[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: We subjected edible parts of Lateolabrax japonicus and three related species collected from western Japan in the period 2007–2012 to congener-specific concentration analysis of PCBs using high-resolution gas chromatography/high-resolution mass spectrometry (HRGC/HRMS). PCBs ranged from 1 ng/g wet wt in Lateolabrax sp. A aquacultured in Ehime to 80 ng/g wet wt in L. japonicus from Hyogo (facing the Seto Inland Sea). Although eutrophication of the Seto Inland Sea is almost homogenous, high PCB concentrations were restricted to the eastern sector. In most of the fish, penta- to hepta-chlorinated congeners were dominant. The low PCB concentrations measured in aquacultured seabass from Ehime might be related to the provision of low-contaminant feeds. The Toxic Equivalent (TEQ) of dioxin-like PCBs ranged from 0.1 to 1.4 pg/g wet wt, values that are within the “safe levels for human-consumption criteria” used by the Japanese government.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: We determined concentrations of 23 trace elements (TEs), and stable carbon and nitrogen isotope (δ(13)C and δ(15)N) signatures in barramundi (Lates calcarifer) specimens collected along the coast of Vietnam in the Northern (NCZ), Central (CCZ) and Southern (SCZ) zones in the period 2007-2010. A combination of δ(13)C and δ(15)N signatures provided insight into ontogenetic shifts in barramundi foraging choices. There were clear zone-dependent differences in Mn, As, Sr and Tl concentrations; levels of Tl were highest in the NCZ, As in the CCZ, and Mn and Sr in the SCZ. Lowest concentrations of Rb occurred in the NCZ, Bi was lowest in the CCZ, and Cd and Cs were lowest in the SCZ. δ(15)N values significantly increased with increasing Zn, Se, Sn and Cs. Concentrations of TEs in barramundi from Vietnam were below worldwide guidelines for human consumption.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: We collected two subspecies of masu salmon: Oncorhynchus masou masou from four localities (southern Sea of Japan northward to Hokkaido) and O. masou ishikawae from upstream from Ise Bay close to a heavy industrial area. All 209 PCB congeners were analyzed using HRGC/HRMS. PCA ordination of congener concentrations divided data into three groups: (i) ssp. masou from Hokkaido, (ii) ssp. masou from the other regions and (iii) ssp. ishikawae. The highest ∑ PCB concentration (40.39ng/wet wt) was in ssp. ishikawae followed by ssp. masou from southern waters; however the TEQdioxin-like PCBs was highest in ssp. masou from southern water (1.96pg-TEQdioxin-like PCBs/g wet wt.) due to the high proportion of congener #126 in its complement (#126 has the highest toxic equivalency factor among congeners). There is likely a contamination source offshore in the southern Sea of Japan and/or along the migratory route of ssp. masou.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Caprella californica Stimpson, 1857 [sensu lato] is one of the dominant
species of Caprella spp. (Crustacea: Amphipoda) along the Pacific coast
of Mexico to Canada and Japan to Hong Kong, China, and recently widely
reported from the Australian coasts. Detailed morphological comparison
of C. californica [sensu lato] collected from California and the Uwa
Sea, Japan, revealed several diagnostic differences, including: (1) the
body somites of the former are more slender than those of the latter;
(2) in the male of the former, head possesses an anteriorly curved
dorsal projection, while in the latter, head possesses a straight,
forward-pointing dorsal projection; (3) in the former, pereonite 5 is
longer than pereonites 3 and 4, while in the latter, pereonite 5 is the
same length as pereonite 3; (4) in the male of the former, propodus of
gnathopod 2 has a small apical rectangular projection, while in the
latter, the corresponding margin has a large round projection; and (5)
in the former, pereopod 7 is slender with the merus and propodus
subequal, while pereopod 7 in the latter is robust with the merus
shorter than propodus. These differences are indications of species
level differences. Thus, we propose Caprella scauroides Mayer, 1903 to a
species level for the Japanese C. californica [sensu lato]. A detailed
description with illustrations of C. californica [sensu stricto] and C.
scauroides is provided.
