Sung Tae Kim

Inje University Paik Hospital, Sŏul, Seoul, South Korea

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Publications (255)930.33 Total impact

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    ABSTRACT: The purpose of this study was to analyze outcomes in patients treated with gamma knife radiosurgery (GKS) for brain metastases from non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). We retrospectively reviewed the medical records of 817 patients who underwent GKS for brain metastases from NSCLC between January 2002 and December 2012. A total of 1363 GKS procedures were performed for 2970 lesions. The median overall survival time from the initial GKS was 13 months and the salvage treatment-free survival from the first GKS was 6.5 months. Younger age (≤65 years), female sex, better RPA class, higher DS-GPA score, adenocarcinoma, synchronous onset, and lower integrated value of the "numbers and cumulative volume of tumors" were associated with better outcomes. Among the 601 patients with an available follow up image, the pattern of the first progression after initial GKS was the development of new lesions in 356 patients (59.2 %), regrowth of treated lesions in 106 patients (17.6 %), and leptomeningeal seeding (LMS) in 51 patients (8.5 %). Among the deceased, the last MRI performed prior to death was evaluated in 409 patients and showed progression in 263 patients (64.3 %), despite multiple salvage treatments. LMS was identified in 63 patients (15.4 %); a rate much higher than the incidence at first progression. Intracranial tumor burden, defined as the integrated value of the "number of the lesions and cumulative tumor volume", is a new prognostic factor of greater significance than tumor volume or number alone when analyzed as separate factors. Although the cause of death was not progression of brain lesions in the majority of patients, the brain lesions tended to have been persistently progressive in most patients, despite repeated salvage treatment. LMS is an important pattern of treatment failure, in addition to local progression or development of new lesions, particularly in the terminal phase of the disease.
    Journal of Neuro-Oncology 09/2015; DOI:10.1007/s11060-015-1915-x · 3.07 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The equipment and techniques associated with magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) have rapidly evolved. The development of 3.0 Tesla MRI has enabled high-resolution imaging of the intracranial vessel wall. High-resolution MRI (HRMRI) can yield excellent visualization of both the arterial wall and lumen, thus facilitating the detection of the primary and secondary features of intracranial arterial dissection. In the present report, we describe the manner in which HRMRI affected our endovascular treatment planning strategy in 2 cases with unruptured intracranial vertebral artery dissection aneurysm. HRMRI provides further information about the vessel wall and the lumen of the unruptured intracranial vertebral artery dissecting aneurysm, which was treated by an endovascular approach in the 2 current cases.
    Journal of Korean Neurosurgical Society 09/2015; 58(2):155-158. DOI:10.3340/jkns.2015.58.2.155 · 0.64 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: We aimed to investigate the relationship between education and cortical thickness in cognitively normal individuals to determine whether education attenuated the association of advanced aging and cortical thinning. A total of 1,959 participants, in whom education levels were available, were included in the final analysis. Cortical thickness was measured on high-resolution MRIs using a surface-based method. Multiple linear regression analysis was performed for education level and cortical thickness, after controlling for possible confounders. High levels of education were correlated with increased mean cortical thickness throughout the entire cortex (p = 0.003). This association persisted after controlling for vascular risk factors. Statistical maps of cortical thickness showed that the high levels of education were correlated with increased cortical thickness in the bilateral premotor areas, anterior cingulate cortices, perisylvian areas, right superior parietal lobule, left lingual gyrus, and occipital pole. There were also interactive effects of age and education on the mean cortical thickness (p = 0.019). Our findings suggest the protective effect of education on cortical thinning in cognitively normal older individuals, regardless of vascular risk factors. This effect was found only in the older participants, suggesting that the protective effects of education on cortical thickness might be achieved by increased resistance to structural loss from aging rather than by simply providing a fixed advantage in the brain. © 2015 American Academy of Neurology.
