrogation of relevant molecular pathways are ongoing.
    Journal of thoracic oncology: official publication of the International Association for the Study of Lung Cancer 09/2011; 6(12):2112-9. · 4.55 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: HSP90 plays a central role in stabilizing client proteins involved in malignant processes. SNX-2112 is an orally administered potent HSP90 inhibitor that has demonstrated pre-clinical anti-tumor activity in adult malignancies. As many childhood tumors depend upon HSP90 client proteins, we sought to test the pre-clinical efficacy of SNX-2112 in a panel of pediatric cancer cell lines both as a single-agent and in combination with cisplatin (CP). Eight cell lines (from osteosarcoma, neuroblastoma, hepatoblastoma, and lymphoma) were studied. Short- and long-term effects of SNX-2112 were assessed by MTT and clonogenic assays. Cell cycling was measured using flow cytometry. Status of HSC70, HSP72, AKT1, C-Raf, and PARP was assessed by immunoblotting. Efficacy of SNX-2112 in combination with CP was assessed using median-effect analysis. Cell lines studied demonstrated sensitivity to SNX-2112 with IC(50) values ranging from 10-100 nM. Low dose treatments (12 nM) resulted in a cytostatic response with a minimal increase in sub-G1 content. A higher dose (70 nM) exhibited a more prolonged inhibition and larger sub-G1 accumulation. Observed levels of AKT1 and C-Raf were markedly reduced over time along with an increase in PARP cleavage. In concurrently administered combination treatments, SNX-2112 and CP synergistically inhibited cell growth. SNX-2112 showed marked single-agent activity in pediatric cancer cell lines with downstream effects on HSP90 client proteins. The combination of SNX-2112 and CP showed synergistic activity in two cell lines tested. Further studies of HSP90 inhibitors such as SNX-2112 as a single agent or in combination with chemotherapy are warranted in pediatric cancer.
    Pediatric Blood & Cancer 07/2011; 58(6):885-90. · 2.35 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: There have been recent improvements in the treatment for metastatic renal cell carcinoma (RCC) with receptor tyrosine kinase (RTK) inhibitors being one of newer treatment options. We hypothesized that simultaneous targeting of Src kinase and the RTK may have synergistic effects to further improve therapies on metastatic RCC. The effects of Src kinase inhibitor saracatinib and multiple RTK inhibitor sunitinib on RCC cell line (ACHN) and Caki-1 were studied. Saracatinib alone or in combination with sunitinib inhibited the migration of ACHN and Caki-1 cells in vitro. Activation of migration related components FAK, P130Cas and Paxillin were blocked by saracatinib at 0.05- to 3-μM concentrations. Combined treatment resulted in improved growth inhibition, greater loss of the S phase cell population and decreased clonogenic colony formation compared to sunitinib alone in the metastatic Caki-1 line. Molecular studies in Caki-1 showed that saracatinib alone and in combination with sunitinib inhibited phosphorylation of the cell progression regulator c-Myc in a dose-dependent manner. Sunitinib alone or in combination suppressed cyclin-D1 expression with the combination showing greater dose-dependent effect. Sunitinib inhibited vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) secretion through the inhibition of STAT3 signaling and VEGF biosynthesis. HIF1-α expression in normoxic and hypoxic conditions in Caki-1 cells was inhibited by either saracatinib or sunitinib when administered alone, however, a greater reduction occurred when these compounds were given in combination. Targeting Src kinase and RTK simultaneously with saracatinib and sunitinib resulted in 70-80% blockade of RCC cell migration, synergistic inhibition of cell growth and reduction of acquired drug resistance in Caki-1 cells. The results show promise for combination targeted therapy of RCC.
    International Journal of Cancer 07/2011; 130(11):2693-702. · 6.20 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Chemotherapy in combination with small-molecule epidermal growth factor receptor inhibitors has yielded inconsistent results. Based on preclinical models, we conducted a phase I trial of two schedules of lapatinib and vinorelbine. Patient and methods: Patients had advanced solid tumors and up to two prior chemotherapeutic regimens. Patients were enrolled on two dose-escalating schedules of lapatinib, continuous (arm A) or intermittent (arm B), with vinorelbine on days 1, 8, and 15 of a 28-day cycle. Tumors from a subset of patients were evaluated for gene mutations and expression of targets of interest. Fifty-one patients were treated. The most common grade 3/4 toxic effects included leukopenia, neutropenia, and fatigue. Dose-limiting toxic effects were grade 3 infection, febrile neutropenia, and diarrhea (arm A) and bone pain and fatigue (arm B). The maximum tolerated dose was vinorelbine 20 mg/m(2) weekly and lapatinib 1500 mg daily (arm A) and vinorelbine 25 mg/m(2) weekly and lapatinib 1500 mg intermittently (arm B). One patient on each arm had a complete response; both had human epidermal growth factor receptor 2-positive breast cancer. In a subset of patients, lack of tumor PTEN expression correlated with a shorter time to progression. In an unselected population, two schedules of lapatinib and vinorelbine were feasible and well tolerated.
    Annals of Oncology 07/2011; 23(4):1023-9. · 7.38 Impact Factor

Publication Stats

1k Citations
457.57 Total Impact Points

Institutions

  • 2013
    • University of Southern California
      Los Angeles, California, United States
    • BC Cancer Agency
      Vancouver, British Columbia, Canada
  • 1997–2013
    • University of California, Davis
      • • School of Medicine
      • • Department of Internal Medicine
      Davis, CA, United States
  • 2011
    • University of Alberta
      Edmonton, Alberta, Canada
    • Inselspital, Universitätsspital Bern
      • Department of Medical Oncology
      Berna, Bern, Switzerland
  • 1998–2011
    • California State University, Sacramento
      Sacramento, California, United States
  • 2010
    • University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center
      • Department of Thoracic Head Neck Medical Oncology
      Houston, TX, United States
    • Emory University
      • Department of Hematology and Medical Oncology
      Atlanta, GA, United States
  • 2009
    • University of Pittsburgh
      Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania, United States
  • 2008
    • St. Elizabeth's Medical Center
      Boston, Massachusetts, United States