Helgoland Marine Research 06/2013; 67(2):371-381. DOI:10.1007/s10152-012-0329-9 · 1.36 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: By field sampling and laboratory experiments we compared the mechanisms by which polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) are biomagnified. We measured PBDEs and PCBs, together with stable carbon and nitrogen isotopes as an index of trophic level, in low-trophic-level organisms collected from a coastal area in Tokyo Bay. PBDEs were biomagnified to a lesser degree than PCBs. The more hydrophobic congeners of each were biomagnified more. However, the depletion of BDE congeners BDE99 and BDE153 from fish was suggested. To study congener-specific biotransformation of halogenated compounds, we conducted an in vitro experiment using hepatic microsomes of two species of fish and five BDE congeners (BDE47, 99, 100, 153, and 154) and five CB congeners with the same substitution positions as the PBDEs. BDE99 and 153 were partially debrominated, but BDE47 and 154 were not debrominated. This congener-specific debromination is consistent with the field results. Both in vitro and field results suggested selective debromination at the meta position. The CB congeners were not transformed in vitro. This result is also consistent with the field results, that PCBs were more biomagnified than PBDEs. We conclude that metabolizability is an important factor in the biomagnification of chemicals, but other factors must be responsible for the lower biomagnification of PBDEs in natural ecosystems.
Science of The Total Environment 02/2013; 449C:401-409. DOI:10.1016/j.scitotenv.2013.01.092 · 4.10 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Microtripus tinggiensis, a new genus and species (Amphipoda: Caprellidea: Phtisicidae), was discovered in the interstitial benthos from Pulau Tinggi, an island in the East Johor Islands Archipelago (EJIA). Microtripus tinggiensis is distinct in its reduced pereopods 3–5 (1-articulate pereopods 3, 4 and 3-articulate pereopod 5). The new genus Microtripus most closely resembles Perotripus Dougherty & Steinberg, 1953 in its elongated body segments, shorter antennae 1 and 2 and gills on pereonites 2–4 but differs from the latter by its 3-articulate flagellum of antenna 1 and 1-articulate, vestigial pereopod 3.
Proceedings of the Biological Society of Washington 05/2012; 125(3):241-251. DOI:10.2988/11-40.1 · 0.57 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: This study measured concentrations of 21 trace elements in whole soft tissue of the blood cockle Anadara spp., which is a common food for local people, collected along the coast of Vietnam. Results showed that concentrations of As, Sr, Mo, Sn, and Pb in cockles collected from Khanh Hoa Province in the Central Coastal Zone (CCZ) had higher values than those from the other regions, while cockles collected from the Mekong River Delta (MRD) showed the highest concentrations of Hg. Regional differences in trace element concentrations of the cockle may be due to differences in human activities, i.e., shipyards in the CCZ and agriculture in the MRD. Trace element concentrations measured in the soft tissues of blood cockles investigated here were within safe levels for human consumption following criteria by the European Commission (EC) and the United States Food and Drug Agency, but several specimens had Cd levels exceeding the EC guidelines of 1 μg/g wet weight. The estimated target hazard quotients for trace elements via consuming bivalves were <1, indicating that the cumulative noncarcinogenic risk was completely insignificant. However, the estimated target cancer risk values by assumed inorganic As concentrations seem to implicate consumption of these cockles as posing potential human health concerns.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: We performed stable carbon and nitrogen-guided analyses of biomagnification profiles of arsenic (As) species, including total As, lipid-soluble As, eight water-soluble As compounds (arsenobetaine (AB), arsenocholine (AC), tetramethylarsonium ion (TETRA), trimethylarsine oxide (TMAO), dimethylarsinic acid (DMA), monomethylarsonic acid (MMA), arsenate (As[V]), and arsenite (As[III])), and non-extracted As in a tropical mangrove ecosystem in the Ba Ria Vung Tau, South Vietnam. Arsenobetaine was the predominant As species (65-96% of water-soluble As). Simple linear regression slopes of log-transformed concentrations of total As, As fractions or individual As compounds on stable nitrogen isotopic ratio (δ15N) values are regarded as indices of biomagnification. In this ecosystem, lipid-soluble As (slope, 0.130) and AB (slope, 0.108) were significantly biomagnified through the food web; total As and other water-soluble As compounds were not. To our knowledge, this is one of the first reports on biomagnification profiles of As compounds from a tropical mangrove ecosystem.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The dominant coastal bivalve in Vietnam, hard clams Meretrix spp., collected from the South Key Economic Zone (SKEZ), the Mekong River Delta, and the Central Coastal Zone (CCZ) were
analyzed for 21 trace elements. Comparison of the results from the three regions indicated that levels of most of the trace
elements, especially As, Mo, Sn, and Pb, were highest in the samples collected from the CCZ, whereas most of the trace elements
were found to be present at relatively low levels in samples from the SKEZ. The high concentrations of these trace elements
in the CCZ, a sparsely populated region with less human activity than the other two regions, were believed to have originated
from industrial waste produced in a shipyard. Although the trace element concentrations in the bivalves were within safe levels
for human-consumption criteria reported by the United State Food and Drug Administration and the European Commission, estimation
of cancer risk based on As concentration indicates that the hard clams from the CCZ pose a high risk to consumers. Thus, the
industrial waste produced in the less densely populated region might increase the health risk to consumers via the contamination
of bivalves commonly used as food.
