[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Kruppel-like factor 6 (KLF6) is a tumor suppressor gene that is functionally inactivated in human cancer by loss of heterozygosity, somatic mutation, decreased expression, and increased alternative splicing into an oncogenic splice variant, KLF6-SV1. Here we show that increased expression of KLF6-SV1 is associated with decreased survival in patients with lung adenocarcinoma. In addition, KLF6-SV1 is a novel antiapoptotic protein in lung cancer cell lines, and targeted reduction of KLF6-SV1 using siRNA induces apoptosis both alone and in combination with the chemotherapeutic drug cisplatin. Together, these findings highlight a critical role for KLF6-SV1 in lung cancer, and show a potential novel therapeutic strategy for the treatment of lung cancer.
Cancer Research 03/2008; 68(4):965-70. · 8.65 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The Krüppel-like transcription factor (KLF6) gene is a tumor suppressor gene (TSG) reported to be dysregulated and inactivated through loss of heterozygosity (LOH) and/or somatic mutation in a number of major human cancers. The aim of the present study was to examine KLF6 gene status and expression in head and neck squamous cell carcinomas (HNSCC). A collection of 81 well-characterized oral and oropharyngeal HNSCC samples were analyzed for evidence of KLF6 LOH and mutation and differences in expression patterns between normal and cancerous tissues and these findings were correlated with clinicopathological variables. We also tested the effect of KLF6 inhibition in HNSCC cell lines on proliferation and p21 expression. LOH was found in approximately 30% of cases and was strongly correlated with cancer progression, tumor recurrence and decreased patient survival. Overall, median survival of patients with LOH was less than half (19 vs. 41 months, p=0.036, stratified on stage) than those without loss. Risk of death for patients with LOH was 8 times greater independent of tumor size, nodal status, tobacco smoking or treatment modality (HR 7.89, 95% CI: 1.9-32.4). Subsequent analyses revealed KLF6 mutations in only 2 of 20 samples, but altered subcellular protein localization in 64% of tumors. Targeted stable reduction of KLF6 in HNSCC cell lines increased cellular proliferation while decreasing p21 expression. Taken together, these findings suggest that KLF6 LOH represents a clinically-relevant biomarker predicting patient survival and tumor recurrence and that dysregulation of KLF6 function plays an important role in HNSCC progression.
International Journal of Cancer 12/2007; 121(9):1976-83. · 6.20 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Glioblastoma multiforme (GBM) is the most common and aggressive primary brain tumor and possesses a high incidence of 10p loss. The KLF6 (Kruppel-like transcription factor) tumor suppressor gene on 10p15 is inactivated by loss of heterozygosity (LOH) and/or somatic mutation in a number of human cancers and forced expression of KLF6 in GBM lines inhibits their growth and transformation. In addition, increased expression of its alternatively spliced, cytoplasmic isoform KLF6-SV1 has now been shown to play a role in cancer pathogenesis. On the basis of these findings we examined the role of KLF6 and KLF6-SV1 in the development and progression of GBM. LOH analysis of 17 primary GBM patient samples using KLF6-specific microsatellite markers revealed that 88.2% (15/17) had LOH of the KLF6 locus. Interestingly, no KLF6 somatic mutations were identified. RNA analysis revealed concomitant decreases in all primary GBM tumors (n = 11) by approximately 80% in KLF6 expression (p < 0.001) coupled with increased KLF6-SV1 expression (p < 0.001) when compared to normal astrocytes. To determine the biological relevance of these findings, we examined the effect of KLF6 expression and KLF6-SV1 knockdown in A235 and CRL2020 cell lines. Reconstitution of KLF6 decreased cell proliferation by almost 50%, whereas targeted KLF6 reduction increased cell proliferation 2.5-4.5 fold. Conversely, targeted KLF6-SV1 reduction decreased cell proliferation by 50%. Taken together, our findings demonstrate that KLF6 allelic imbalance and decreased KLF6 and increased KLF6-SV1 expression are common findings in primary GBM tumors, and these changes have antagonistic effects on the regulation of cellular proliferation in GBM cell lines.