    Neurology 07/2015; 85(9). DOI:10.1212/WNL.0000000000001884 · 8.29 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Obesity is a common cause of hyperlipidemia, which is a major coronary risk factor. Previous studies have shown red yeast rice (RYR) effectiveness in lowering low-density lipoprotein cholesterol. The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of RYR on obesity and hyperlipidemia. Mice were randomly separated into five groups: the control group with a normal diet, the high-fat diet (HFD) group fed a HFD without any treatment, and HFD-fed groups supplemented with RYR (1 g/kg/day for 8 weeks, 1 g/kg/day for 12 weeks, and 2.5 g/kg/day for 8 weeks). Body weight was recorded twice and food intake thrice weekly. Liver and fat pads were surgically removed and weighed. The levels of lipid parameters, liver enzymes, and leptin levels were measured. The HFD feeding resulted in obesity, which was associated with increases in body weight, liver weight, fat pad weight, liver enzymes, and plasma leptin levels with the development of hyperlipidemia. RYR prevented weight gain and fat pad weight in mice fed a HFD. RYR alleviated blood lipid parameters, liver enzymes, and leptin levels, and improved atherogenic index. These findings suggest that RYR has therapeutic potential in treating obesity and hyperlipidemia.
    Journal of medicinal food 07/2015; DOI:10.1089/jmf.2014.3259 · 1.63 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Bioorthogonal catalysis broadens the functional possibilities of intracellular chemistry. Effective delivery and regulation of synthetic catalytic systems in cells are challenging due to the complex intracellular environment and catalyst instability. Here, we report the fabrication of protein-sized bioorthogonal nanozymes through the encapsulation of hydrophobic transition metal catalysts into the monolayer of water-soluble gold nanoparticles. The activity of these catalysts can be reversibly controlled by binding a supramolecular cucurbit[7]uril 'gate-keeper' onto the monolayer surface, providing a biomimetic control mechanism that mimics the allosteric regulation of enzymes. The potential of this gated nanozyme for use in imaging and therapeutic applications was demonstrated through triggered cleavage of allylcarbamates for pro-fluorophore activation and propargyl groups for prodrug activation inside living cells.
    Nature Chemistry 06/2015; 7(7):597-603. DOI:10.1038/nchem.2284 · 25.33 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Prestressed concrete (PSC) is one of the most reliable, durable and widely used construction materials, which overcomes the weakness of concrete in tension by the introduction of a prestress force. Smart strands enabling measurement of the prestress force have recently been developed to maintain PSC structures throughout their lifetime. However, the smart strand cannot give a representative indication of the whole prestress force when used in multi-strand systems since each strand sustains a different prestress force. In this paper, the actual distribution of the prestress force in a multi-strand system is examined using elastomagnetic (EM) sensors to develop a method for tracking representative indicators of the prestress force using smart strands.
    Sensors 06/2015; 15(6):14079-92. DOI:10.3390/s150614079 · 2.25 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Bacterial biofilms are widely associated with persistent infections. High resistance to conventional antibiotics and prevalent virulence makes eliminating these bacterial communities challenging therapeutic targets. We describe here the fabrication of a nanoparticle-stabilized capsule with a multicomponent core for the treatment of biofilms. The peppermint oil and cinnamaldehyde combination that comprises the core of the capsules act as potent antimicrobial agents. An in situ reaction at the oil/water interface between the nanoparticles and cinnamaldehyde structurally augments the capsules to efficiently deliver the essential oil payloads, effectively eradicating biofilms of clinically isolated pathogenic bacteria strains. In contrast to their antimicrobial action, the capsules selectively promoted fibroblast proliferation in a mixed bacteria/mammalian cell system making them promising for wound healing applications.