-Shipyard waste-Trace element-Vietnam
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Organisms collected from a coastal ecosystem in Japan were analyzed for concentrations of 205 polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) congeners; analyses were guided by delta(13)C and delta(15)N measurements. The regression slopes of log PCB concentration on delta(15)N value are regarded as indices of biomagnification in food webs. The slope (wet weight basis) of SigmaPCBs was +0.104; the slope (lipid weight basis) was close to zero. Lipid content increased from 0.06% in a primary producer to 8.32% in the highest trophic level consumer. Hence, biomagnification of SigmaPCBs (wet weight basis) can be attributed to increase of lipid content through the food web. For most of the congeners, the slopes (wet weight basis) exceeded those (lipid weight basis) by ca. 0.10. Slopes increased with increasing PCB chlorination levels between chlorine numbers 1-6; slopes decreased at higher chlorination levels. This decrease is likely caused by a decrease in membrane permeability with increasing molecular weight.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Bivalves, crabs, fishes, seawater, and sediment collected from the inner part of Tokyo Bay, Japan, were measured for 20 polybrominated diphenyl ether (PBDE) and 5 polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) congeners. To determine the trophic levels of the organisms, carbon and nitrogen stable isotope ratios (delta(13)C and delta(15)N) were also measured. Bioconcentration factors of PBDE and PCB congeners increased as the octanol-water partition coefficient (K(ow)) rose to log K(ow)=7, above which they decreased again. Biomagnification of PCBs and several PBDE congeners (BDE47, 99, 100, 153 and 154) up the trophic ladder was confirmed by a positive correlation between their concentrations and delta(15)N. Other PBDE congeners showed a negative or no correlation, suggesting their biotransformation through metabolism. The more hydrophobic congeners of both PBDEs (Br=2-6) and PCBs (Cl=6-9) were biomagnified more. It thus appears that PBDEs are less biomagnified than PCBs.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Biomagnification profiles of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), alkylphenols, and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) from the innermost part of Tokyo Bay, Japan were analyzed using stable carbon (delta(13)C) and nitrogen (delta(15)N) isotope ratios as guides to trophic web structure. delta(15)N analysis indicated that all species of mollusks tested were primary consumers, while decapods and fish were secondary consumers. Higher concentrations of PCBs occurred in decapods and fish than in mollusks. In contrast, concentrations of PAHs and alkylphenols were lower in decapods and fish than in mollusks. Unlike PCBs, whose concentrations largely increased with increasing delta(15)N (i.e. increasing trophic level), all PAHs and alkylphenols analyzed followed a reverse trend. Molecular weights of PAHs are lower than those of PCBs, therefore low membrane permeability caused by large molecular size is an unlikely factor in the "biodilution" of PAHs. Organisms at higher trophic levels may rapidly metabolize PAHs or they may assimilate less of them.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: In order to estimate the nitrogen loading from fish aquaculture facilities, we studied the nitrogen and carbon stable isotope
ratios (δ15N and δ13C, respectively) in the brown macroalga Sargassum piluliferum and small amphipod crustaceans Caprella spp., both of which are lower trophic level biota found at fish and pearl oyster aquaculture facilities situated along the
eastern coast of the Uwa Sea, Japan. This coastal region is one of the least populated areas along the Japanese coast. The
mean concentrations of chlorophyll a, dissolved inorganic nitrogen, dissolved inorganic phosphate, and dissolved silicate-Si were 1.5- to 2-fold higher in samples
from the fish aquaculture facilities than in those from the pearl oyster aquaculture facilities, indicating that the fish
aquaculture facilities were associated with nitrogen loading. The δ15N abundance level in S.
