[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: αE-catenin, an essential component of the adherens junction, interacts with the classical cadherin-β-catenin complex and with F-actin, but its precise role is unknown. αE-catenin also binds to the F-actin-binding protein vinculin, which also appears to be important in junction assembly. Vinculin and αE-catenin are homologs that contain a series of helical bundle domains, D1-D5. We mapped the vinculin-binding site to a sequence in D3a comprising the central two helices of a four-helix bundle. The crystal structure of this peptide motif bound to vinculin D1 shows that the two helices adopt a parallel, colinear arrangement suggesting that the αE-catenin D3a bundle must unfold in order to bind vinculin. We show that αE-catenin D3 binds strongly to vinculin, whereas larger fragments and full-length αE-catenin bind approximately 1,000-fold more weakly. Thus, intramolecular interactions within αE-catenin inhibit binding to vinculin. The actin-binding activity of vinculin is inhibited by an intramolecular interaction between the head (D1-D4) and the actin-binding D5 tail. In the absence of F-actin, there is no detectable binding of αE-catenin D3 to full-length vinculin; however, αE-catenin D3 promotes binding of vinculin to F-actin whereas full-length αE-catenin does not. These findings support the combinatorial or "coincidence" model of activation in which binding of high-affinity proteins to the vinculin head and tail is required to shift the conformational equilibrium of vinculin from a closed, autoinhibited state to an open, stable F-actin-binding state. The data also imply that αE-catenin must be activated in order to bind to vinculin.
Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences 05/2012; 109(22):8576-81. · 9.74 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Although numerous carbohydrates play significant roles in mammalian cells, carbohydrate-based drug discovery has not been explored due to the technical difficulty of chemically synthesizing complex carbohydrate structures. Previously, we identified a series of carbohydrate mimetic peptides and found that a 7-mer peptide, designated I-peptide, inhibits hematogenous carbohydrate-dependent cancer cell colonization. During analysis of the endothelial surface receptor for I-peptide, we found that I-peptide bound to annexin 1 (Anxa1). Because Anxa1 is a highly specific tumor vasculature surface marker, we hypothesized that an I-peptide-like peptide could target anticancer drugs to the tumor vasculature. This study identifies IFLLWQR peptide, designated IF7, as homing to tumors. When synthetic IF7 peptide was conjugated to fluorescent Alexa 488 (A488) and injected intravenously into tumor-bearing mice, IF7-A488 targeted tumors within minutes. IF7 conjugated to the potent anticancer drug SN-38 and injected intravenously into nude mice carrying human colon HCT116 tumors efficiently suppressed tumor growth at low dosages with no apparent side effects. These results suggest that IF7 serves as an efficient drug delivery vehicle by targeting Anxa1 expressed on the surface of tumor vasculature. Given its extremely specific tumor-targeting activity, IF7 may represent a clinically relevant vehicle for anticancer drugs.
Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences 11/2011; 108(49):19587-92. · 9.74 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Activation of Rap1 small GTPases stabilizes cell--cell junctions, and this activity requires Krev Interaction Trapped gene 1 (KRIT1). Loss of KRIT1 disrupts cardiovascular development and causes autosomal dominant familial cerebral cavernous malformations. Here we report that native KRIT1 protein binds the effector loop of Rap1A but not H-Ras in a GTP-dependent manner, establishing that it is an authentic Rap1-specific effector. By modeling the KRIT1-Rap1 interface we designed a well-folded KRIT1 mutant that exhibited a ~40-fold-reduced affinity for Rap1A and maintained other KRIT1-binding functions. Direct binding of KRIT1 to Rap1 stabilized endothelial cell-cell junctions in vitro and was required for cardiovascular development in vivo. Mechanistically, Rap1 binding released KRIT1 from microtubules, enabling it to locate to cell--cell junctions, where it suppressed Rho kinase signaling and stabilized the junctions. These studies establish that the direct physical interaction of Rap1 with KRIT1 enables the translocation of microtubule-sequestered KRIT1 to junctions, thereby supporting junctional integrity and cardiovascular development.