    ACS Nano 06/2015; 9(8). DOI:10.1021/acsnano.5b01696 · 12.88 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: We show that ATE1-encoded Arg-transfer RNA transferase (R-transferase) of the N-end rule pathway mediates N-terminal arginylation of multiple endoplasmic reticulum (ER)-residing chaperones, leading to their cytosolic relocalization and turnover. N-terminal arginylation of BiP (also known as GRP78), protein disulphide isomerase and calreticulin is co-induced with autophagy during innate immune responses to cytosolic foreign DNA or proteasomal inhibition, associated with increased ubiquitylation. Arginylated BiP (R-BiP) is induced by and associated with cytosolic misfolded proteins destined for p62 (also known as sequestosome 1, SQSTM1) bodies. R-BiP binds the autophagic adaptor p62 through the interaction of its N-terminal arginine with the p62 ZZ domain. This allosterically induces self-oligomerization and aggregation of p62 and increases p62 interaction with LC3, leading to p62 targeting to autophagosomes and selective lysosomal co-degradation of R-BiP and p62 together with associated cargoes. In this autophagic mechanism, Nt-arginine functions as a delivery determinant, a degron and an activating ligand. Bioinformatics analysis predicts that many ER residents use arginylation to regulate non-ER processes.
    Nature Cell Biology 06/2015; 17(7). DOI:10.1038/ncb3177 · 19.68 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: We tested our hypothesis that the white matter network might mediate the effect of amyloid and small vessel disease (SVD) on cortical thickness and/or cognition. We prospectively recruited 232 patients with cognitive impairment. Amyloid was assessed using Pittsburgh compound B-PET. SVD was quantified as white matter hyperintensity volume and lacune number. The regional white matter network connectivity was measured as regional nodal efficiency by applying graph theoretical analysis to diffusion tensor imaging data. We measured cortical thickness and performed neuropsychological tests. SVD burden was associated with decreased nodal efficiency in the bilateral frontal, lateral temporal, lateral parietal, and occipital regions. Path analyses showed that the frontal nodal efficiency mediated the effect of SVD on the frontal atrophy and frontal-executive dysfunction. The temporoparietal nodal efficiency mediated the effect of SVD on the temporoparietal atrophy and memory dysfunction. However, Pittsburgh compound B retention ratio affected cortical atrophy and cognitive impairment without being mediated by nodal efficiency. We suggest that a disrupted white matter network mediates the effect of SVD, but not amyloid, on specific patterns of cortical atrophy and/or cognitive impairment. Therefore, our findings provide insight to better understand how amyloid and SVD burden can give rise to brain atrophy or cognitive impairment in specific patterns. © 2015 American Academy of Neurology.
    Neurology 06/2015; 85(1). DOI:10.1212/WNL.0000000000001705 · 8.29 Impact Factor
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    Dataset: mt201430a
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    ABSTRACT: Unlabelled: The purpose of this study was to investigate if multi-domain cognitive training, especially robot-assisted training, alters cortical thickness in the brains of elderly participants. A controlled trial was conducted with 85 volunteers without cognitive impairment who were 60 years old or older. Participants were first randomized into two groups. One group consisted of 48 participants who would receive cognitive training and 37 who would not receive training. The cognitive training group was randomly divided into two groups, 24 who received traditional cognitive training and 24 who received robot-assisted cognitive training. The training for both groups consisted of daily 90-min-session, five days a week for a total of 12 weeks. The primary outcome was the changes in cortical thickness. When compared to the control group, both groups who underwent cognitive training demonstrated attenuation of age related cortical thinning in the frontotemporal association cortices. When the robot and the traditional interventions were directly compared, the robot group showed less cortical thinning in the anterior cingulate cortices. Our results suggest that cognitive training can mitigate age-associated structural brain changes in the elderly. Trial registration: NCT01596205.
    PLoS ONE 04/2015; 10(4):e0123251. DOI:10.1371/journal.pone.0123251 · 3.23 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: This study aims to visualize the subjective symptoms before and after the treatment of whiplash injury using infrared (IR) thermography. IR thermography was performed for 42 patients who were diagnosed with whiplash injury. There were 19 male and 23 female patients. The mean age was 43.12 years. Thermal differences (ΔT) in the neck and shoulder and changes in the thermal differences (ΔdT) before and after treatment were analyzed. Pain after injury was evaluated using visual analogue scale (VAS) before and after treatment (ΔVAS). The correlations between ΔdT and ΔVAS results before and after the treatment were examined. We used Digital Infrared Thermal Imaging equipment of Dorex company for IR thermography. The skin temperature of the neck and shoulder immediately after injury showed 1-2℃ hyperthermia than normal. After two weeks, the skin temperature was normal range. ΔT after immediately injuy was higher than normal value, but it was gradually near the normal value after two weeks. ΔdT before and after treatment were statistically significant (p<0.05). VAS of the neck and shoulder significantly reduced after 2 week (p=0.001). Also, there was significant correlation between ΔdT and reduced ΔVAS (the neck; r=0.412, p<0.007) (the shoulder; r=0.648, p<0.000). The skin temperature of sites with whiplash injury is immediately hyperthermia and gradually decreased after two weeks, finally it got close to normal temperature. These were highly correlated with reduced VAS. IR thermography can be a reliable tool to visualize the symptoms of whiplash injury and the effectiveness of treatment in clinical settings.
