[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is rare in the Netherlands, even though the incidence has increased quite sharply in recent years. Standard treatment options consist of surgery, orthotopic liver transplantation, radiofrequency ablation, transarterial chemoembolisation (TACE) and systemic therapy with sorafenib. The consensus-based Dutch HCC guideline, established in 2013, serves to guide surveillance, diagnosis and treatment options: • Surveillance should be performed by ultrasound at six-month intervals in well-defined cirrhotic patients and in selected high-risk hepatitis B carriers; • A nodule > 1 cm in cirrhotic patients with arterial hypervascularity and venous or delayed phase washout at four-phase CT or MRI scan establishes the diagnosis of HCC; • In patients with HCC without underlying cirrhosis, resection should be considered regardless of tumour size; • In cirrhotic HCC patients, tumour stage, severity of underlying cirrhosis, and performance status determine treatment options. The algorithm of the Barcelona Clinic Liver Cancer (BCLC) staging system should be followed; • Patients with Child-Pugh A-B cirrhosis (CP < 8 points) and performance status 0-2 are candidates for any active treatment other than transplantation; • In early stage HCC (BCLC stage 0 or A, compensated cirrhosis without portal hypertension) surgical resection, liver transplantation, or radiofrequency ablation should be considered; • In intermediate stage HCC (BCLC stage B) TACE and÷ or radiofrequency ablation should be considered; • In advanced stage HCC (BCLC stage C) sorafenib should be considered.
The Netherlands Journal of Medicine 07/2014; 72(6):299-304. · 2.38 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Background:The vascular disrupting agent ombrabulin shows synergy with docetaxel in vivo. Recommended phase II doses were determined in a dose escalation study in advanced solid tumours.Methods:Ombrabulin (30-min infusion, day 1) followed by docetaxel (1-h infusion, day 2) every 3 weeks was explored. Ombrabulin was escalated from 11.5 to 42 mg m(-2) with 75 mg m(-2) docetaxel, then from 30 to 35 mg m(-2) with 100 mg m(-2) docetaxel. Recommended phase II dose cohorts were expanded.Results:Fifty-eight patients were treated. Recommended phase II doses were 35 mg m(-2) ombrabulin with 75 mg m(-2) docetaxel (35/75 mg m(-2); 13 patients) and 30 mg m(-2) ombrabulin with 100 mg m(-2) docetaxel (30/100 mg m(-2); 16 patients). Dose-limiting toxicities were grade 3 fatigue (two patients; 42/75, 35/100), grade 3 neutropaenic infection (25/75), grade 3 headache (42/75), grade 4 febrile neutropaenia (30/100), and grade 3 thrombosis (35/100). Toxicities were consistent with each agent; mild nausea/vomiting, asthaenia/fatigue, alopecia, and anaemia were common, as were neutropaenia and leukopaenia. Diarrhoea, nail disorders and neurological symptoms were frequent at 100 mg m(-2) docetaxel. Pharmacokinetic analyses did not show any relevant drug interactions. Ten patients had partial responses (seven at 30 mg m(-2) ombrabulin), eight lasting >3 months.Conclusions:Sequential administration of ombrabulin with 75 or 100 mg m(-2) docetaxel every 3 weeks is feasible.British Journal of Cancer advance online publication, 8 April 2014; doi:10.1038/bjc.2014.137 www.bjcancer.com.
