Subbiah Elankumaran

Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University, Blacksburg, VA, United States

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Publications (46)121.42 Total impact

  • Sandeep R P Kumar, Moanaro Biswas, Subbiah Elankumaran
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    ABSTRACT: Abstract To understand the mechanistic basis for the reported outcomes of influenza A virus (IAV) infection during pregnancy, the effects of mouse adapted and pandemic (pdm) IAV infection in human choriocarcinoma cells were examined. Both viruses were able to infect and replicate in human placental cells, with pdm IAV being more apoptotic. A strong induction of innate signaling molecules, type I interferon and pro-inflammatory cytokine production, were associated with pdm IAV infection of human placental cells, with implications for adverse immediate and late outcomes during pregnancy.
    Viral immunology 04/2014; · 1.78 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Investigating the mechanistic influence of the tumor microenvironment on cancer cell migration and membrane blebbing is crucial in the understanding and eventual arrest of cancer metastasis. In this study, we investigate the effect of suspended and aligned nanofibers on the glioma cytoskeleton, cell shape, migration and plasma membrane blebbing dynamics using a non-electrospinning fiber-manufacturing platform. Cells attached in repeatable shapes of spindle on single fibers, rectangular on two parallel fibers and polygonal on intersecting fibers. Structural stiffness (N m(-1)) of aligned and suspended nanofibers (average diameter: 400 nm, length: 4, 6, and 10 mm) was found to significantly alter the migration speed with higher migration on lower stiffness fibers. For cells attached to fibers and exhibiting blebbing, an increase in cellular spread area resulted in both reduced bleb count and bleb size with an overall increase in cell migration speed. Blebs no longer appeared past a critical cellular spread area of approximately 1400 μm(2). Our results highlighting the influence of the mechanistic environment on the invasion dynamics of glioma cells add to the understanding of how biophysical components influence glioma cell migration and blebbing dynamics.
    Integrative Biology 07/2013; · 4.32 Impact Factor
  • Subbiah Elankumaran
    Expert Review of Anti-infective Therapy 07/2013; 13(7):769-72. · 2.07 Impact Factor
  • Suvojit Ghosh, Moanaro Biswas, Subbiah Elankumaran, Ishwar Puri
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    ABSTRACT: Spatial patterning of cells in vitro relies on direct contact of cells on to solid surfaces. Scaffold independent patterning of cells has never been achieved so far. Patterning of cells has wide applications including stem cell biology, tissue architecture and regenerative medicine besides fundamental biology. Magnetized cells in a suspension can be manipulated using an externally applied magnetic field enabling directed patterning. We magnetized mammalian cells by internalization of superparamagnetic nanoparticles coated with bovine serum albumin (BSA). A magnetic field is then used to arrange cells in a desired pattern on a substrate or in suspension. The control strategy is derived from the self-assembly of magnetic colloids in a liquid considering magnetostatic interactions. The range of achievable structural features promise novel experimental methods investigating the influence of tissue shape and size on cell population dynamics wherein Fickian diffusion of autocrine growth signals are known to play a significant role. By eliminating the need for a scaffold, intercellular adhesion mechanics and the effects of temporally regulated signals can be investigated. The findings can be applied to novel tissue engineering methods.
  • Raghunath Shobana, Siba K Samal, Subbiah Elankumaran
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    ABSTRACT: Oncolytic virus (OV) therapies of cancer are based on the use of replication competent, tumor selective viruses with limited toxicity. Newcastle disease virus (NDV), an avian paramyxovirus, is a promising OV and is inherently tumor selective and cytotoxic only to tumor cells. Replication is restricted in normal cells. Despite encouraging Phase I/II clinical trials with NDV, further refinements for tumor specific targeting are needed to enhance its therapeutic index. Systemically delivered NDV fails to reach solid tumors in therapeutic concentration and also spreads poorly within the tumors due to barriers including complement, innate immunity and extracellular matrix. Overcoming these hurdles is paramount to realize the exceptional oncolytic efficacy of NDV. We engineered the F protein of NDV and generated a recombinant NDV (rNDV), whose F protein is cleavable exclusively by prostate specific antigen (PSA). The rNDV replicated efficiently and specifically in prostate cancer (CaP) cells and three-dimensional prostaspheres but failed to replicate in the absence of PSA. Induction of intracellular PSA production by a synthetic androgen analog (R1881) enhanced fusogenicity in androgen responsive CaP cells. Further, PSA-cleavable rNDV caused specific lysis of androgen independent and androgen responsive/non-responsive CaP cells and prostaspheres with an EC(50) ranging from 0.01 to 0.1 multiplicity of infection. PSA retargeted NDV efficiently lysed prostasphere tumor mimics, suggesting efficacy in vivo. Also, PSA-cleavable NDV failed to replicate in chicken embryos, indicating no pathogenicity to chickens. Prostate specific antigen targeting is likely to enhance the therapeutic index of rNDV owing to tumor restricted replication and enhanced fusogenicity.