Molecular biology of the cell 06/2011; 22(14):2509-19. · 5.98 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Pathogenesis by Bacillus anthracis requires coordination between two distinct activities: plasmid-encoded virulence factor expression (which protects vegetative cells from immune surveillance during outgrowth and replication) and chromosomally encoded sporulation (required only during the final stages of infection). Sporulation is regulated by at least five sensor histidine kinases that are activated in response to various environmental cues. One of these kinases, BA2291, harbors a sensor domain that has ∼35% sequence identity with two plasmid proteins, pXO1-118 and pXO2-61. Because overexpression of pXO2-61 (or pXO1-118) inhibits sporulation of B. anthracis in a BA2291-dependent manner, and pXO2-61 expression is strongly up-regulated by the major virulence gene regulator, AtxA, it was suggested that their function is to titrate out an environmental signal that would otherwise promote untimely sporulation. To explore this hypothesis, we determined crystal structures of both plasmid-encoded proteins. We found that they adopt a dimeric globin fold but, most unusually, do not bind heme. Instead, they house a hydrophobic tunnel and hydrophilic chamber that are occupied by fatty acid, which engages a conserved arginine and chloride ion via its carboxyl head group. In vivo, these domains may therefore recognize changes in fatty acid synthesis, chloride ion concentration, and/or pH. Structure-based comparisons with BA2291 suggest that it binds ligand and dimerizes in an analogous fashion, consistent with the titration hypothesis. Analysis of newly sequenced bacterial genomes points to the existence of a much broader family of non-heme, globin-based sensor domains, with related but distinct functionalities, that may have evolved from an ancestral heme-linked globin.
Journal of Biological Chemistry 01/2011; 286(10):8448-58. · 4.65 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The 14 kDa homodimeric N1L protein is a potent vaccinia and variola (smallpox) virulence factor. It is not essential for viral replication, but it causes a strong attenuation of viral production in culture when deleted. The N1L protein is predicted to contain the BH3-like binding domain characteristic of Bcl-2 family proteins, and it is able to bind the BH3 peptides. Its overexpression has been reported to prevent infected cells from committing apoptosis. Therefore, interfering with the N1L apoptotic blockade may be a legitimate therapeutic strategy affecting the viral growth. By using in silico ligand docking and an array of in vitro assays, we have identified submicromolar (600 nM) N1L antagonists belonging to the family of polyphenols. Their affinity is comparable to that of the BH3 peptides (70-1000 nM). We have also identified the natural polyphenol resveratrol as a moderate N1L inhibitor. Finally, we show that our ligands efficiently inhibit growth of vaccinia virus.
Journal of Medicinal Chemistry 05/2010; 53(10):3899-906. · 5.61 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The Dock180 family of atypical Rho family guanine nucleotide exchange factors (Rho-GEFs) regulate a variety of processes involving cellular or subcellular polarization, including cell migration and phagocytosis. Each contains a Dock homology region-1 (DHR-1) domain that is required to localize its GEF activity to a specific membrane compartment where levels of phosphatidylinositol (3,4,5)-trisphosphate (PtdIns(3,4,5)P(3)) are up-regulated by the local activity of PtdIns 3-kinase. Here we define the structural and energetic bases of phosphoinositide specificity by the DHR-1 domain of Dock1 (a GEF for Rac1), and show that DHR-1 utilizes a C2 domain scaffold and surface loops to create a basic pocket on its upper surface for recognition of the PtdIns(3,4,5)P(3) head group. The pocket has many of the characteristics of those observed in pleckstrin homology domains. We show that point mutations in the pocket that abolish phospholipid binding in vitro ablate the ability of Dock1 to induce cell polarization, and propose a model that brings together recent mechanistic and structural studies to rationalize the central role of DHR-1 in dynamic membrane targeting of the Rho-GEF activity of Dock180.
Journal of Biological Chemistry 02/2010; 285(17):13211-22. · 4.65 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Increased affinity of integrins for the extracellular matrix (activation) regulates cell adhesion and migration, extracellular matrix assembly, and mechanotransduction. Major uncertainties concern the sufficiency of talin for activation, whether conformational change without clustering leads to activation, and whether mechanical force is required for molecular extension. Here, we reconstructed physiological integrin activation in vitro and used cellular, biochemical, biophysical, and ultrastructural analyses to show that talin binding is sufficient to activate integrin alphaIIbbeta3. Furthermore, we synthesized nanodiscs, each bearing a single lipid-embedded integrin, and used them to show that talin activates unclustered integrins leading to molecular extension in the absence of force or other membrane proteins. Thus, we provide the first proof that talin binding is sufficient to activate and extend membrane-embedded integrin alphaIIbbeta3, thereby resolving numerous controversies and enabling molecular analysis of reconstructed integrin signaling.