piluliferum collected from the fish aquaculture facilities was significantly higher (1.3‰) than that in macroalga collected at the pearl
oyster aquaculture facilities, whereas that in Caprella spp., primary consumers, was only slightly higher (0.3‰). The feeding style of Caprella spp., which depends on suspended particulate organic matter and attached microalgae, is considered to the primary causal
factor for the lack of a significant difference in δ15N abundance level between the two types of aquaculture facilities. Based on these results, we conclude that S.
piluliferum found in close proximity of aquaculture facilities is a suitable organism for monitoring nitrogen loading from fish aquaculture
facilities, through the analysis of δ15N.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The measurement of organotins in the various biotas of coastal food webs with stable nitrogen isotope ratios (delta(15)N), which increase 3.4 per thousand per trophic level, can provide a biomagnification profile of organotins through food web. In this study, various biological samples were collected from three localities in Western Japan between 2002 and 2003 for analyses. Tributyltin (TBT) and triphenyltin (TPT) were still detected with a maximum of 99.5 and 8.7 ng wet weight g(-1), respectively. Unlike TBT, significant biomagnification of TPT through the food web (expressed by delta(15)N) was found in all three localities. The log transformed octanol-water partition coefficient (log K(ow)) of TPT of 2.11-3.43 was overlapped by, but was slightly lower than, that of TBT of 3.70-4.70. Thus, this study demonstrates that although these chemicals have a log K(ow) lower than 5, at least TPT undergoes significant biomagnification through the food web.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Recent studies on global climate change report that increase in seawater temperature leads to coastal ecosystem change, including
coral bleaching in the tropic. In order to assess the effect of increased seawater temperature on a temperate coastal ecosystem,
we studied the inter-annual variation in productivity of Laminaria japonica using long-term oceanographic observations for the Uwa Sea, southern Japan. The annual productivity estimates for L. japonica were 2.7 ± 2.5 (mean ± SD) kg wet wt. m−1 (length of rope) (2003/2004), 1.0 ± 0.6kg wet wt. m−1 (2004/2005) and 12.1 ± 12.5kg wet wt. m−1 (2005/2006). Our previous study using the same methodology at the same locality reported that the productivity was estimated
for the 2001/2002 (33.3 ± 15.2kg wet wt. m−1) and 2002/2003 (34.0 ± 8.7kg wet wt. m−1) seasons. Productivity in 2003/2004 and 2004/2005 was significantly lower than in years 2001/2002, 2002/2003 and 2005/2006.
A comparison of oceanographic conditions among the 5years revealed the presence of threshold seawater temperature effects.
When the average seawater temperature during the first 45days of each experiment exceeded 15.5°C, productivity was reduced
to about 10 % of that in cooler years. Moreover the analysis of growth and erosion rates indicates that when the seawater
temperature was over 17.5°C, erosion rate exceeded growth rate. Thus, an increase of seawater temperature of just 1°C during
winter drastically reduces the productivity of L. japonica in the Uwa Sea.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The present study elucidated the biomagnification profiles of persistent organic pollutants (POPs) through a tropical aquatic food web of Vietnam based on trophic characterization using stable nitrogen analysis. Various biological samples collected from the main stream of the Mekong Delta were provided for the analysis for both POPs, and stable nitrogen and carbon isotope ratios. Of the POPs analyzed, dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane and its metabolites (DDTs) were the predominant contaminants with concentrations ranging from 0.058 to 12 ng/g wet weight, followed by polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) at 0.017-8.9 ng/g, chlordane compounds (CHLs) at 0.0043-0.76 ng/g, tris-4-chlorophenyl methane (TCPMe) at N.D.-0.26 ng/g, hexachlorocyclohexane isomers (HCHs) at N.D.