British Journal of Cancer 04/2014; · 5.08 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Background:The vascular endothelial growth factor receptor (VEGFR) pathway plays a pivotal role in solid malignancies and is probably involved in chemotherapy resistance. Pazopanib, inhibitor of, among other receptors, VEGFR1-3, has activity as single agent and is attractive to enhance anti-tumour activity of chemotherapy. We conducted a dose-finding and pharmacokinetic (PK)/pharmacodynamics study of pazopanib combined with two different schedules of ifosfamide.Methods:In a 3+3+3 design, patients with advanced solid tumours received escalating doses of oral pazopanib combined with ifosfamide either given 3 days continuously or given 3-h bolus infusion daily for 3 days (9 g m(-2) per cycle, every 3 weeks). Pharmacokinetic data of ifosfamide and pazopanib were obtained. Plasma levels of placental-derived growth factor (PlGF), vascular endothelial growth factor-A (VEGF-A), soluble VEGFR2 (sVEGFR2) and circulating endothelial cells were monitored as biomarkers.Results:Sixty-one patients were included. Pazopanib with continuous ifosfamide infusion appeared to be safe up to 1000 mg per day, while combination with bolus infusion ifosfamide turned out to be too toxic based on a variety of adverse events. Ifosfamide-dependent decline in pazopanib exposure was observed. Increases in PlGF and VEGF-A with concurrent decline in sVEGFR2 levels, consistent with pazopanib-mediated VEGFR2 inhibition, were observed after addition of ifosfamide.Conclusion:Continuous as opposed to bolus infusion ifosfamide can safely be combined with pazopanib. Ifosfamide co-administration results in lower exposure to pazopanib, not hindering biological effects of pazopanib. Recommended dose of pazopanib for further studies combined with 3 days continuous ifosfamide (9 g m(-2) per cycle, every 3 weeks) is 800 mg daily.British Journal of Cancer advance online publication, 24 December 2013; doi:10.1038/bjc.2013.798 www.bjcancer.com.
British Journal of Cancer 12/2013; · 5.08 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: To assess safety, tolerability, pharmacokinetics, pharmacodynamics, and clinical activity of E7107 administered as 5-minute bolus infusions on days 1, 8, and 15 in a 28-day schedule.
Patients with solid tumors refractory to standard therapies or with no standard treatment available were enrolled. Dose levels of 0.6-4.5 mg/m2 were explored.
Forty patients (24M/16F, median age 61 years [45-79]) were enrolled. At 4.5 mg/m2, dose-limiting toxicity (DLT) consisted of Grade-3 diarrhea, nausea, and vomiting and Grade-4 diarrhea, respectively, in two patients. At 4.0 mg/m2, DLT (Grade-3 nausea, vomiting, and abdominal cramps) was observed in one patient. Frequently occurring side effects were mainly gastrointestinal. After drug discontinuation at 4.0 mg/m2, one patient experienced reversible Grade-4 blurred vision. The maximum tolerated dose (MTD) is 4.0 mg/m2. No complete or partial responses during treatment were observed; one patient at 4.0 mg/m2 had a confirmed partial response after drug discontinuation. Pharmacokinetic analysis revealed large volume of distribution, high systemic clearance, and a plasma elimination half-life of 5.3-15.1 hours. Overall drug exposure increased in a dose-dependent manner. At the MTD, mRNA levels of selected target genes monitored in peripheral blood mononuclear cells showed a reversible 15- to 25-fold decrease, whereas unspliced pre-mRNA levels of DNAJB1 and EIF4A1 showed a reversible 10- to 25-fold increase.
The MTD for E7107 using this schedule is 4.0 mg/m2. Pharmacokinetics is dose-dependent and reproducible within patients. Pharmacodynamic analysis revealed dose-dependent reversible inhibition of pre-mRNA processing of target genes, confirming proof-of-principle activity of E7107.
Clinical Cancer Research 08/2013; · 7.84 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: PURPOSE: Paclitaxel is used for the treatment of several solid tumors and displays a high inter- individual variation in exposure and toxicity. Neurotoxicity is one of the most prominent side-effects of paclitaxel. This study explores potential predictive pharmacokinetic and pharmacogenetic determinants for the onset and severity of neurotoxicity. EXPERIMENTAL DESIGN: In an exploratory cohort of patients (n=261) treated with paclitaxel, neurotoxicity incidence and severity, pharmacokinetic parameters and pharmacogenetic variants were determined. Paclitaxel plasma concentrations were measured by HPLC or LC-MS/MS, and individual pharmacokinetic parameters were estimated from previously developed population pharmacokinetic models by non-linear mixed effects modeling (NONMEM). Genetic variants of paclitaxel pharmacokinetics tested were CYP3A4*22, CYP2C8*3, CYP2C8*4, and ABCB1 3435 C>T. The association between CYP3A4*22 and neurotoxicity observed in the exploratory cohort was validated in an independent patient cohort (n=239). RESULTS: Exposure to paclitaxel (logAUC) was correlated with severity of neurotoxicity (P <0.00001). Female CYP3A4*22 carriers were at increased risk of developing neurotoxicity (P = 0.043) in the exploratory cohort. CYP3A4*22 carrier status itself was not associated with pharmacokinetic parameters (CL, AUC, Cmax, or T>0.05) of paclitaxel in males or females. Other genetic variants displayed no association with neurotoxicity. In the subsequent independent validation cohort, CYP3A4*22 carriers were at risk of developing grade 3 neurotoxicity (odds ratio = 19.1; P = 0.001). CONCLUSIONS: Paclitaxel exposure showed a relationship with the severity of paclitaxel-induced neurotoxicity. In this study, female CYP3A4*22 carriers had increased risk of developing severe neurotoxicity during paclitaxel therapy. These observations may guide future individualization of paclitaxel treatment.