The Journal of Cell Biology 01/2010; 188(1):157-73. · 10.82 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The M16 family of zinc peptidases comprises a pair of homologous domains that form two halves of a "clam-shell" surrounding the active site. The M16A and M16C subfamilies form one class ("peptidasomes"): they degrade 30-70 residue peptides, and adopt both open and closed conformations. The eukaryotic M16B subfamily forms a second class ("processing proteases"): they adopt a single partly-open conformation that enables them to cleave signal sequences from larger proteins. Here, we report the solution and crystal structures of a prokaryotic M16B peptidase, and demonstrate that it has features of both classes: thus, it forms stable "open" homodimers in solution that resemble the processing proteases; but the clam-shell closes upon binding substrate, a feature of the M16A/C peptidasomes. Moreover, clam-shell closure is required for proteolytic activity. We predict that other prokaryotic M16B family members will form dimeric peptidasomes, and propose a model for the evolution of the M16 family.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The BH3-only BCL-2 family protein BID is activated by caspase-8 cleavage upon engagement of cell surface death receptors. The resulting 15 kDa C-terminal fragment, tBID, translocates to mitochondria, triggering the release of cytotoxic molecules and cell death. The pro-apoptotic activity of tBID is regulated by its interactions with pro-survival BCL-XL and pro-death BAX, both in the cytosol and at the mitochondrial membrane. In this study, we characterize the molecular interactions between full-length tBID and BCL-XL using NMR spectroscopy and isothermal titration calorimetry (ITC). In aqueous solution, tBID adopts an alpha-helical but dynamically disordered conformation; however, the three-dimensional conformation is stabilized when tBID engages its BH3 domain in the BH3-binding hydrophobic groove of BCL-XL to form a stable heterodimeric complex. Characterization of the binding thermodynamics by ITC reveals that the interaction between tBID and BCL-XL is driven by enthalpy but disfavored by the entropy associated with the conformational order induced in tBID upon binding BCL-XL.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The adaptor protein talin serves both to activate the integrin family of cell adhesion molecules and to couple integrins to the actin cytoskeleton. Integrin activation has been shown to involve binding of the talin FERM domain to membrane proximal sequences in the cytoplasmic domain of the integrin beta-subunit. However, a second integrin-binding site (IBS2) has been identified near the C-terminal end of the talin rod. Here we report the crystal structure of IBS2 (residues 1974-2293), which comprises two five-helix bundles, "IBS2-A" (1974-2139) and "IBS2-B" (2140-2293), connected by a continuous helix with a distinct kink at its center that is stabilized by side-chain H-bonding. Solution studies using small angle x-ray scattering and NMR point to a fairly flexible quaternary organization. Using pull-down and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays, we demonstrate that integrin binding requires both IBS2 domains, as does binding to acidic phospholipids and robust targeting to focal adhesions. We have defined the membrane proximal region of the integrin cytoplasmic domain as the major binding region, although more membrane distal regions are also required for strong binding. Alanine-scanning mutagenesis points to an important electrostatic component to binding. Thermal unfolding experiments show that integrin binding induces conformational changes in the IBS2 module, which we speculate are linked to vinculin and membrane binding.
Journal of Biological Chemistry 02/2009; 284(13):8866-76. · 4.65 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Integrin alpha2beta1 is a major receptor required for activation and adhesion of platelets, through the specific recognition of collagen by the alpha2-I domain (alpha2-I), which binds fibrillar collagen via Mg(2+)-bridged interactions. The crystal structure of a truncated form of the alpha2-I domain, bound to a triple helical collagen peptide, revealed conformational changes suggestive of a mechanism where the ligand-bound I domain can initiate and propagate conformational change to the full integrin complex. Collagen binding by alpha2-I and fibrinogen-dependent platelet activity can be inhibited by snake venom polypeptides. Here we describe the inhibitory effect of a short cyclic peptide derived from the snake toxin metalloprotease jararhagin, with specific amino acid sequence RKKH, on the ability of alpha2-I to bind triple helical collagen. Isothermal titration calorimetry measurements showed that the interactions of alpha2-I with collagen or RKKH peptide have similar affinities, and NMR chemical shift mapping experiments with (15)N-labeled alpha2-I, and unlabeled RKKH peptide, indicate that the peptide competes for the collagen-binding site of alpha2-I but does not induce a large scale conformational rearrangement of the I domain.