    Journal of Virology 01/2013; · 5.08 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Newcastle disease virus (NDV), an avian paramyxovirus, is inherently tumor selective and is currently being considered as a clinical oncolytic virus and vaccine vector. In this study, we analyzed the effect of complement on the neutralization of NDV purified from embryonated chicken eggs, a common source for virus production. Fresh normal human serum (NHS) neutralized NDV by multiple pathways of complement activation, independent of neutralizing antibodies. Neutralization was associated with C3 deposition and the activation of C2, C3, C4 and C5 components. Interestingly, NDV grown in mammalian cell lines was resistant to complement neutralization by NHS. To confirm whether the incorporation of regulators of complement activity (RCA) into the viral envelope afforded complement resistance, we grew NDV in CHO cells stably transfected with CD46 or HeLa cells, which strongly express CD46 and CD55. NDV grown in RCA expressing cells was resistant to complement by incorporating CD46 and CD55 on virions. Mammalian CD46 and CD55 molecules on virions exhibited homologous restriction, as chicken sera devoid of neutralizing antibodies to NDV were able to effectively neutralize these virions. The incorporation of chicken RCA into NDV produced in embryonated eggs similarly provided species specificity toward chicken sera.
    Journal of Virology 09/2012; · 5.08 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Virotherapy of cancer exploits the potential of naturally occurring and engineered oncolytic viruses to selectively replicate in and cause cytotoxicity to tumor cells without affecting healthy normal cells. The tumor selectivity of Newcastle disease virus (NDV), a member of the family Paramyxoviridae, depends on the differential type I interferon (IFN) response. Further understanding of the key mechanisms and immune effector molecules involved will aid in augmenting the oncolytic properties of NDV. Here we report on the infection kinetics and innate immune responses to a recombinant LaSota strain of NDV (rLaSota eGFP) in human tumor and normal cells. We observed varying replicative fit and cytotoxicity of rLaSota eGFP depending on the tumor cell type, with severely restricted replication in normal cells. The absence of retinoic acid-inducible gene I (RIG-I), a cytosolic RNA sensor, determined sensitivity to NDV. Productive NDV infection with a moderate IFN-α induction in human multiple myeloma cells suggested a role for IFN-independent mechanisms or lack of type I IFN reinforcement by RIG-I. Proinflammatory cytokines and chemokines were altered differentially in infected normal and tumor cells. Our results suggest that tumor selectivity is dependent on variations in the cellular antiviral response to infection with NDV and RIG-I expression.
    Viral immunology 07/2012; 25(4):268-76. · 1.78 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: A comparative study of cytokine and toll-like receptor (TLR) mRNA expression in 3 weeks old indigenous and commercial chickens infected with a very virulent strain of Infectious bursal disease virus (IBDV) was performed using a custom-made microarray chip. In uninfected indigenous chickens, the basal levels of interleukin (IL) 15 were lower and IL 16 was higher than their commercial counterparts. In the IBDV infected indigenous chickens, only IL16 gene expression was down regulated, while TLR3 expression was up regulated significantly. In the IBDV infected commercial chickens IL15, IL16 and TLR3 were down regulated. But, IL1-β, IL2, IL8, IL12, IL17, interferon (IFN)-α and β were significantly increased compared with the control. In IBDV infected indigenous chickens, IL15, IFN-γ, beta-defensin and TLR3 were up regulated compared to virus-infected commercial chickens. The results suggested that up regulation of TLR3, a ligand for double-stranded (ds) RNA probably could account for the possible clinical resistance in these birds. There was a 5.2 fold difference by quantitative real-time RT-PCR between indigenous and commercial chickens in TLR3 mRNA expression. Therefore, TLR3, a receptor for dsRNA could be a putative molecule that could play a role in differential innate and adaptive immune responses to IBDV in commercial and indigenous chickens.