-0.20 ng/g and hexachlorobenzene (HCB) at 0.0021-0.096 ng/g. Significant positive increases of concentrations in DDTs, CHLs, and TCPMe against the stable nitrogen ratio (delta(15)N) were detected, while, concentrations of HCHs and HCB showed no significant increase. The slopes of the regression equations between the log-transformed concentrations of these POPs and delta(15)N were used as indices of biomagnification. The slopes of the POPs for which positive biomagnification was detected ranged from 0.149 to 0.177 on a wet weight basis. The slopes of DDTs and CHLs were less than those reported for a marine food web of the Arctic Ocean, indicating that less biomagnification had occurred in the tropical food web. Of the isomers of CHLs, unlike the studies of the Arctic Ocean, oxychlordane did not undergo significant biomagnification through the food web of the Mekong Delta. This difference is considered to be due to a lack of marine mammals, which might metabolize cis- and trans-chlordane to oxychlordane, in the Mekong Delta ecosystem. The biomagnification profile of TCPMe is reported for the first time in the present study.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: In the present study, we report the concentrations of 21 trace elements (V, Cr, Mn, Co, Cu, Zn, As, Se, Rb, Sr, Mo, Ag, Cd, Sn, Sb, Cs, Ba, Hg, Tl, Pb, and Bi), as well as the results of the analysis of stable carbon and nitrogen isotopes, of the various biota that make up the food web in the main stream of the Mekong Delta near Can Tho, South Vietnam. A significant trophic level-dependent increase was found in concentrations of Se, Rb, and Hg with increasing delta(15)N, indicating that an overall biomagnification of these elements occurred. However, the increase of Hg concentration per trophic level was lower than in previous studies. In contrast, the concentration of Mn showed an opposite trend in the food web of the Mekong Delta. In addition to these overall trends, the present study revealed that the biomagnification profiles of trace metals differ between crustaceans and fishes; concentrations of Mn, Cu, Zn, As, Sr, Mo, Ag, Cd, Sb, Cs, Ba, Tl, and Pb were significantly higher in crustaceans, whereas fishes showed higher concentrations of Cr, Rb, and Hg (trophic level determined by delta(15)N). The differences in the biomagnification profile between the major taxa might be attributed to differences in metal accumulation and in detoxification abilities such as possessing a metal-binding protein, e.g., metallothionein (MT).
Archives of Environmental Contamination and Toxicology 05/2008; 54(3):504-15. DOI:10.1007/s00244-007-9058-5 · 1.90 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Accumulation profiles of 22 trace elements in abdominal muscle, abdominal exoskeleton and the hepatopancreas of the giant river prawn Macrobrachium rosenbergii were analyzed. The giant river prawn is an indigenous freshwater species from South Vietnam, and is cultured commercially and fished in the wild. Samples were collected from Ho Chi Minh City and the surrounding area (SKEZ, South Key Economic Zone), and from the Mekong River Delta between 2003 and 2005. Highest accumulations of essential (Cu, Se and Mo) and toxic (As, Ag, Cd and Hg) elements were observed in hepatopancreatic tissue, except for Mn, Sr, Sn, Ba and V in the exoskeleton and Rb and Cs in muscle tissue. Spatial differences showed concentrations of Cs and Pb in muscle and Sr in exoskeletons from the SKEZ were higher than those from the Mekong River Delta. The opposite trend was observed for Cr, Se and Sb in muscle, Mo, Sb and Tl in exoskeleton, and Se, Hg, Mo, Cd, Sb, Tl and Bi in the hepatopancreas. These differences in trace element concentrations in prawns likely reflect differences in industrialization and human activities between the two regions of South Vietnam.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Hatched juveniles of Caprella danilevskii (Crustacea: Amphipoda) were exposed to one of two concentrations of tributyltin (TBT) (1.1 and 10.7 ng TBTL(-1)) for 49 d at 20 degrees C. These concentrations are near or below ambient levels in seawater. In both treatments and control, the survival rate was 100% at maturation, and >85% at the end of the experiments. Females reached maturation at 20 (median) to 21.5d at instar VII, and repeated spawning 4-5 times during the experiment. The total number of juveniles per female decreased significantly from 39.5 in the control to 24.5 and 17.5 in 1.1 ng L(-1) and 10.7 ng L(-1) treatments, respectively. An earlier study reported that as the TBT concentration in seawater increased from a 0-10 ng L(-1) regime to a 10-20 ng L(-1) regime, the number of stations where Caprella spp. could be collected decreased along the coast of the Seto Inland Sea, of Japan. Thus, the present study indicates the possibility that the extremely low concentration of TBT measured in Japanese waters after 2000 lead to a reduction in reproductive success of Caprella spp.