[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: We determined concentrations of 23 trace elements (TEs), and stable carbon and nitrogen isotope (δ(13)C and δ(15)N) signatures in barramundi (Lates calcarifer) specimens collected along the coast of Vietnam in the Northern (NCZ), Central (CCZ) and Southern (SCZ) zones in the period 2007-2010. A combination of δ(13)C and δ(15)N signatures provided insight into ontogenetic shifts in barramundi foraging choices. There were clear zone-dependent differences in Mn, As, Sr and Tl concentrations; levels of Tl were highest in the NCZ, As in the CCZ, and Mn and Sr in the SCZ. Lowest concentrations of Rb occurred in the NCZ, Bi was lowest in the CCZ, and Cd and Cs were lowest in the SCZ. δ(15)N values significantly increased with increasing Zn, Se, Sn and Cs. Concentrations of TEs in barramundi from Vietnam were below worldwide guidelines for human consumption.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: We collected two subspecies of masu salmon: Oncorhynchus masou masou from four localities (southern Sea of Japan northward to Hokkaido) and O. masou ishikawae from upstream from Ise Bay close to a heavy industrial area. All 209 PCB congeners were analyzed using HRGC/HRMS. PCA ordination of congener concentrations divided data into three groups: (i) ssp. masou from Hokkaido, (ii) ssp. masou from the other regions and (iii) ssp. ishikawae. The highest ∑ PCB concentration (40.39ng/wet wt) was in ssp. ishikawae followed by ssp. masou from southern waters; however the TEQdioxin-like PCBs was highest in ssp. masou from southern water (1.96pg-TEQdioxin-like PCBs/g wet wt.) due to the high proportion of congener #126 in its complement (#126 has the highest toxic equivalency factor among congeners). There is likely a contamination source offshore in the southern Sea of Japan and/or along the migratory route of ssp. masou.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: By field sampling and laboratory experiments we compared the mechanisms by which polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) are biomagnified. We measured PBDEs and PCBs, together with stable carbon and nitrogen isotopes as an index of trophic level, in low-trophic-level organisms collected from a coastal area in Tokyo Bay. PBDEs were biomagnified to a lesser degree than PCBs. The more hydrophobic congeners of each were biomagnified more. However, the depletion of BDE congeners BDE99 and BDE153 from fish was suggested. To study congener-specific biotransformation of halogenated compounds, we conducted an in vitro experiment using hepatic microsomes of two species of fish and five BDE congeners (BDE47, 99, 100, 153, and 154) and five CB congeners with the same substitution positions as the PBDEs. BDE99 and 153 were partially debrominated, but BDE47 and 154 were not debrominated. This congener-specific debromination is consistent with the field results. Both in vitro and field results suggested selective debromination at the meta position. The CB congeners were not transformed in vitro. This result is also consistent with the field results, that PCBs were more biomagnified than PBDEs. We conclude that metabolizability is an important factor in the biomagnification of chemicals, but other factors must be responsible for the lower biomagnification of PBDEs in natural ecosystems.
Science of The Total Environment 02/2013; 449C:401-409. · 3.26 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: We performed stable carbon and nitrogen-guided analyses of biomagnification profiles of arsenic (As) species, including total As, lipid-soluble As, eight water-soluble As compounds (arsenobetaine (AB), arsenocholine (AC), tetramethylarsonium ion (TETRA), trimethylarsine oxide (TMAO), dimethylarsinic acid (DMA), monomethylarsonic acid (MMA), arsenate (As[V]), and arsenite (As[III])), and non-extracted As in a tropical mangrove ecosystem in the Ba Ria Vung Tau, South Vietnam. Arsenobetaine was the predominant As species (65-96% of water-soluble As). Simple linear regression slopes of log-transformed concentrations of total As, As fractions or individual As compounds on stable nitrogen isotopic ratio (δ15N) values are regarded as indices of biomagnification. In this ecosystem, lipid-soluble As (slope, 0.130) and AB (slope, 0.108) were significantly biomagnified through the food web; total As and other water-soluble As compounds were not. To our knowledge, this is one of the first reports on biomagnification profiles of As compounds from a tropical mangrove ecosystem.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The dominant coastal bivalve in Vietnam, hard clams Meretrix spp., collected from the South Key Economic Zone (SKEZ), the Mekong River Delta, and the Central Coastal Zone (CCZ) were
analyzed for 21 trace elements. Comparison of the results from the three regions indicated that levels of most of the trace
elements, especially As, Mo, Sn, and Pb, were highest in the samples collected from the CCZ, whereas most of the trace elements
were found to be present at relatively low levels in samples from the SKEZ. The high concentrations of these trace elements
in the CCZ, a sparsely populated region with less human activity than the other two regions, were believed to have originated
from industrial waste produced in a shipyard. Although the trace element concentrations in the bivalves were within safe levels
for human-consumption criteria reported by the United State Food and Drug Administration and the European Commission, estimation
of cancer risk based on As concentration indicates that the hard clams from the CCZ pose a high risk to consumers. Thus, the
industrial waste produced in the less densely populated region might increase the health risk to consumers via the contamination
of bivalves commonly used as food.