    Indian Journal of Virology 12/2011; 22(2):146-51. · 0.36 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Toll-like receptors (TLRs), a family of transmembrane and cytosolic proteins, detect microbial patterns, initiating innate immune responses in various organisms. Although they are abundant, genetic characterization and functional differences of TLRs in economically important avian species such as chickens and turkeys have not been investigated in detail. In this study, the putative TLR5 coding region from turkey genome was sequenced, and its homology to other vertebrate species was analyzed. Secondary structure analysis revealed protein motifs typical of the chicken TLR5 protein structure, with 97% amino acid identity between them. mRNA expression profiling in adult turkeys revealed abundant TLR5 expression in a broad range of tissues. Stimulation with the TLR5 ligand flagellin resulted in the production of the inflammatory mediators interleukin (IL)-1beta, IL-6, and nitric oxide in peripheral blood mononuclear cells. To our knowledge, this is the first complete turkey TLR5 coding DNA sequence reported in sequence databases.
    Avian Diseases 09/2011; 55(3):480-5. · 1.73 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Triple-reassortant (TR) H3N2 swine influenza viruses (SIV) are a major cause of respiratory disease in swine worldwide, causing considerable morbidity and mortality. Continuous surveillance of circulating SIV strains is imperative for effective control and prediction of new emerging strains with interspecies transmission potential. The current study characterized SIV isolates from commercial swine population in USA (2006-2007). Nine isolates were completely sequenced, and the molecular evolution of all gene segments was analyzed. Phylogenetic analysis of the nine H3N2 viruses indicated that these strains belonged to cluster-IV of the human/swine/avian TR genotype, grouping with H3N2 viruses of turkey origin, while forming a separate sub-lineage from those of human and avian origin strains. Ten amino acid changes were observed at the major antigenic sites of HA1 region compared to the cluster-III reference strain, with differences in glycosylation sites. All the nine strains were antigenically related to the cluster-IV turkey strain than the cluster-III reference strain. The results of this study suggest that contemporary TR H3N2 strains circulating in North America share the same genetic constellation, thus maintaining the gene pool without any further event of genetic reassortment unlike swine-origin pandemic strain A/California/04/2009/H1N1. These findings strongly support the need for continuous surveillance and monitoring of genetic changes in SIV, to identify evolving strains that might pose a threat to human or animal health.
    Virus Genes 05/2011; 43(2):161-76. · 1.77 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Newcastle disease virus (NDV) is an avian paramyxovirus that causes significant economic losses to the poultry industry in most parts of the world. The susceptibility of a wide variety of avian species coupled with synanthropic bird reservoirs has contributed to the vast genomic diversity of this virus as well as diagnostic failures. Since the first panzootic in 1926, Newcastle disease (ND) became enzootic in India with recurrent outbreaks in multiple avian species. The genetic characteristics of circulating strains in India, however, are largely unknown. To understand the nature of NDV genotypes in India, we characterized two representative strains isolated 13 years apart from a chicken and a pigeon by complete genome sequence analysis and pathotyping. The viruses were characterized as velogenic by pathogenicity indices devised to distinguish these strains. The genome length was 15,186 nucleotides (nt) and consisted of six non-overlapping genes, with conserved and complementary 3' leader and 5' trailer regions, conserved gene starts, gene stops, and intergenic sequences similar to those in avian paramyxovirus 1 (APMV-1) strains. Matrix gene sequence analysis grouped the pigeon isolate with APMV-1 strains. Phylogeny based on the fusion (F), and hemagglutinin (HN) genes and complete genome sequence grouped these viruses into genotype IV. Genotype IV strains are considered to have "died out" after the first panzootic (1926-1960) of ND. But, our results suggest that there is persistence of genotype IV strains in India.