    Journal of Korean Neurosurgical Society 04/2015; 57(4):283-8. DOI:10.3340/jkns.2015.57.4.283 · 0.64 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The present study was designed to investigate the therapeutic potential of phosphatidylcholine (PC) on oxaliplatin-induced peripheral neuropathy. Male Sprague-Dawley rats were randomly divided into three groups: the control group, the oxaliplatin group (4 mg/kg, twice per week for 4 weeks) and the oxaliplatin + PC (300 mg/kg) group. To evaluate the effect of PC, we examined the thermal nociceptive threshold changes in oxaliplatin-induced peripheral neuropathy by conducting paw pressure, hot-plate and tail-flick tests. Additional experiments on the degree of oxidative stress in sciatic nerves were performed by measuring the level of MDA, total glutathione (GSH), glutathione peroxidase (GPx) activity and superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity. We also used histopathological and immunohistochemical methods to observe neuronal damage and glial activation. PC attenuated oxidative stress by increasing antioxidant levels. In histopathological evaluation, the PC administrated group maintained normal morphologic appearance of sciatic nerves, similar to the control group. In spinal cords, however, no significant difference between the oxaliplatin-alone group and the oxaliplatin + PC group was observed. In immunohistochemical evaluation, PC administration ameliorated oxaliplatin-induced microglial activation. It is suggested that PC has a therapeutic potential against oxaliplatin-induced peripheral neuropathy due to its antioxidant property and modulation of microglial activities. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Inc.
    Life sciences 03/2015; 130. DOI:10.1016/j.lfs.2015.03.013 · 2.70 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: In brain-computer interfacing (BCI), motor imagery is used to provide a gateway to an effector action or behaviour. However, in contrast to the main functional role of the primary motor cortex (M1) in motor execution, the M1's involvement in motor imagery has been debated, while the roles of secondary motor areas such as the premotor cortex (PMC) and supplementary motor area (SMA) in motor imagery have been proposed. We examined which motor cortical region had the greatest predictive ability for imagined movement among the primary and secondary motor areas. For two modes of motor performance, executed movement and imagined movement, in 12 healthy subjects who performed two types of motor task, hand grasping and hand rotation, we used the multivariate Bayes method to compare predictive ability between the primary and secondary motor areas (M1, PMC, and SMA) contralateral to the moved hand. With the distributed representation of activation, executed movement was best predicted from the M1 while imagined movement from the SMA, among the three motor cortical regions, in both types of motor task. In addition, the most predictive information about the distinction between executed movement and imagined movement was contained in the M1. The greater predictive ability of the SMA for imagined movement suggests its functional role that could be applied to motor imagery-based BCI. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
    NeuroImage 03/2015; 113. DOI:10.1016/j.neuroimage.2015.03.033 · 6.36 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Glioblastoma (GBM) is the most common and malignant brain tumor in adults. Despite therapeutic advances, almost all patients eventually experience tumor recurrence. Leptomeningeal spread (LMS) is not a rare condition of recurrence. However, the standard management protocol of LMS has not been established. The aim of this study is to report the risk of (LMS) and the prognosis between treatment modalities in GBM patients. A retrospective review was conducted of 321 patients who were diagnosed with GBM between January 2006 and December 2010. In 75 patients, LMS of tumor was detected by magnetic resonance image and/or cerebrospinal fluid cytology. Twelve patients underwent intrathecal methotrexate (IT-MTX) chemotherapy. Twenty-two patients underwent other salvage treatments. Forty-one patients underwent conservative management. We analyzed the possible clinical factors for LMS. Further, we examined overall survival and survival after diagnosis of LMS for several treatment modalities. In patients without LMS, median overall survival was 479 days, whereas that in patients with LMS it was 401 days. Younger age and larger initial tumor size were related to more frequent LMS incidence. Proximity between tumor margin and ventricle did not affect LMS. However, median duration from initial diagnosis to LMS was significantly different according to the distance to the ventricle. IT-MTX group's overall survival was 583 days, which is statistically no longer than that of the other treatment group and the conservative management group. However, an additional survival benefit may exist compared to the conservative treatment. The median survival of the IT-MTX group was 181 days compared with 91 days for the conservative management group. Treatment of LMS is mainly palliative. IT-MTX is generally the first-line treatment modality of LMS. Prediction and prevention of LMS is crucial because its treatment has been limited. Further approaches to improve the therapeutic effect should be established.