International Journal of Cancer 09/2007; 121(6):1390-5. · 6.20 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The 'vanishing bone' or inherited osteolysis/arthritis syndromes represent a heterogeneous group of skeletal disorders characterized by mineralization defects of affected bones and joints. Differing in anatomical distribution, severity and associated syndromic features, gene identification in each 'vanishing bone' disorder should provide unique insights into genetic/molecular pathways contributing to the overall control of skeletal growth and development. We previously described and then demonstrated that the novel autosomal recessive osteolysis/arthritis syndrome, multicentric osteolysis with arthritis (MOA) (MIM #605156), was caused by inactivating mutations in the MMP2 gene [Al Aqeel, A., Al Sewairi, W., Edress, B., Gorlin, R.J., Desnick, R.J. and Martignetti, J.A. (2000) Inherited multicentric osteolysis with arthritis: A variant resembling Torg syndrome in a Saudi family. Am. J. Med. Genet., 93, 11-18.]. These in vivo results were counterintuitive and unexpected since previous in vitro studies suggested that MMP-2 overexpression and increased activity, not deficiency, would result in the bone and joint features of MOA. The apparent lack of a murine model [Itoh, T., Ikeda, T., Gomi, H., Nakao, S., Suzuki, T. and Itohara, S. (1997) Unaltered secretion of beta-amyloid precursor protein in gelatinase A (matrix metalloproteinase 2)-deficient mice. J. Biol. Chem., 272, 22389-22392.] has hindered studies on disease pathogenesis and, more fundamentally, in addressing the paradox of how functional loss of a single proteolytic enzyme results in an apparent increase in bone loss. Here, we report that Mmp2-/- mice display attenuated features of human MOA including progressive loss of bone mineral density, articular cartilage destruction and abnormal long bone and craniofacial development. Moreover, these changes are associated with markedly and developmentally restricted decreases in osteoblast and osteoclast numbers in vivo. Mmp2-/- mice have approximately 50% fewer osteoblasts and osteoclasts than control littermates at 4 days of life but these differences have nearly resolved by 4 weeks of age. In addition, despite normal cell numbers in vivo at 8 weeks of life, Mmp2-/- bone marrow cells are unable to effectively support osteoblast and osteoclast growth and differentiation in culture. Targeted inhibition of MMP-2 using siRNA in human SaOS2 and murine MC3T3 osteoblast cell lines resulted in decreased cell proliferation rates. Taken together, our findings suggest that MMP-2 plays a direct role in early skeletal development and bone cell growth and proliferation. Thus, Mmp2-/- mice provide a valuable biological resource for studying the pathophysiological mechanisms underlying the human disease and defining the in vivo physiological role of MMP-2.
Human Molecular Genetics 05/2007; 16(9):1113-23. · 7.69 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) has the most rapidly rising cancer incidence in the US and Europe. The KLF6 tumor suppressor is frequently inactivated in HCC by loss-of-heterozygosity (LOH) and/or mutation.
Here we have analyzed 33 HBV- and 40 HCV-related HCCs for mRNA expression of wildtype KLF6 (wtKLF6) as well as the KLF6 variant 1 (SV1), a truncated, growth-promoting variant that antagonizes wtKLF6 function. The HCV-related tumors analyzed represented the full histologic spectrum from cirrhosis and dysplasia to metastatic cancer.
Expression of KLF6 mRNA is decreased in 73% of HBV-associated HCCs compared to matched surrounding tissue (ST), with reductions of approximately 80% in one-third of the patients. KLF6 mRNA expression is also reduced in dysplastic nodules from patients with HCV compared to cirrhotic livers (p<0.005), with an additional, marked decrease in the very advanced, metastatic stage (p<0.05). An increased ratio of KLF6SV1/wt KLF6 is present in a subset (6/33, 18%) of the HBV-related HCCs compared to matched ST. Reconstituting KLF6 in HepG2 cells by retroviral infection decreased proliferation and related markers including cyclin D1 and beta-catenin, increased cellular differentiation based on induction of albumin, E-cadherin, and decreased alpha fetoprotein.
We conclude that reduced KLF6 expression is common in both HBV- and HCV-related HCCs and occurs at critical stages during cancer progression. Effects of KLF6 are attributable to regulation of genes controlling hepatocyte growth and differentiation.