Journal of Biological Chemistry 07/2008; 283(24):16665-72. · 4.65 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Although vinculin (-/-) mouse embryo fibroblasts assemble focal adhesions (FAs), they spread more slowly, less extensively, and close a wound more rapidly than vinculin (+/+) cells. To investigate the structure and dynamics of FAs in these cells, we used real-time interference reflection microscopy (IRM) thus avoiding the need to express exogenous GFP-tagged FA proteins which may be misregulated. This showed that the FAs were smaller, less abundant and turned over more rapidly in vinculin null compared to wild-type cells. Expression of vinculin rescued the spreading defect and resulted in larger and more stable FAs. Phosphatidylinositol 4,5-bisphosphate (PIP2) is thought to play a role in vinculin activation by relieving an intramolecular association between the vinculin head (Vh) and tail (Vt) that masks the ligand binding sites in Vh and Vt. To investigate the role of the vinculin/PIP2 interaction in FA dynamics, we used a vinculin mutant lacking the C-terminal arm (residues 1053-1066) and referred to as the deltaC mutation. This mutation reduced PIP2 binding to a Vt deltaC polypeptide by >90% compared to wild type without affecting binding to Vh or F-actin. Interestingly, cells expressing the vinculin deltaC mutant assembled remarkably stable FAs. The results suggest that vinculin inhibits cell migration by stabilising FAs, and that binding of inositol phospholipids to Vt plays an important role in FA turnover.
European Journal of Cell Biology 07/2006; 85(6):487-500. · 3.21 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The vinculin binding site on alpha-actinin was determined by cryo-electron microscopy of 2D arrays formed on phospholipid monolayers doped with a nickel chelating lipid. Chicken smooth muscle alpha-actinin was cocrystallized with the beta1-integrin cytoplasmic domain and a vinculin fragment containing residues 1-258 (vinculin(D1)). Vinculin(D1) was located at a single site on alpha-actinin with 60-70% occupancy. In these arrays, alpha-actinin lacks molecular 2-fold symmetry and the two ends of the molecule, which contain the calmodulin-like and actin binding domains, are held in distinctly different environments. The vinculin(D1) difference density has a shape very suggestive of the atomic structure. The atomic model of the complex juxtaposes the alpha-actinin binding site on vinculin(D1) with the N-terminal lobe of the calmodulin-like domain on alpha-actinin. The results show that the interaction between two species with weak affinity can be visualized in a membrane-like environment.
Journal of Molecular Biology 04/2006; 357(2):562-73. · 3.91 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Using site-specific fluorescence probes and cross-linking we demonstrated that cofilin (ADF), a key regulator of actin cellular dynamics, weakens longitudinal contacts in F-actin in a cooperative manner. Differential scanning calorimetry detected a dual nature of cofilin effects on F-actin conformation. At sub-stoichiometric cofilin to actin ratios, cofilin stabilized sterically and non-cooperatively protomers at the points of attachment, and destabilized allosterically and cooperatively protomers in the cofilin-free parts of F-actin. This destabilizing effect had a long range, with one cofilin molecule affecting more than 100 protomers, and concentration-dependent amplitude that reached maximum at about 1:2 molar ratio of cofilin to actin. In contrast to existing models, our results suggest an allosteric mechanism of actin depolymerization by cofilin. We propose that cofilin is less likely to sever actin filaments at the points of attachment as thought previously. Instead, due to its dual structural effect, spontaneous fragmentation occurs most likely in cofilin-free segments of filaments weakened allosterically by nearby cofilin molecules.