Clinical Cancer Research 05/2013; · 7.84 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Background: Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) may be diagnosed in the absence of cirrhosis. However, little is known about prognostic factors for the survival of HCC patients with a non-cirrhotic liver in the absence of well-established risk factors. Method: Survival rates and risk factors for survival and recurrence were analysed in all patients diagnosed between 2000 and 2010 with HCC in a non-cirrhotic liver and in the absence of well-established risk factors. Results: Ninety-four patients were analysed. Treatment with curative intent consisted of surgical resection in 43 patients (46%) and radiofrequency ablation in 4 patients (4%). In patients treated with curative intent and alive 30 days after treatment (n = 40), 1- and 5-year overall survival rates were 95 and 51%, respectively. Patients with a high preoperative α-fetoprotein (AFP) serum level, the presence of microvascular invasion in the resected specimen, a complicated postoperative course and a major resection, due to a greater tumour volume, had a significantly worse outcome and a higher recurrence rate. In multivariate analysis, a high AFP serum level at presentation was significantly associated with recurrence and a worse survival. Conclusion: HCC presenting in a non-cirrhotic liver in the absence of well-established risk factors has a poor prognosis. Increased AFP serum levels are significantly associated with clinical outcome.
Digestive surgery 03/2013; 29(6):522-528. · 1.37 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Introduction. For anticancer drug development, it is crucial that patients participate in early-phase clinical trials. The main aim of this study was to gain insight into the motivations and other variables influencing patients in their decision to participate in phase I oncology trials.Materials and Methods. Over a period of 25 months, all patients who were informed about (specific) phase I trials in our cancer center were retrospectively included in this study. Data on providing informed consent and final phase I enrollment were collected.Results. In total, 365 patients, with a median age of 59 years and a median World Health Organization performance status score of 1, were evaluated. The majority of patients (71%) were pretreated with systemic therapy, with a median of two lines. After specific study information had been given, 145 patients (40%) declined informed consent, 54% of them mainly because of low expectations regarding treatment benefits and concerns about potential side effects. Patients who had received previous systemic therapy consented more frequently than others. After initial consent, 61 patients (17%) still did not receive study treatment, mostly because of secondary withdrawal of consent or rapid clinical deterioration prior to first dosing.Discussion. After specific referral to our hospital for participation in early clinical trials, only 44% of all patients who were informed about a specific phase I trial eventually participated. Reasons for both participation and nonparticipation were diverse. Patient participation rates could be improved by forming an experienced and dedicated study team.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Worldwide, colorectal cancer (CRC) is the third most frequently diagnosed cancer in men and the second in women. Metastatic disease develops in more than half of the patients and carries a poor prognosis. Over the past three decades, significant advances have been made in the treatment of metastatic colorectal cancer (mCRC). The development of new cytotoxic agents and the incorporation of target-specific agents in first-, second-, third-, and nowadays even fourth-line treatment has prolonged median overall survival up to 24–28 months. However, 5-year survival rates remain disappointingly low. This review summarizes the currently available cytotoxic treatment options for mCRC, and highlights the further emerging role of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF)-inhibiting strategies, emphasizing the role of aflibercept. Aflibercept is a recombinant fusion protein with high VEGF affinity, and is the second antiangiogenic agent to obtain registration in the treatment of mCRC.