    PLoS ONE 01/2011; 6(12):e28414. · 3.73 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Bacterial superinfections following influenza A virus (IAV) are predominant causes of morbidity in humans. The recent emergence of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) and highly virulent IAV strains has reduced treatment options. Development of an appropriate animal model to study secondary S. aureus infections may provide important information regarding disease pathogenesis. Pigs are natural hosts to both IAV and S. aureus and have respiratory physiology and immune response comparable to humans. To establish a time course of susceptibility to S. aureus after IAV infection, nursery pigs infected intranasally with IAV were challenged with MRSA at different time points. Lung pathology scores and MRSA CFU were evaluated in dual-infected animals after IAV infection. Flow cytometric analysis of bronchoalveolar lavage fluid indicated differences between treatments. These results demonstrate the appropriateness of an intranasal challenge model in nursery pigs for studying the pathogenesis of IAV and S. aureus coinfection and provide insights into the timeframe for susceptibility of IAV-infected pigs to secondary S. aureus infection.
    Influenza research and treatment. 01/2011; 2011:846910.
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    ABSTRACT: Newcastle disease virus (NDV), an avian paramyxovirus, is an economically important disease of poultry globally. Rapid methods to detect and differentiate the virus are important to curtail the spread of this virus. Nucleic acid based detection methods are routinely employed for diagnosis that suffer from the disadvantage of failure to discriminate viable virus and non-infectious genome. However, virus isolation remains the gold standard for diagnosis of field outbreaks. The sensitivity of virus isolation was combined with nucleic acid based detection methods so that the time taken for confirmatory diagnosis could be considerably reduced while increasing sensitivity. Quantitative real time reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR) and conventional RT-PCR techniques were compared for the detection of NDV genome replication in 9-11-day-old embryonated chicken eggs (ECE) using the nucleoprotein (NP) gene of the virus as a target. The results suggest that at least two to fourfold increase in cycle threshold (C(t)) values over the baseline C(t) value of samples lacking infectious virus, would indicate live NDV replication. The limit of detection of NDV replication using qRT-PCR was 1×10(4.0) mean embryo infective doses (EID(50)). The earliest time point when live virus replication was detectable by qRT-PCR or RT-PCR was 30h post-inoculation in ECE.
    Journal of virological methods 10/2010; 171(1):98-101. · 2.13 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Newcastle disease virus (NDV), an avian paramyxovirus, is tumor selective and intrinsically oncolytic because of its potent ability to induce apoptosis. Several studies have demonstrated that NDV is selectively cytotoxic to tumor cells but not normal cells due to defects in the interferon (IFN) antiviral responses of tumor cells. Many naturally occurring strains of NDV have an intact IFN-antagonistic function and can still replicate in normal human cells. To avoid potential toxicity issues with NDV, especially in cancer patients with immunosuppression, safe NDV-oncolytic vectors are needed. We compared the cell killing abilities of (i) a recombinant NDV (rNDV) strain, Beaudette C, containing an IFN-antagonistic, wild-type V protein (rBC), (ii) an isogenic recombinant virus with a mutant V protein (rBC-Edit virus) that induces increased IFN in infected cells and whose replication is restricted in normal human cells, and (iii) a recombinant LaSota virus with a virulent F protein cleavage site that is as interferon sensitive as rBC-Edit virus (LaSota V.F. virus). Our results indicated that the tumor-selective replication of rNDV is determined by the differential regulation of IFN-alpha and downstream antiviral genes induced by IFN-alpha, especially through the IRF-7 pathway. In a nude mouse model of human fibrosarcoma, we show that the IFN-sensitive NDV variants are as effective as IFN-resistant rBC virus in clearing the tumor burden. In addition, mice treated with rNDV exhibited no signs of toxicity to the viruses. These findings indicate that augmentation of innate immune responses by NDV results in selective oncolysis and offer a novel and safe virotherapy platform.