Journal of Hepatology 05/2007; 46(4):645-54. · 9.86 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Torg-Winchester syndrome, which includes nodular arthropathy with osteolysis (OMIM 605156), is a condition associated with generalized osteoporosis. On the basis of usefulness of pamidronate in conditions with osteoporosis, we hypothesized that the drug will improve osteolysis and/or osteoporosis in this condition. After obtaining informed consent from the parents, two siblings affected with Torg-Winchester syndrome were administered intravenous pamidronate over a period of 3 years. The clinical status was monitored along with the bone mineral density (using radiographs and X-ray densitometry) to assess the effect of the drug. Clinically there was no improvement. Although the bone mineral density improved in axial skeleton, osteoporosis and osteolysis continued to worsen in the appendicular skeleton. We conclude that pamidronate does not improve peripheral osteolysis in multicentric osteolysis and nodular arthropathy caused by mutation in matrix metalloproteinase 2 gene.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Juvenile hyaline fibromatosis (JHF) is a rare condition of childhood characterized by deposition of an amorphous substance of unclear nature in the dermis and subcutaneous tissues. The clinical picture includes painful skin lesions, leading to impairment of movements and severe disabilities. The allelic disease, infantile systemic hyalinosis (ISH), clinically overlaps with JHF but shows a worse picture with visceral involvement. Recently, germline mutations in the capillary morphogenesis gene-2 (CMG2) were found to be responsible for both diseases. Here, we present a case with classical clinicopathologic findings of JHF and features of ISH, and we describe a novel mutation in CMG2.
American Journal of Dermatopathology 03/2007; 29(1):99-103. · 1.42 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: We sought to further characterize the phenotype and facilitate clinical recognition of systemic hyalinosis in children who present with chronic pain and progressive contractures in early childhood.
We report on 3 children who presented in infancy with symptoms and signs that initially were not recognized to be those of systemic hyalinosis. Although the children were evaluated for a variety of problems, including lysosomal storage disorders and nonaccidental trauma, all eventually underwent genetic analysis of the anthrax toxin receptor 2 gene (ANTRX2) and were diagnosed as having systemic hyalinosis.
We describe the recognizable but variable clinical phenotype of systemic hyalinosis and associated mutations in ANTRX2. Affected individuals presented in early infancy with severe pain and progressive contractures. Initial diagnostic evaluations were unrevealing; however, hyperpigmented skin over bony prominences, skin nodules, and fleshy perianal masses suggested a diagnosis of systemic hyalinosis. ANTRX2 analysis confirmed the diagnosis in each case. Although 2 of the children died in infancy as a result of complications of chronic diarrhea, the third child has survived into midchildhood. These data suggest that some ANTRX2 mutations, such as that identified in the long-term survivor, may be associated with a less severe course of disease.
Although some aspects of systemic hyalinosis may resemble lysosomal storage disorders, the clinical features of systemic hyalinosis are distinctive, and detection of an ANTRX2 mutation can confirm the diagnosis. Early recognition of affected individuals should allow for aggressive pain control and expectant management of the multiple associated problems, including gastrointestinal dysfunction.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: We investigated the role of the KLF6 tumor suppressor gene and its alternatively spliced isoform KLF6-SV1 in epithelial ovarian cancer (EOC).
We first analyzed tumors from 68 females with EOC for KLF6 gene inactivation using fluorescent loss of heterozygosity (LOH) analysis and direct DNA sequencing and then defined changes in KLF6 and KLF6-SV1 expression levels by quantitative real-time PCR. We then directly tested the effect of KLF6 and KLF6-SV1 inhibition in SKOV-3 stable cell lines on cellular invasion and proliferation in culture and tumor growth, i.p. dissemination, ascites production, and angiogenesis in vivo using BALB/c nu/nu mice. All statistical tests were two sided.
LOH was present in 59% of samples in a cell type-specific manner, highest in serous (72%) and endometrioid (75%) subtypes, but absent in clear cell tumors. LOH was significantly correlated with tumor stage and grade. In addition, KLF6 expression was decreased in tumors when compared with ovarian surface epithelial cells. In contrast, KLF6-SV1 expression was increased approximately 5-fold and was associated with increased tumor grade regardless of LOH status. Consistent with these findings, KLF6 silencing increased cellular and tumor growth, angiogenesis, and vascular endothelial growth factor expression, i.p. dissemination, and ascites production. Conversely, KLF6-SV1 down-regulation decreased cell proliferation and invasion and completely suppressed in vivo tumor formation.
Our results show that KLF6 and KLF6-SV1 are associated with key clinical features of EOC and suggest that their therapeutic targeting may alter ovarian cancer growth, progression, and dissemination.