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Background A Phase I study to determine the maximum tolerated dose (MTD) and pharmacokinetics of afatinib (BIBW 2992), a novel irreversible ErbB Family Blocker, administered orally once daily in a 3-week-on/1-week-off dosing schedule. Methods Patients with advanced solid tumors received single-agent afatinib at 10, 20, 40, 55 or 65 mg/day. Safety, antitumor activity, pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamic modulation of biomarkers were assessed. Results: Forty-three patients were enrolled. Dose-limiting toxicities (DLTs) occurred in five patients in the dose escalation phase (1/8 at 40 mg/day; 1/6 at 55 mg/day; 3/6 at 65 mg/day). The MTD was established at 55 mg/day. In the expansion cohort at the MTD, 6 patients experienced a DLT in the first 28-day treatment period. The most frequent DLT was diarrhea. The most common adverse events were diarrhea, rash, nausea, vomiting and fatigue. Overall, the afatinib safety profile in a 3-week-on/1-week-off dose schedule was similar to that of our daily-continuous schedule. Afatinib displayed dose-dependent pharmacokinetics at doses up to and including 55 mg/day, with a terminal half-life suitable for once-daily dosing. Signs of clinical antitumor activity were observed. In biopsies taken from clinically normal forearm skin, afatinib caused a reduced proliferation rate, with a concomitant increase in differentiation of epidermal keratinocytes. Conclusion Afatinib in a 3-week-on/1-week-off schedule showed a good safety profile. The MTD was 55 mg/day, although excess DLTs in the expansion cohort indicated that the 40 mg/day dose would have an acceptable safety profile for future studies. Dose cohorts between 40 and 55 mg/day were not examined in this study.
Investigational New Drugs 11/2012; · 3.50 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: With the event of new Molecular targets, clinical trial design requirements to perform these trials are changing. This paper discusses some of the considerations that need to be taken into account when designing a trial, including those trials that assess combinations of targets.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: To assess the maximum tolerated dose (MTD)/dose-limiting toxicities (DLT), safety, pharmacokinetics, and pharmacodynamics of tivozanib, a potent and selective oral VEGF receptor (VEGFR) tyrosine kinase inhibitor.
Dose levels of 1.0, 1.5, and 2.0 mg/d tivozanib for 28 days followed by 14 days of medication were explored in patients with advanced solid tumors.
Forty-one patients were enrolled. Animal data incorrectly predicted toxicity, resulting in DLTs at the starting dose (2.0 mg) consisting of grade 3 proteinuria and hypertension and grade 3 ataxia. At 1.0 mg, no DLT was observed. At an intermediate dose (1.5 mg), 1 patient experienced DLT consisting of grade 3 hypertension. This dose was determined as the MTD. Of 10 additional patients treated at 1.5 mg, 1 patient each experienced grade 3 hypertension and grade 3 fatigue, and 2 patients experienced grade 3 and 4 transaminase elevation. In 12 additional patients treated at 1.0 mg, no DLT was observed. Pharmacokinetics displayed long absorption time, dose proportional exposure, and a half-life of 4.7 days. Plasma levels of VEGF-A and soluble VEGFR-2 showed dose-dependent increases and decreases, respectively. Dynamic contrast-enhanced MRI indicated reduction in tumor perfusion. Clinical activity was observed in renal cell cancer, colorectal cancer, and other tumors.
Tivozanib was well tolerated with manageable side effects. The pharmacokinetics profile revealed that tivozanib was suitable for once-daily dosing. Encouraging and durable clinical activity was observed. The recommended daily dose of tivozanib in a 4-week-on and 2-week-off dosing regimen is 1.5 mg.
Clinical Cancer Research 11/2011; 17(22):7156-63. · 7.84 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Sorafenib is a multi-targeted tyrosine kinase inhibitor licensed for the treatment of hepatocellular carcinoma and renal cell carcinoma. Thyroid function test abnormalities have been reported for different tyrosine kinase inhibitors, but only limited data on thyroid function test abnormalities related to sorafenib are available, demonstrating the occurrence of hypothyroidism in patients treated with sorafenib.