-Shipyard waste-Trace element-Vietnam
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Organisms collected from a coastal ecosystem in Japan were analyzed for concentrations of 205 polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) congeners; analyses were guided by delta(13)C and delta(15)N measurements. The regression slopes of log PCB concentration on delta(15)N value are regarded as indices of biomagnification in food webs. The slope (wet weight basis) of SigmaPCBs was +0.104; the slope (lipid weight basis) was close to zero. Lipid content increased from 0.06% in a primary producer to 8.32% in the highest trophic level consumer. Hence, biomagnification of SigmaPCBs (wet weight basis) can be attributed to increase of lipid content through the food web. For most of the congeners, the slopes (wet weight basis) exceeded those (lipid weight basis) by ca. 0.10. Slopes increased with increasing PCB chlorination levels between chlorine numbers 1-6; slopes decreased at higher chlorination levels. This decrease is likely caused by a decrease in membrane permeability with increasing molecular weight.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Bivalves, crabs, fishes, seawater, and sediment collected from the inner part of Tokyo Bay, Japan, were measured for 20 polybrominated diphenyl ether (PBDE) and 5 polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) congeners. To determine the trophic levels of the organisms, carbon and nitrogen stable isotope ratios (delta(13)C and delta(15)N) were also measured. Bioconcentration factors of PBDE and PCB congeners increased as the octanol-water partition coefficient (K(ow)) rose to log K(ow)=7, above which they decreased again. Biomagnification of PCBs and several PBDE congeners (BDE47, 99, 100, 153 and 154) up the trophic ladder was confirmed by a positive correlation between their concentrations and delta(15)N. Other PBDE congeners showed a negative or no correlation, suggesting their biotransformation through metabolism. The more hydrophobic congeners of both PBDEs (Br=2-6) and PCBs (Cl=6-9) were biomagnified more. It thus appears that PBDEs are less biomagnified than PCBs.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Biomagnification profiles of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), alkylphenols, and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) from the innermost part of Tokyo Bay, Japan were analyzed using stable carbon (delta(13)C) and nitrogen (delta(15)N) isotope ratios as guides to trophic web structure. delta(15)N analysis indicated that all species of mollusks tested were primary consumers, while decapods and fish were secondary consumers. Higher concentrations of PCBs occurred in decapods and fish than in mollusks. In contrast, concentrations of PAHs and alkylphenols were lower in decapods and fish than in mollusks. Unlike PCBs, whose concentrations largely increased with increasing delta(15)N (i.e. increasing trophic level), all PAHs and alkylphenols analyzed followed a reverse trend. Molecular weights of PAHs are lower than those of PCBs, therefore low membrane permeability caused by large molecular size is an unlikely factor in the "biodilution" of PAHs. Organisms at higher trophic levels may rapidly metabolize PAHs or they may assimilate less of them.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The measurement of organotins in the various biotas of coastal food webs with stable nitrogen isotope ratios (delta(15)N), which increase 3.4 per thousand per trophic level, can provide a biomagnification profile of organotins through food web. In this study, various biological samples were collected from three localities in Western Japan between 2002 and 2003 for analyses. Tributyltin (TBT) and triphenyltin (TPT) were still detected with a maximum of 99.5 and 8.7 ng wet weight g(-1), respectively. Unlike TBT, significant biomagnification of TPT through the food web (expressed by delta(15)N) was found in all three localities. The log transformed octanol-water partition coefficient (log K(ow)) of TPT of 2.11-3.43 was overlapped by, but was slightly lower than, that of TBT of 3.70-4.70. Thus, this study demonstrates that although these chemicals have a log K(ow) lower than 5, at least TPT undergoes significant biomagnification through the food web.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Recent studies on global climate change report that increase in seawater temperature leads to coastal ecosystem change, including
coral bleaching in the tropic. In order to assess the effect of increased seawater temperature on a temperate coastal ecosystem,
we studied the inter-annual variation in productivity of Laminaria japonica using long-term oceanographic observations for the Uwa Sea, southern Japan. The annual productivity estimates for L. japonica were 2.7 ± 2.5 (mean ± SD) kg wet wt. m−1 (length of rope) (2003/2004), 1.0 ± 0.6kg wet wt. m−1 (2004/2005) and 12.1 ± 12.5kg wet wt. m−1 (2005/2006). Our previous study using the same methodology at the same locality reported that the productivity was estimated
for the 2001/2002 (33.3 ± 15.2kg wet wt. m−1) and 2002/2003 (34.0 ± 8.7kg wet wt. m−1) seasons. Productivity in 2003/2004 and 2004/2005 was significantly lower than in years 2001/2002, 2002/2003 and 2005/2006.