Clinical Cancer Research 07/2006; 12(12):3730-9. · 7.84 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The majority of human prostate cancers arise from the peripheral zone (PZ). Prostate epithelial stem cells have been localized to the basal epithelial cell compartment. In addition, basal cells have been shown to maintain luminal epithelial cell differentiation and may mediate signals between the stromal and luminal cell compartments. Therefore, the study of adult prostate basal cells derived from different prostate zones may give insights into the mechanisms underlying normal and abnormal prostate growth. We herein compare the basal and sex steroid-stimulated expression and activity of several genes/proteins that are known to be critical in prostate cancer development in primary cultures of basal cells derived from the transition zone (TZ) and PZ of prostatectomy specimens. Our results demonstrate that prostate basal cells derived from the PZ versus TZ are more viable in culture, particularly in response to sex steroid addition. PZ cells exhibit higher telomerase activity and increased expression levels of androgen receptor, the anti-apoptotic protein bcl-2, and the dominant-negative splice variant of Kruppel-like Factor 6. PZ cells have lower basal expression levels of estrogen receptor-beta, the pro-apoptotic protein Bax, and cell-cycle inhibitor proteins (p53, p21(waf1/Cip1)). Finally, we demonstrate divergent responses to sex hormones in the two basal cell populations. The gene expression pattern in the PZ cells may partially explain the predominance of prostate cancer development in this region.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Acid ceramidase (AC; E.C.220.127.116.11) activity is required to hydrolyze ceramide into sphingosine. An inherited deficiency of this enzymatic activity leads to the lipid storage disorder, Farber Lipogranulomatosis. Aberrant AC activity also has been demonstrated in several human cancers. We have characterized a 1931-bp putative promoter region of the murine AC gene by Luciferase reporter assays, electrophoretic mobility shift assays, and mutational analysis. A 143-bp sequence essential for AC promoter activity was found, and mobility shift and super-shift experiments using nuclear extracts of NIH3T3 cells demonstrated that a 34-bp, GC-rich sub-region could bind the transcription factors KLF6, Sp1, and AP2. Transient over-expression of KLF6 in NIH3T3 cells significantly increased the activity of a co-transfected Luciferase reporter construct containing the wild-type AC promoter, and a positive correlation was observed between AC and KFL6 RNA and protein expression in two different human cancer cell lines in which KLF6 expression was either "knocked-down" by RNAi or increased by retroviral-mediated gene transfer. Northern blot analysis also revealed a correlation of KLF6 and AC gene expression in various human tissues. These results provide the first characterization of the AC promoter from any species and demonstrate that KLF6 is one transcription factor involved in the regulation of AC gene expression.
Biochimica et Biophysica Acta 01/2006; 1732(1-3):82-7. · 4.66 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Krüppel-like factor 6 (KLF6) is a zinc finger transcription factor and tumor suppressor that is inactivated in a number of human cancers by mutation, allelic loss, and/or promoter methylation. A key mechanism of growth inhibition by wild-type KLF6 is through p53-independent up-regulation of p21(WAF1/cip1) (CDKN1A), which is abrogated in several tumor-derived mutants. Here we show by chromatin immunoprecipitation that transactivation of p21(WAF1/cip1) by KLF6 occurs through its direct recruitment to the p21(WAF1/cip1) promoter and requires acetylation by histone acetyltransferase activity of either cyclic AMP-responsive element binding protein-binding protein or p300/CBP-associated factor. Direct lysine acetylation of KLF6 peptides can be shown by mass spectrometry. A single lysine-to-arginine point mutation (K209R) derived from prostate cancer reduces acetylation of KLF6 and abrogates its capacity to up-regulate endogenous p21(WAF1/cip1) and reduce cell proliferation. These data indicate that acetylation may regulate KLF6 function, and its loss in some tumor-derived mutants could contribute to its failure to suppress growth in prostate cancer.
Cancer Research 11/2005; 65(20):9216-25. · 8.65 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Prostate cancer is a leading cause of cancer death in men. Risk prognostication, treatment stratification, and the development of rational therapeutic strategies lag because the molecular mechanisms underlying the initiation and progression from primary to metastatic disease are unknown. Multiple lines of evidence now suggest that KLF6 is a key prostate cancer tumor suppressor gene including loss and/or mutation in prostate cancer tumors and cell lines and decreased KLF6 expression levels in recurrent prostate cancer samples. Most recently, we identified a common KLF6 germ line single nucleotide polymorphism that is associated with an increased relative risk of prostate cancer and the increased production of three alternatively spliced, dominant-negative KLF6 isoforms. Here we show that although wild-type KLF6 (wtKLF6) acts as a classic tumor suppressor, the single nucleotide polymorphism-increased splice isoform, KLF6 SV1, displays a markedly opposite effect on cell proliferation, colony formation, and invasion. In addition, whereas wtKLF6 knockdown increases tumor growth in nude mice >2-fold, short interfering RNA-mediated KLF6 SV1 inhibition reduces growth by approximately 50% and decreases the expression of a number of growth- and angiogenesis-related proteins. Together, these findings begin to highlight a dynamic and functional antagonism between wtKLF6 and its splice variant KLF6 SV1 in tumor growth and dissemination.