We describe two patients who developed temporary hyperthyroidism during the course of sorafenib treatment, which was followed by overt and subclinical hypothyroidism, respectively. Thyroid ultrasonography showed an atrophic thyroid gland in patient 1 , and signs of thyroiditis in patient 2 . Detailed reassessment of thyroid volumes on routinely performed computerized tomography scans showed a gradual decrease in thyroid volume during sorafenib treatment in one patient, suggesting progressive thyroid destruction.
This case report describes in detail and for the first time two cases of sorafenib-induced thyroiditis. We assume that this sorafenib-induced destructive thyroiditis is an important cause of sorafenib-induced hypothyroidism.
Thyroid: official journal of the American Thyroid Association 02/2011; 21(2):197-202. · 2.60 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Statins have for long been considered to play a potential role in anticancer treatment based upon their ability to inhibit the mevalonate synthesis pathway. This randomised phase II trial compared the efficacy and safety of pravastatin added to epirubicin, cisplatin and capecitabine (ECC versus ECC+P) in patients with advanced gastric carcinoma.
Patients were randomised to receive up to six cycles of 3-weekly ECC with or without pravastatin (40 mg, once daily from day 1 of the first cycle until day 21 of the last cycle). Primary end-point was progression-free rate at 6 months (PFR(6 months)). Secondary end-points were response rate (RR), progression-free survival (PFS), overall survival (OS) and safety. For early termination in case of futility, a two-stage design was applied (P(0) = 50%; P(1) = 70%; α = 0.05; β = 0.10).
Thirty patients were enrolled. PFR(6 months) was 6/14 patients (42.8%) in the ECC+P arm, and 7/15 patients (46.7%) in the control arm, and therefore the study was terminated after the first stage. In the ECC and ECC+P arm, RR was 7/15 (46.7%) and 5/15 (33.3%), median PFS was 5 and 6 months and median OS was 6 and 8 months, respectively. Toxicity data showed no significant differences, although there was a trend towards more gastrointestinal side-effects such as diarrhoea and stomatitis in the ECC+P arm.
In this randomised phase II trial the addition of pravastatin to ECC did not improve outcome in patients with advanced gastric cancer. Therefore, further testing of this combination in a randomised phase III trial cannot be recommended.
European journal of cancer (Oxford, England: 1990) 12/2010; 46(18):3200-4. · 4.12 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: JNJ-26483327 is an oral, potent, multi-targeted tyrosine kinase inhibitor, inhibiting kinases of epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR)-1, -2 and -4, rearranged during transfection (RET) receptor, vascular endothelial growth factor receptor (VEGFR)-3 and Src family (Lyn, Fyn, Yes) at low nanomolar concentrations. This phase I, accelerated titration study assessed maximum tolerated dose, safety, pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamic effects of JNJ-26483327.
Nineteen patients with advanced cancers received JNJ-26483327 continuous twice daily (BID) in escalating dose cohorts ranging from 100 to 2100 mg. Pharmacodynamic effects were assessed in paired skin biopsies and blood.
JNJ-26483327 was well tolerated in doses up to 1500 mg BID, with target-inhibition-related toxicity such as diarrhoea and skin rash, and other common reported toxicities being nausea, vomiting, anorexia and fatigue. At 2100 mg, two episodes of dose-limiting toxicity were observed, consisting of grade 3 anorexia and a combination of grade 3 anorexia and fatigue, respectively. Pharmacokinetics were dose proportional up to 1500 mg in which plasma levels were obtained showing anti-tumour activity in xenograft mouse models. Pharmacodynamic analysis did not show a substantial effect on expression of Ki-67, p27(kip1), phosphorylated mitogen-activated protein kinase, phosphorylated Akt and EGFR, and serum levels of sVEGFR-2, VEGF-C and VEGF-D remained unchanged. Stable disease was noted in six patients (32%).
JNJ-26483327 is well tolerated and shows a predictable pharmacokinetic profile; the recommended dose for further studies is 1500 mg BID.
British Journal of Cancer 09/2010; 103(7):987-92. · 5.08 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: This Phase Ib dose-escalating study investigated safety, maximum tolerated dose (MTD), dose-limiting toxicity (DLT), pharmacokinetics (PK) and clinical antitumour activity of tosedostat (CHR-2797), an orally bioavailable aminopeptidase inhibitor, in combination with paclitaxel.