A comparison of oceanographic conditions among the 5years revealed the presence of threshold seawater temperature effects.
When the average seawater temperature during the first 45days of each experiment exceeded 15.5°C, productivity was reduced
to about 10 % of that in cooler years. Moreover the analysis of growth and erosion rates indicates that when the seawater
temperature was over 17.5°C, erosion rate exceeded growth rate. Thus, an increase of seawater temperature of just 1°C during
winter drastically reduces the productivity of L. japonica in the Uwa Sea.
Journal of Applied Phycology 09/2008; 20(5):833-844. · 2.33 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The present study elucidated the biomagnification profiles of persistent organic pollutants (POPs) through a tropical aquatic food web of Vietnam based on trophic characterization using stable nitrogen analysis. Various biological samples collected from the main stream of the Mekong Delta were provided for the analysis for both POPs, and stable nitrogen and carbon isotope ratios. Of the POPs analyzed, dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane and its metabolites (DDTs) were the predominant contaminants with concentrations ranging from 0.058 to 12 ng/g wet weight, followed by polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) at 0.017-8.9 ng/g, chlordane compounds (CHLs) at 0.0043-0.76 ng/g, tris-4-chlorophenyl methane (TCPMe) at N.D.-0.26 ng/g, hexachlorocyclohexane isomers (HCHs) at N.D.-0.20 ng/g and hexachlorobenzene (HCB) at 0.0021-0.096 ng/g. Significant positive increases of concentrations in DDTs, CHLs, and TCPMe against the stable nitrogen ratio (delta(15)N) were detected, while, concentrations of HCHs and HCB showed no significant increase. The slopes of the regression equations between the log-transformed concentrations of these POPs and delta(15)N were used as indices of biomagnification. The slopes of the POPs for which positive biomagnification was detected ranged from 0.149 to 0.177 on a wet weight basis. The slopes of DDTs and CHLs were less than those reported for a marine food web of the Arctic Ocean, indicating that less biomagnification had occurred in the tropical food web. Of the isomers of CHLs, unlike the studies of the Arctic Ocean, oxychlordane did not undergo significant biomagnification through the food web of the Mekong Delta. This difference is considered to be due to a lack of marine mammals, which might metabolize cis- and trans-chlordane to oxychlordane, in the Mekong Delta ecosystem. The biomagnification profile of TCPMe is reported for the first time in the present study.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: In the present study, we report the concentrations of 21 trace elements (V, Cr, Mn, Co, Cu, Zn, As, Se, Rb, Sr, Mo, Ag, Cd, Sn, Sb, Cs, Ba, Hg, Tl, Pb, and Bi), as well as the results of the analysis of stable carbon and nitrogen isotopes, of the various biota that make up the food web in the main stream of the Mekong Delta near Can Tho, South Vietnam. A significant trophic level-dependent increase was found in concentrations of Se, Rb, and Hg with increasing delta(15)N, indicating that an overall biomagnification of these elements occurred. However, the increase of Hg concentration per trophic level was lower than in previous studies. In contrast, the concentration of Mn showed an opposite trend in the food web of the Mekong Delta. In addition to these overall trends, the present study revealed that the biomagnification profiles of trace metals differ between crustaceans and fishes; concentrations of Mn, Cu, Zn, As, Sr, Mo, Ag, Cd, Sb, Cs, Ba, Tl, and Pb were significantly higher in crustaceans, whereas fishes showed higher concentrations of Cr, Rb, and Hg (trophic level determined by delta(15)N). The differences in the biomagnification profile between the major taxa might be attributed to differences in metal accumulation and in detoxification abilities such as possessing a metal-binding protein, e.g., metallothionein (MT).