Cancer Research 07/2005; 65(13):5761-8. · 8.65 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: To determine the potential immediate applicability of tumor necrosis factor-related apoptosis-inducing ligand receptor 1 (TRAIL-R1) and TRAIL-R2, the apoptotic forms of TRAIL-Rs, for preclinical testing.
Head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC) tumors were studied for TRAIL-R1 and TRAIL-R2 expression by immunohistochemical analysis. In addition, matched tumor and peripheral blood DNA samples were screened for 2 known TRAIL-R1 coding single nucleotide polymorphisms (C626G and G422A). Subjects Tumor samples taken from 43 patients (37 samples for immunohistochemical analysis and 6 additional ones included for polymorphism analysis).
The expression of TRAIL-R1 and TRAIL-R2 and the presence of the TRAIL-R1 polymorphisms C626G and G422A.
Fewer than 25% of HNSCC tumor cells expressed TRAIL-R1 and TRAIL-R2. Surrounding tumor-infiltrating polymorphonuclear cells expressed TRAIL-R1 and TRAIL-R2 in 12 (32%) and 14 (38%) of cases, respectively. The TRAIL-R1 polymorphisms C626G and G422A were present in 36 (88%) and 33 (89%) cancer cases, respectively. Compared with control groups from another study, these polymorphism frequencies were statistically significant (P = .01 and .003, respectively).
TRAIL-R expression was detected in less than half of the tumor specimens studied but not in any surrounding normal tissue and was found in a higher frequency on tumor-infiltrating polymorphonuclear cells than on tumor cells. These findings support the idea that the presence of TRAIL-Rs on some HNSCC tumors may make them more susceptible to apoptosis, and they also suggest that TRAIL-R-associated mechanisms may result in immune-modulatory effects on tumor-infiltrating polymorphonuclear cells. Furthermore, the significant association of somatic TRAIL-R1 genetic polymorphisms in this sample of patients with HNSCC suggests a potential association between constitutive TRAIL-R1 polymorphisms and development of HNSCC. Defining TRAIL-R expression and genetic polymorphisms in HNSCC represents the first step in examining TRAIL-related mechanisms for their potential as therapeutic targets.
Archives of Otolaryngology - Head and Neck Surgery 06/2005; 131(5):407-12. · 1.78 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Prostate cancer is a leading and increasingly prevalent cause of cancer death in men. Whereas family history of disease is one of the strongest prostate cancer risk factors and suggests a hereditary component, the predisposing genetic factors remain unknown. We first showed that KLF6 is a tumor suppressor somatically inactivated in prostate cancer and since then, its functional loss has been further established in prostate cancer cell lines and other human cancers. Wild-type KLF6, but not patient-derived mutants, suppresses cell growth through p53-independent transactivation of p21. Here we show that a germline KLF6 single nucleotide polymorphism, confirmed in a tri-institutional study of 3,411 men, is significantly associated with an increased relative risk of prostate cancer in men, regardless of family history of disease. This prostate cancer-associated allele generates a novel functional SRp40 DNA binding site and increases transcription of three alternatively spliced KLF6 isoforms. The KLF6 variant proteins KLF6-SV1 and KLF6-SV2 are mislocalized to the cytoplasm, antagonize wtKLF6 function, leading to decreased p21 expression and increased cell growth, and are up-regulated in tumor versus normal prostatic tissue. Thus, these results are the first to identify a novel mechanism of self-encoded tumor suppressor gene inactivation and link a relatively common single nucleotide polymorphism to both regulation of alternative splicing and an increased risk in a major human cancer.