    Acta Neurochirurgica 02/2015; 157(4). DOI:10.1007/s00701-015-2344-5 · 1.77 Impact Factor
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    Jung Hwa Seo · Hae Woong Jeong · Sung Tae Kim · Eun-Gyu Kim
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    ABSTRACT: We present our experiences of intra-arterial tirofiban injection through a deployed Solitaire stent as a rescue therapy after failed mechanical thrombectomy in patients with acute ischemic stroke. Data on 18 patients treated with adjunctive tirofiban injection through a temporarily deployed Solitaire stent after failed mechanical thrombectomy were retrospectively reviewed. Solitaire stent was used as a primary thrombectomy device in 16 of 18 patients. Two patients received manual aspiration thrombectomy initially. If initial mechanical thrombectomy failed, tirofiban was injected intra-arterially through the deployed Solitaire stent and then subsequent Solitaire thrombectomy was performed. Fourteen patients had occlusions in the middle cerebral artery, 2 in the distal internal carotid artery, and 2 in the basilar artery. Successful recanalization was achieved in 14 patients (77.7%) after intra-arterial injection of tirofiban and subsequent Solitaire thrombectomy. Three patients without successful recanalization after rescue method received angioplasty with stenting. Overall, successful recanalization (TICI grades 2b and 3) was achieved in 17 (94.4%) of 18 patients. Periprocedural complications occurred in 5 patients: distal migration of emboli in 5 patients and vessel perforation in 1. Three patients died. Good functional outcome (mRS ≤ 2) was achieved in 9 patients (50.0%) at 3 months. Rescue intra-arterial injection of tirofiban through a temporarily deployed Solitaire stent may facilitate further recanalization in cases of failed mechanical thrombectomy in patients with acute ischemic stroke.
    02/2015; 10(1):22-7. DOI:10.5469/neuroint.2015.10.1.22
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    ABSTRACT: To investigate the prevalence and associations of cortical superficial siderosis (cSS) utilizing MRI markers of cerebral small vessel disease and amyloid burden assessed through in vivo amyloid imaging in a cognitively impaired population. Gradient-recalled echo, T2*-weighted MRIs from 232 patients (Alzheimer disease-related cognitive impairment [ADCI], n = 90; subcortical vascular cognitive impairment [SVCI], n = 142) were reviewed for cSS. All subjects underwent in vivo amyloid imaging using [(11)C] Pittsburgh compound B (PiB)-PET. A multivariate logistic regression model was constructed to evaluate the predictive factors of cSS. A follow-up MRI was performed in 154 (66.4%) of 232 patients. Twelve patients (5.2%) with cSS were equally distributed in ADCI (n = 6) and SVCI (n = 6) groups, but cSS was not present in any of the patients with a negative PiB scan. cSS was associated with markers of cerebral amyloid angiopathy, including higher global PiB retention ratio, APOE ε2 allele presence, and a strictly lobar distribution of cerebral microbleeds. Of those patients with baseline cSS, 33% showed progression over time; there were 2 cases of symptomatic intracranial hemorrhage. cSS occurred in both ADCI and SVCI groups, but not in patients with amyloid-negative SVCI, supporting the hypothesis that cSS reflects an amyloid rather than ischemic etiology. The associations with strictly lobar cerebral microbleeds and APOE ε2 suggest that cerebral amyloid angiopathy, with increased vascular fragility related to APOE genotype, contributes to cSS in this population, with a high risk of progression over time and future intracranial hemorrhage. © 2015 American Academy of Neurology.