    Journal of Virology 02/2010; 84(8):3835-44. · 5.08 Impact Factor
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    Dan Qiao, Bruce H Janke, Subbiah Elankumaran
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    ABSTRACT: Two novel paramyxoviruses, 81-19252 (Texas81) and 92-7783 (ISU92), isolated from the brains of pigs in the United States in the 1980s and 1990s, were characterized. The complete genome of Texas81 virus was 15,456 nucleotides (nt) in length, that of ISU92 was 15,480 nt, and both genomes consisted of six nonoverlapping genes, predicted to encode nine proteins, with conserved and complementary 3' leader and 5' trailer regions and conserved gene starts, gene stops, and trinucleotide intergenic sequences similar to those in paramyxoviruses. The corresponding genes from these two viruses were similar in length, except for the F genes, of which the ISU92 form had an additional 24-nt U-rich 3' untranslated region. The P genes of swine viruses were predicted to produce V and D mRNAs by RNA editing (one to four G insertions in Texas81 and one to nine G insertions in ISU92) or C mRNA by alternative translation initiation. Sequence-specific features related to virus replication and host-specific amino acid signatures indicated that these viruses originated from bovine parainfluenzavirus 3 (bPIV3). Phylogenetic analysis of individual genes suggested that these viruses are novel members of the genus Respirovirus of the Paramyxovirinae subfamily and may be grouped into two subgenotypes of genotype A of bPIV3. Our comprehensive studies revealed that these swine PIV3 are variants of bPIV3 and were possibly transferred from cattle to pigs but failed to establish an active enzootic state. These two viruses were mildly pathogenic to conventionally reared pigs, and results from a limited enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay-based serosurvey of swine farms in Minnesota and Iowa in 2007 and 2008 were negative.
    Journal of Virology 11/2009; 84(2):686-94. · 5.08 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: A high throughput quantitation protocol is desired to determine the replication of various recombinant oncolytic viruses in vitro. Plaque assay is the classic method for viral infectivity quantitation but is laborious and time consuming; moreover it does not report the oncolytic efficacy of a virus. In this paper, three new imaging methods for quantitating viral infectivity are derived and evaluated: fluorescence intensity, infection counts, and infection degree. Infection of oncolytic Newcastle disease virus in human tumor and normal cells was followed over a time course by plaque assay and the imaging methods. For the latter, brightfield and green channel images were acquired at various fixed locations in the cell culture, and later analyzed. One of the imaging methods was found to be highly correlated with viral titer; the other methods are complementary to plaque assay and provide additional information like oncolytic efficacy, syncytium formation etc. The new methods significantly reduce the time and material costs required by plaque assay, and provide an efficient system for quantitating and characterizing infectivity and efficacy of oncolytic viruses.
    Journal of virological methods 11/2009; 163(2):390-7. · 2.13 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Newcastle disease virus (NDV) is an avian paramyxovirus that exists as hundreds of strains with widely different virulence properties. The NDV V protein exhibits interferon (IFN) antagonistic activity, which contributes to the virulence of the virus. The IFN-antagonistic activities of the V proteins from the avirulent strain La Sota and the moderately virulent strain Beaudette C (BC) were compared in an assay for the rescue of a recombinant NDV expressing the green fluorescent protein (NDV-GFP). Consistent with the virulence properties of the two viruses, the BC V protein exhibits a 4-fold greater ability to rescue replication of NDV-GFP than the La Sota V protein. Four amino acid differences in the C-terminal region of V, as well as the N-terminal region, contribute to the difference in IFN-antagonistic activity between the two V proteins.