Cancer Research 03/2005; 65(4):1213-22. · 8.65 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is a leading cause of cancer death worldwide, reflecting incomplete characterization of underlying mechanisms and lack of early detection. Kruppel-like factor 6 (KLF6) is a ubiquitously expressed zinc finger transcription factor that is deregulated in multiple cancers through loss of heterozygosity (LOH) and/or inactivating somatic mutation. We analyzed the potential role of the KLF6 tumor suppressor gene in 41 patients who had HCC associated with hepatitis C virus (16 patients), hepatitis B virus (12 patients, one of whom was coinfected with hepatitis C virus), and other etiologies (14 patients) by determining the presence of LOH and mutations. Overall, LOH and/or mutations were present in 20 (49%) of 41 tumors. LOH of the KLF6 gene locus was present in 39% of primary HCCs, and the mutational frequency was 15%. LOH and/or mutations were distributed across all etiologies of HCC evaluated, including patients who did not have cirrhosis. Functionally, wild-type KLF6 decreased cellular proliferation of HepG2 cells, while patient-derived mutants did not. In conclusion, we propose that KLF6 is deregulated by loss and/or mutation in HCC, and its inactivation may contribute to pathogenesis in a significant number of these tumors.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The Kruppel-like transcription factor KLF6 is a novel tumor-suppressor gene mutated in a significant fraction of human prostate cancer. It is localized to human chromosome 10p14-15, a region that displays frequent loss of heterozygosity in glioblastoma multiforme (GBM). Indeed, mutations of the KLF6 gene have recently been reported in this tumor type. In this study, we report that the expression of KLF6 is attenuated in human GBM when compared with primary astrocytes. Expression of KLF6 in GBM cells reverts their tumorigenicity both in vitro and in vivo, which is correlated with its transactivation of the p21/CIP1/WAF1 promoter. Additionally, KLF6 inhibits cellular transformation induced by several oncogenes (c-sis/PDGF-B, v-src, H-Ras, and EGFR) that are components of signaling cascades implicated in GBM. Our results provide the first evidence of functional tumor suppression by KFL6, and its loss may contribute to glial tumor progression.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Kruppel-like factor 6 (KLF6) is a ubiquitous zinc finger tumor suppressor that is often mutated in prostate cancer. Our aims were to establish the frequency of KLF6 inactivation in sporadic and inflammatory bowel disease (IBD)-associated colorectal cancers (CRC); to correlate these abnormalities with mutation and/or loss of TP53, APC, and K-RAS; and to characterize the behavior of mutant KLF6 in colon-derived cell lines.
We analyzed DNA isolated from 50 microdissected CRC cases, including 35 sporadic and 15 IBD-associated tumors. Microsatellite analysis and direct sequencing were used to establish the incidence of microsatellite instability, KLF6 and TP53 allelic imbalance, and KLF6, K-RAS, TP53, and APC mutation. Loss of growth suppressive function of the CRC-derived KLF6 mutants was characterized by in vitro thymidine incorporation assays and Western blotting.
KLF6 was inactivated by loss and/or mutation in most sporadic and IBD-related CRCs. The KLF6 locus was deleted in at least 55% of tumors, and mutations were identified in 44%. Rates of KLF6 loss and mutation were similar to those of TP53 and K-RAS in the same samples. KLF6 mutations were present in tumors with either microsatellite or chromosomal instability and were more common, particularly in the IBD-related cancers, in the presence of wild-type APC. Unlike wild-type KLF6, cancer-derived KLF6 mutants neither suppressed growth nor induced p21 following transfection into cultured cells.
Deregulation of KLF6 by a combination of allelic imbalance and mutation may play a role in the development of CRC.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The autosomal-dominant giant platelet syndromes (Fechtner, Epstein, and Sebastian platelet syndromes and May-Hegglin anomaly) represent a group of disorders characterized by variable degrees of macrothrombocytopenia with further combinations of neutrophil inclusion bodies and Alport-like syndrome manifestations, namely, deafness, renal disease, and eye abnormalities. The disease-causing gene of these giant platelet syndromes was previously mapped by us to chromosome 22. Following their successful mapping, these syndromes were shown to represent a broad phenotypic spectrum of disorders caused by different mutations in the nonmuscle myosin heavy chain 9 gene (MYH9). In this study, we examined the potential role of another gene, fibulin-1, encoding an extracellular matrix protein as a disease modifier. Eight unrelated families with autosomal-dominant giant platelet syndromes were studied for DNA sequence mutations and expression of the four fibulin-1 splice variants (A-D). A mutation in the splice acceptor site of fibulin-1 exon 19 was found in affected individuals of the Israeli Fechtner family, whereas no MYH9 mutations were identified. Unexpectedly, fibulin-1 variant D expression was absent in affected individuals from all eight families and coupled with expression of a putative antisense RNA. Transfection of the putative antisense RNA into H1299 cells abolished variant D expression. Based on the observation that only affected individuals lack variant D expression and demonstrate antisense RNA overexpression, we suggest that these autosomal-dominant giant platelet syndromes are associated, and may be modified, by aberrant antisense gene regulation of the fibulin-1 gene.
American Journal of Hematology 01/2004; 74(4):254-62. · 4.00 Impact Factor