    Neurology 01/2015; 84(8). DOI:10.1212/WNL.0000000000001288 · 8.29 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Background and purposeRecent studies have demonstrated that Alzheimer's disease (AD) and subcortical vascular dementia (SVaD) have white matter (WM) microstructural changes. However, previous studies on AD and SVaD rarely eliminated the confounding effects of patients with mixed Alzheimer's and cerebrovascular disease pathologies. Therefore, our aim was to evaluate the divergent topography of WM microstructural changes in patients with pure AD and SVaD.Methods Patients who were clinically diagnosed with AD and SVaD were prospectively recruited. Forty AD patients who were Pittsburgh compound B (PiB) positive [PiB(+) AD] without WM hyperintensities and 32 SVaD patients who were PiB negative [PiB(−) SVaD] were chosen. Fifty-six cognitively normal individuals were also recruited (NC). Tract-based spatial statistics of diffuse tensor imaging were used to compare patterns of fractional anisotropy (FA) and mean diffusivity (MD).ResultsCompared with the NC group, the PiB(+) AD group showed decreased FA in the bilateral frontal, temporal and parietal WM regions and the genu and splenium of the corpus callosum as well as increased MD in the left frontal and temporal WM region. PiB(−) SVaD patients showed decreased FA and increased MD in all WM regions. Direct comparison between PiB(+) AD and PiB(−) SVaD groups showed that the PiB(−) SVaD group had decreased FA across all WM regions and increased MD in all WM regions except occipital regions.Conclusion Our findings suggest that pure AD and pure SVaD have divergent topography of WM microstructural changes including normal appearing WM.
    European Journal of Neurology 01/2015; 10(4). DOI:10.1111/ene.12645 · 4.06 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Prestressed Concrete Wire and Strand (PC) strands are the most used materials to introduce prestress in a Pre-Stressed Concrete (PSC) structure. However, it is difficult to evaluate the final prestress force of the PC strand after prestressing or its residual prestress force after completion of the structure on site. This impossibility to assess eventual loss of prestress of the PC strand has resulted in a number of serious accidents and even in the collapse of several structures. This situation stresses the necessity to maintain the prestress force residual or after prestressing for the evaluation of the health of the concrete structure throughout its lifespan. Recently, several researchers have studied methods enabling one to verify the prestress force by inserting an optical fiber sensor inside the strand but failed to provide simple techniques for the fabrication of these devices to fulfill measurement performance from the design prestress to failure. Moreover, these methods require the additional installation of electrical resistance strain gages, displacement sensors and load cells on the outer surface of the structure for long-term precise measurement. This paper proposes a method enabling one to evaluate precisely and effectively the prestress force of the PC strand and intends to verify the applicability of the proposed method on actual concrete structures. To that end, an innovative PC strand is developed by embedding a Fiber Bragg Grating (FBG) sensor in the core wire of the PC strand so as to enable short term as well as long term monitoring. The measurement performance of the developed strand is then evaluated experimentally and the reliability of the monitoring data is assessed.