Archives of Environmental Contamination and Toxicology 05/2008; 54(3):504-15. · 2.01 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Accumulation profiles of 22 trace elements in abdominal muscle, abdominal exoskeleton and the hepatopancreas of the giant river prawn Macrobrachium rosenbergii were analyzed. The giant river prawn is an indigenous freshwater species from South Vietnam, and is cultured commercially and fished in the wild. Samples were collected from Ho Chi Minh City and the surrounding area (SKEZ, South Key Economic Zone), and from the Mekong River Delta between 2003 and 2005. Highest accumulations of essential (Cu, Se and Mo) and toxic (As, Ag, Cd and Hg) elements were observed in hepatopancreatic tissue, except for Mn, Sr, Sn, Ba and V in the exoskeleton and Rb and Cs in muscle tissue. Spatial differences showed concentrations of Cs and Pb in muscle and Sr in exoskeletons from the SKEZ were higher than those from the Mekong River Delta. The opposite trend was observed for Cr, Se and Sb in muscle, Mo, Sb and Tl in exoskeleton, and Se, Hg, Mo, Cd, Sb, Tl and Bi in the hepatopancreas. These differences in trace element concentrations in prawns likely reflect differences in industrialization and human activities between the two regions of South Vietnam.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The goal of the present study was to examine the specific bioaccumulation of 22 trace elements in muscle, exoskeleton and hepatopancreas of black tiger shrimp Penaeus monodon from the Mekong River Delta (MRD), and the South Key Economic Zone (SKEZ), South Vietnam. The general tendency in most trace element concentrations among different tissues were hepatopancreas>exoskeleton>muscle. Comparisons of trace element levels in tissues between the two regions showed that concentrations of Se in muscle and As in all three tissues were higher in SKEZ; whereas in MRD, the higher concentrations of most elements such as Mn, Cu, Cd, Ba, Hg, were observed in tissues. These geographical variations in trace element levels may reflect the differences in human activities between the two regions of South Vietnam. The target hazard quotient (THQ) values for trace elements (<1) indicate that local residents are not exposed to potential health risks via the consumption of shrimp.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Hatched juveniles of Caprella danilevskii (Crustacea: Amphipoda) were exposed to one of two concentrations of tributyltin (TBT) (1.1 and 10.7 ng TBTL(-1)) for 49 d at 20 degrees C. These concentrations are near or below ambient levels in seawater. In both treatments and control, the survival rate was 100% at maturation, and >85% at the end of the experiments. Females reached maturation at 20 (median) to 21.5d at instar VII, and repeated spawning 4-5 times during the experiment. The total number of juveniles per female decreased significantly from 39.5 in the control to 24.5 and 17.5 in 1.1 ng L(-1) and 10.7 ng L(-1) treatments, respectively. An earlier study reported that as the TBT concentration in seawater increased from a 0-10 ng L(-1) regime to a 10-20 ng L(-1) regime, the number of stations where Caprella spp. could be collected decreased along the coast of the Seto Inland Sea, of Japan. Thus, the present study indicates the possibility that the extremely low concentration of TBT measured in Japanese waters after 2000 lead to a reduction in reproductive success of Caprella spp.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Recently, aquaculture of Laminaria japonica has expanded to the southern coast of Japan and to China along the East China Sea. The southerly distribution of L. religiosa, compared to that of L. japonica, indicated that the aquaculture of L. religiosa along the southern coasts of Japan might be feasible. Thus, we examined the growth, biomass and productivity of L. religiosa cultivated in the Uwa Sea, in southwestern Japan over a period of two years. The seawater temperature ranged from 12.9 to 27.4°C in 2003/2004 and from 12.2 to 28.3°C in 2004/2005. In 2003/2004, the maximum mean density, maximum mean length, and maximum mean wet weight of L. religiosa was 7.8 ± 5.0 ind. m−1 (mean ± SD), 14.8 ± 4.6 cm, and 1.2 ± 0.8 g wet wt., respectively. In 2004/2005, no germination was confirmed through the study period. The maximum biomass and annual production in 2003/2004 were estimated to be 6.9 ± 5.2 g wet wt. m−1 and 8.9 g wet wt. m−1 year−1, respectively. The present study revealed that L. religiosa cultivated in the Uwa Sea were much smaller compared with those of Hokkaido Island, where the alga is naturally found. For the growth of L. religiosa, a relatively long period of seawater temperatures below 13.5°C is required. In the study area, seawater temperatures were below 13.5°C only 11 days in 2003, and 12 days in 2004. As a result, it is thought that expanding the cultivation of L. religiosa to southern areas including the Uwa Sea will be difficult.