Journal of Molecular Biology 03/2006; 356(2):325-34. · 3.91 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Cofilin/ADF affects strongly the structure of actin filaments and especially the intermolecular contacts of the DNase I binding loop (D-loop) in subdomain 2. In G-actin, the D-loop is cleaved by subtilisin between Met47 and Gly48, while in F-actin this cleavage is inhibited. Here, we report that yeast cofilin, which is resistant to both subtilisin and trypsin, accelerates greatly the rate of subtilisin cleavage of this loop in F-actin at pH 6.8 and at pH 8.0. Similarly, cofilin accelerates strongly the tryptic cleavage in F-actin of loop 60-69 in subdomain 2, at Arg62 and Lys68. The acceleration of the loops' proteolysis cannot be attributed to an increased treadmilling of F-actin for the following reasons: (i) the rate of subtilisin cleavage is independent of pH between pH 6.8 and 8.0, unlike F-actin depolymerization, which is pH-dependent; (ii) at high concentrations of protease the cleavage rate of F-actin in the presence of cofilin is faster than the rate of monomer dissociation from the pointed end of TRC-labeled F-actin, which limits the rate of treadmilling; and (iii) cofilin also accelerates the rate of subtilisin cleavage of F-actin in which the treadmilling is blocked by interprotomer cross-linking of the D-loop to the C terminus on an adjacent protomer. This suggests a substantial flexibility of the D-loop in the cross-linked F-actin. The increased cleavage rates of the D-loop and loop 60-69 reveal extensive exposure of subdomain 2 in F-actin to proteolytic enzymes by cofilin.
Journal of Molecular Biology 11/2004; 342(5):1559-67. · 3.91 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Vinculin is a highly conserved intracellular protein with a crucial role in the maintenance and regulation of cell adhesion and migration. In the cytosol, vinculin adopts a default autoinhibited conformation. On recruitment to cell-cell and cell-matrix adherens-type junctions, vinculin becomes activated and mediates various protein-protein interactions that regulate the links between F-actin and the cadherin and integrin families of cell-adhesion molecules. Here we describe the crystal structure of the full-length vinculin molecule (1,066 amino acids), which shows a five-domain autoinhibited conformation in which the carboxy-terminal tail domain is held pincer-like by the vinculin head, and ligand binding is regulated both sterically and allosterically. We show that conformational changes in the head, tail and proline-rich domains are linked structurally and thermodynamically, and propose a combinatorial pathway to activation that ensures that vinculin is activated only at sites of cell adhesion when two or more of its binding partners are brought into apposition.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The effect of yeast cofilin on lateral contacts between protomers of yeast and skeletal muscle actin filaments was examined in solution. These contacts are presumably stabilized by the interactions of loop 262-274 of one protomer with two other protomers on the opposite strand in F-actin. Cofilin inhibited several-fold the rate of interstrand disulfide cross-linking between Cys265 and Cys374 in yeast S265C mutant F-actin, but enhanced excimer formation between pyrene probes attached to these cysteine residues. The possibility that these effects are due to a translocation of the C terminus of actin by cofilin was ruled out by measurements of fluorescence resonance energy transfer (FRET) from tryptophan residues and ATP to acceptor probes at Cys374. Such measurements did not reveal cofilin-induced changes in FRET efficiency, suggesting that changes in Cys265-Cys374 cross-linking and excimer formation stem from the perturbation of loop 262-274 by cofilin. Changes in lateral interactions in F-actin were indicated also by the cofilin-induced partial release of rhodamine phalloidin. Disulfide cross-linking of S265C yeast F-actin inhibited strongly and reversibly the release of rhodamine phalloidin by cofilin. Overall, this study provides solution evidence for the weakening of lateral interactions in F-actin by cofilin.
Journal of Molecular Biology 04/2004; 337(1):93-104. · 3.91 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Structural effects of yeast cofilin on skeletal muscle and yeast actin were examined in solution. Cofilin binding to native actin was non-cooperative and saturated at a 1:1 molar ratio, with K(d)<or=0.05 microM for both CaATP-G-actin and F-actin. Cofilin binding enhanced the fluorescence of dansyl ethylenediamine (DED) attached to Gln41 on the DNase I binding loop of skeletal muscle F-actin and decreased the fluorescence of AEDANS at Cys41 on yeast Q41C/C374S mutant F-actin. However, cofilin had no effect on the spectral properties of DED or AEDANS on CaATP-G-actin. Fluorescence energy transfer (FRET) from tryptophan residues to DED at Gln41 on skeletal muscle actin and to AEDANS at Cys41 on yeast Q41C/C374S actin was decreased by cofilin binding to F- but not to G-actin. Cofilin inhibited strongly the rate of interprotomer disulfide cross-linking of Cys41 to Cys374 on yeast Q41C mutant F-actin. Binding of cofilin enhanced excimer formation between pyrene probes attached to Cys41 and Cys374 on Q41C F-actin. These results indicate that cofilin alters the interface between subdomains 1 and 2 and shifts the DNase I binding loop away from subdomain 1 of an adjacent actin protomer. Cofilin reduced FRET from tryptophan residues to 4-azido-2-nitrophenyl-putrescine (ANP) at Gln41 in skeletal muscle F-but not in G-actin. However, following the interprotomer cross-linking of Gln41 to Cys374 in F-actin by ANP, cofilin binding did not change FRET from the tryptophan residues to ANP. This suggests that cofilin binding and the conformational effect on F-actin are not coupled tightly. Overall, this study provides solution evidence for the weakening of longitudinal, subdomain 2/1 contacts in F-actin by cofilin.