A total of 22 patients received paclitaxel (135-175 mg m(-2)) intravenously, administered once every three weeks for up to six cycles, with oral tosedostat (90-240 mg) daily.
One DLT (grade 3 dyspnoea) was observed in one patient with tosedostat 180 mg combined with paclitaxel 175 mg m(-2). A high number of paclitaxel infusion reactions was noted during the second administration (59%) and this prompted interruption of tosedostat dosing for 5 days around every second and subsequent paclitaxel infusion. No formal MTD was determined because of the high frequency of paclitaxel infusion reactions that may have been influenced by tosedostat. Most frequently observed drug-related adverse events were alopecia, fatigue (95% each), peripheral sensory neuropathy (59%), paclitaxel hypersensitivity (59%) and rash (55%). One patient died because of eosinophilic myocarditis, possibly related to study medication. There was no PK interaction between tosedostat and paclitaxel. In all, 3 patients had a partial response and 12 patients had stable disease lasting >3 months.
The combination of tosedostat with paclitaxel was well tolerated except for the high incidence of paclitaxel-related infusion reactions.
British Journal of Cancer 09/2010; 103(9):1362-8. · 5.08 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: To determine whether the presence of liver cirrhosis was related to the treatment options and survival of patients with hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC).
A status investigation of all HCC patients who were treated in the period 2000-2007 at the Erasmus MC Hospital, Rotterdam, was performed. The treatments were analysed and the disease-free and total survival rate were calculated.
HCC was diagnosed in 461 patients during the study period. Cirrhosis was present in 295 patients (64%). Treatment with curative intent was pursued in 184 patients through partial liver resection, orthotopic liver transplantation or radiofrequency ablation. The group of patients without cirrhosis contained significantly more women (38% versus 18%) (p < 0.001), showed less hepatitis B or C infection (34% versus 74%) (p < 0.001) and had a larger median tumour size (80 mm (range: 3-227) versus 35 mm (range: 8-200)) (p < 0.001). Patients without cirrhosis were mainly treated by partial liver resection (37% versus 10%) (p < 0.001) and less by liver transplantation (1% versus 13%) (p < 0.001) or radiofrequency ablation (5% versus 16%) (p = 0.001). Median follow-up was 31 months (range: 1-108). Without stratification according to treatment, the overall 3-year survival in patients with non-cirrhotic and cirrhotic HCC was 30% and 32%, respectively (difference not significant). Patients who had undergone potential curative treatment in cirrhotic or non-cirrhotic livers had a 3-year survival rate of 54% and 59%, respectively (difference not significant). The recurrence rate of HCC without cirrhosis was 39%, of which 31% in the first year. The recurrence rate with cirrhosis was 37%, of which 23% in the first year (difference not significant).
The presence of liver cirrhosis was strongly associated with treatment options for patients with HCC but not with the prognosis for a recurrence of HCC or the survival rate following potential curative treatment.
Nederlands tijdschrift voor geneeskunde 01/2010; 154:A1747.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Telatinib is an orally active small-molecule tyrosine kinase inhibitor of kinase insert domain receptor (KDR; VEGFR-2) and fms-related tyrosine kinase 4 (FLT4; VEGFR-3). This study aims at the identification of relationships between single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in genes encoding for transporter proteins and pharmacokinetic parameters in order to clarify the significant interpatient variability in drug exposure. In addition, the potential relationship between target receptor polymorphisms and toxicity of telatinib is explored.
Blood samples from 33 patients enrolled in a phase I dose-escalation study of telatinib were analyzed. For correlation with dose normalized AUC(0-12), ATP-binding cassette (ABC) B1 (ABCB1), ABCC1, and ABCG2 were the genes selected. For correlation with telatinib toxicity, selected genes were the drug target genes KDR and FLT4.
No association between dose normalized AUC(0-12) and drug transporter protein polymorphisms was observed. In addition, no association between toxicity and KDR or FLT4 genotype or haplotype was seen.
Our pharmacogenetic analysis could not reveal a correlation between relevant gene polymorphisms and clinical and pharmacokinetic observations of telatinib.
Investigational New Drugs 11/2009; 29(1):137-43. · 3.50 Impact Factor