Phycological Research 11/2007; 55(4):272 - 277. · 1.09 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The brown alga Laminaria japonica is distributed from southern Hokkaido to the northeastern Honshu in Japan. Recently, aquaculture of L. japonica has expanded to the southern coast of Japan and to China along the East China Sea. In order to elucidate the growth, biomass and productivity of L. japonica in a subtropical area, we cultivated and examined it in the Uwa Sea, in southwestern Japan over a period of 2 years. The seawater temperature ranged from 13.8 to 26.8 °C in 2001/2002 and from 13.1 to 27.2 °C in 2002/2003. In 2001/2002, the maximum density, maximum mean length and maximum mean wet wt. of L. japonica were 59.7 ± 28.0 ind. 50 cm− 1 (mean ± S.D.), 187.5 ± 82.7 cm (360 cm in the largest individual) and 130.1 ± 94.6 g wet wt., respectively. In 2002/2003, these values were 94.7 ± 22.2 ind. 50 cm− 1, 159.3 ± 74.4 cm (300 cm in the largest individual) and 95.2 ± 69.5 g wet wt., respectively. Thus, the length and weight increased when the density was low (2001/2002), and the length and weight decreased when the density was high (2002/2003). The maximum biomass was estimated to be 7200 ± 3400 g wet wt. 50 cm− 1 in 2001/2002 and 7300 ± 2000 g wet wt. 50 cm− 1 in 2002/2003. Annual production was estimated to be 33.3 kg wet wt. m− 1 year− 1 in 2001/2002 and 34.0 kg wet wt. m− 1 year− 1 in 2002/2003. The present study indicates that the annual production of L. japonica per rope of 1 m at Uwajima Bay, the Uwa Sea corresponded to 1.1–2.2 m2 of that of Hokkaido in their native area. Thus, the present study indicates that L. japonica is highly adaptable because it is able to keep a high level of productivity when grown in water with a high temperature.
Journal of Experimental Marine Biology and Ecology 01/2006; 339(1):15-29. · 2.26 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Restrictions on the use of tributyltin (TBT) in aquaculture and on boats in coastal regions, except for ocean-going vessels, have been in place in Japan since 1990 due to the strong toxic effects of TBT on marine organisms. However, TBT pollution along the Japanese coasts has been reported after this legislation was enacted. In order to elucidate the present status of contamination by butyltin (BT) compounds, we measured the levels of BTs [monobutyltin (MBT), dibutyltin (DBT) and TBT] in seawater and Caprella spp. samples obtained from the western part of Seto Inland Sea, Uwa Sea and Uranouchi Bay in western Japan during March to September, 2001. Butyltins were detected in more than 90% of the seawater samples (n = 59), with average concentrations of 8.2+/-9.2 (SD) ng MBT L(-1), 3.3+/-3.0 ng DBT L(-1) and 9.0+/-7.0 ng TBT L(-1). Among 41 stations situated on coastal lines, a sufficient number of Caprella organisms for chemical analysis could be collected from only 16 stations. The butyltin concentrations in seawater and Caprella samples from Uwa Sea and Uranouchi Bay, in which the dominant industry in both waters is aquaculture, showed significantly higher than or no significant differences from those samples from the western part of Seto Inland Sea, a major heavy-industry area in Japan. As the TBT concentration in seawater increased, the number of Caprella organisms collected decreased. The mean TBT concentration among the seawater samples was above the estimated lowest observable effect concentration (LOEC) that reduces the survival rate of Caprella danilevskii. Thus, the present study indicates that TBT is still a potential ecological hazard to the survival of marine invertebrates inhabiting coasts along western Japan, even 11 years after the partial ban on TBT usage was implemented.