    Virus Research 11/2009; 147(1):153-7. · 2.75 Impact Factor
  • Dan Qiao, Bruce H Janke, Subbiah Elankumaran
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    ABSTRACT: Two swine paramyxoviruses (SPMV)-(81-19252 (Texas-81) and 92-7783 (ISU-92)-were isolated from encephalitic pigs in the United States in 1981 and 1992. Antigenic, morphologic, and biological characteristics of these two viruses were essentially similar to members of the family Paramyxoviridae. Antigenic analysis by indirect fluorescent antibody, immunoblot, and one-way cross-neutralization tests placed these viruses along with bovine parainfluenza 3 (BPIV3) viruses. Purified virions were 50-300 nm in size and morphologically indistinguishable from other paramyxoviruses. These two viruses hemagglutinated red blood cells and had neuraminidase activity. The gene junctions of fusion (F) and hemagglutinin (HN) glycoprotein genes of these viruses contained highly conserved transcription start and stop signal sequences and trinucleotide intergenic regions similar to other Paramyxoviridae. The F gene of ISU-92 was longer than Texas-81 due to insertion of a 24-nucleotide "U"-rich 3' untranslated region. Structure-based sequence alignment of glycoproteins of these two SPMVs indicated that they are essentially similar in structure and function to parainfluenzaviruses. The Texas-81 strain was closely related to BPIV3 Shipping Fever (SF) strain at nucleotide and amino acid level, while the ISU-92 strain was more closely related to BPIV3 910N strain. The envelope glycoproteins of ISU-92 had only approximately 92 and approximately 96% identity at nucleotide and amino acid levels with BPIV3-SF strain, respectively. The high sequence identities to BPIV3 indicated cross-species infection in pigs. Phylogenetic analyses based on both F protein and HN protein suggested the classification of these viruses into the subfamily Paramyxovirinae, genus Respirovirus, and genotype A of BPIV3.
    Virus Genes 05/2009; 39(1):53-65. · 1.77 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Expression profile of chicken six Toll-like Receptor (TLR) mRNAs were analyzed in the heterophils, lungs, liver, spleen, duodenum, caecal tonsils and kidneys of 12-weeks old indigenous village chicken in India, using reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR). TLR 2 type 1 mRNA was expressed in lungs, liver, spleen, duodenum and caecal tonsils. TLR2 type 2 mRNA was expressed only in the lungs. TLR 3 mRNA was expressed in lungs, liver, spleen and caecal tonsils. TLR 4 mRNA was expressed only in lungs, liver and spleen. TLR 5 and TLR 7 mRNAs were expressed in all the tissues examined. With respect to tissues, heterophils and lungs expressed all the TLR mRNAs examined while kidneys expressed only TLR 5 and TLR 7 mRNAs. All the TLR amplified PCR products were partially sequenced and showed high homologies with the available chicken (commercial) TLR gene sequences. There could be a possibility of correlation between TLR mRNA expressions with higher levels of innate immunity seen in indigenous village breeds of chickens.
    International Journal of Poultry Science. 01/2009;
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    ABSTRACT: Newcastle disease virus (NDV), an avian virus, is being evaluated for the development of vectored human vaccines against emerging pathogens. Previous studies of NDV-vectored vaccines in a mouse model suggested their potency after delivery by injection or by the intranasal route. We compared the efficacy of various routes of delivery of NDV-vectored vaccines in a non-human primate model. While delivery of an NDV-vectored vaccine by the combined intranasal/intratracheal route elicited protective immune responses, delivery by the subcutaneous route or the intranasal route alone elicited limited or no protective immune responses, suggesting the necessity for vaccine delivery to the lower respiratory tract. Furthermore, direct comparison of a vaccine based on an NDV mesogenic strain (NDV-BC) with a similarly designed NDV vector based on a modified lentogenic strain carrying a polybasic F cleavage site (NDV-VF) suggested that the two NDV strains were similar in immunogenicity and were equally protective.
    Vaccine. 01/2009;

Publication Stats

677 Citations
121.42 Total Impact Points


  • 2009–2013
    • Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University
      • Department of Biomedical Sciences and Pathobiology
      Blacksburg, VA, United States
    • Iowa State University
      • Department of Veterinary Diagnostic and Production Animal Medicine
      Ames, Iowa, United States
  • 1998–2011
    • Tamil Nadu Veterinary and Animal Sciences University
      • Department of Animal Biotechnology
      Chennai, State of Tamil Nadu, India
  • 2002–2010
    • University of Maryland, College Park
      • Virginia-Maryland Regional College of Veterinary Medicine
      Maryland, United States
  • 2007–2009
    • National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases
      • Laboratory of Immunoregulation
      Maryland, United States
  • 2002–2009
    • Loyola University Maryland
      Baltimore, Maryland, United States
  • 1994–1996
    • Kerala Veterinary and Animal Sciences University
      Kalpatta, Kerala, India