    Sensors 01/2015; 15(1):1060-70. DOI:10.3390/s150101060 · 2.25 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Prolonged retention of internalized nanoparticulate systems inside cells improves their efficacy in imaging, drug delivery, and theranostic applications. Especially, regulating exocytosis of the nanoparticles is a key factor in the fabrication of effective nanocarriers for chemotherapeutic treatments but orthogonal control of exocytosis in the cellular environment is a major challenge. Herein, we present the first example of regulating exocytosis of gold nanoparticle (AuNP), a model drug carrier, by using a simple host-guest supramolecular system. AuNPs featuring quaternary amine head groups were internalized into the cells through endocytosis. Subsequent in situ treatment of a complementary cucurbit[7]uril (CB[7]) to the amine head groups resulted in the AuNP-CB[7] complexation inside cells, rendering the particles assembled together. The complexation induced larger particle assemblies that remained sequestered in the endosomes, inhibiting exocytosis of the particles without any observed cytotoxicity.
    Organic & Biomolecular Chemistry 12/2014; 13(8). DOI:10.1039/C4OB02433H · 3.56 Impact Factor

Publication Stats

3k Citations
930.33 Total Impact Points


  • 2014–2015
    • Inje University Paik Hospital
      • • Department of Neurosurgery
      • • Department of Radiology
      Sŏul, Seoul, South Korea
  • 2012–2015
    • Inje University
      • • Department of Medicine and Premedicine
      • • College of Medicine
      Kŭmhae, Gyeongsangnam-do, South Korea
    • University of Massachusetts Amherst
      • Department of Chemistry
      Amherst Center, Massachusetts, United States
    • Kyung Hee University
      • Department of Applied Chemistry
      Seoul, Seoul, South Korea
  • 2010–2015
    • Korea Institute of Construction Technology
      Kōyō, Gyeonggi-do, South Korea
    • Woosong University
      Onyang, South Chungcheong, South Korea
    • Konkuk University Medical Center
      • Department of Neurology
      Changnyeong, South Gyeongsang, South Korea
  • 2006–2015
    • Samsung Medical Center
      • Department of Radiology
      Sŏul, Seoul, South Korea
  • 2005–2015
    • Sungkyunkwan University
      • Department of Radiology
      Sŏul, Seoul, South Korea
  • 2012–2014
    • Chung-Ang University
      • • College of Pharmacy
      • • School of Chemical Engineering and Materials Science
      Sŏul, Seoul, South Korea
  • 2007–2014
    • Washington University in St. Louis
      • • Department of Anesthesiology
      • • Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology
      San Luis, Missouri, United States
    • Korea National Police University
      Sŏul, Seoul, South Korea
    • National Fisheries Research and Development Institution
      Sŏul, Seoul, South Korea
  • 2004–2014
    • Korea University
      • College of Medicine
      Sŏul, Seoul, South Korea
    • Yonsei University Hospital
      Sŏul, Seoul, South Korea
  • 2013
    • Hanyang University
      • Department of Biomedical Engineering
      Sŏul, Seoul, South Korea
    • University of Pittsburgh
      • School of Pharmacy
      Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania, United States
  • 2011
    • University of Nebraska at Lincoln
      • Department of Management
      Lincoln, Nebraska, United States
    • Boston Children's Hospital
      • Division of Newborn Medicine
      Boston, Massachusetts, United States
  • 2009–2010
    • Community Tissue Services
      Fresno, California, United States
    • Hyundai Motor Company
      Sŏul, Seoul, South Korea
    • Konyang University
      • College of Medicine
      Ronsan, Chungcheongnam-do, South Korea
    • Yonsei University
      • Department of Prosthodontics
      Sŏul, Seoul, South Korea
  • 1995–2010
    • Seoul National University
      • • College of Pharmacy
      • • College of Engineering
      • • Division of Chemistry and Molecular Engineering
      Seoul, Seoul, South Korea
  • 2005–2009
    • Ulsan University Hospital
      Urusan, Ulsan, South Korea
  • 2005–2007
    • Inha University
      • Department of Polymer Science and Engineering
      Chemulpo, Incheon, South Korea
  • 1996–2007
    • LG Electronics
      Sŏul, Seoul, South Korea
  • 2003–2005
    • Konyang University Hospital
      Gaigeturi, Jeju, South Korea
    • Inha University Hospital
      Sinhyeon, Gyeongsangnam-do, South Korea
  • 1996–1998
    • University of Cambridge
      • Department of Chemistry
      Cambridge, ENG, United Kingdom