Journal of Molecular Biology 12/2002; 323(4):739-50. · 3.91 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The atomic structures for several myosin head isoforms in different nucleotide states have been determined in recent years. The comparison of these structures is complicated by the use of myosin subfragment 1 (S1) constructs of different length in different studies. Several atomic structures of the S1 nucleotide complex were obtained using Dictyostelium discoideum S1dC, a genetically truncated form of S1 lacking the light chain binding domain (LCBD) and both light chains. The goal of the present study has been to assess the effects of such a truncation on the solution properties of S1 and in particular, on its active site, actin binding site and the converter region. The nucleotide and actin binding properties, CD spectra and the reactivities of Lys-84 (corresponds to the 'reactive lysine', Lys-83 in rabbit skeletal S1) and Cys-678 (corresponds to the 'SH2-group', Cys-697 in rabbit S1) were compared for the full length (flS1) and the truncated (S1dC) forms of Dictyostelium S1. The two forms showed similar nucleotide binding properties. However, SldC had a lower structural stability and a significantly higher Km value for actin-activated ATPase as compared to flS1. Differences were found also in the near-UV CD spectrum between flS1 and S1dC. SH2 reactivity in SldC appeared to be greatly inhibited compared with that in flS1. The modification of Lys-84 caused a greater increase in the MgATPase activity in S1dC than in flS1. ADP inhibited this activation for both SldC and flS1. Taken together our results identify both truncation-caused differences between S1dC and flS1, as well as isoform-related differences between skeletal and Dictyostelium S1.
Journal of Muscle Research and Cell Motility 02/2001; 22(8):657-64. · 1.36 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Myosin subfragment 1 (S1) with SH1 (Cys(707)) and SH2 (Cys(697)) groups cross-linked by p-phenylenedimaleimide (pPDM-S1) is thought to be an analog of the weakly bound states of myosin bound to actin. The structural properties of pPDM-S1 were compared in this study to those of S1.ADP.BeF(x) and S1.ADP.AlF(4)(-), i.e., the established structural analogs of the myosin weakly bound states. To distinguish between the conformational effects of SH1-SH2 cross-linking and those due to their monofunctional modification, we used S1 with the SH1 and SH2 groups labeled with N-phenylmaleimide (NPM-S1) as a control in our experiments. The state of the nucleotide pocket was probed using a hydrophobic fluorescent dye, 3-[4-(3-phenyl-2-pyrazolin-1-yl)benzene-1-sulfonylamido]phen ylboronic acid (PPBA). Differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) was used to study the thermal stability of S1. By both methods the conformational state of pPDM-S1 was different from that of unmodified S1 in the S1.ADP.BeF(x) and S1.ADP.AlF(4)(-) complexes and closer to that of nucleotide-free S1. Moreover, BeF(x) and AlF(4)(-) binding failed to induce conformational changes in pPDM-S1 similar to those observed in unmodified S1. Surprisingly, when pPDM cross-linking was performed on S1.ADP.BeF(x) complex, ADP.BeF(x) protected to some extent the nucleotide pocket of S1 from the effects of pPDM modification. NPM-S1 behaved similarly to pPDM-S1 in our experiments. Overall, this work presents new evidence that the conformational state of pPDM-S1 is different from that of the weakly bound state analogs, S1.ADP.BeF(x) and S1.ADP.AlF(4)(-). The similar structural effects of pPDM cross-linking of SH1 and SH2 groups and their monofunctional labeling with NPM are ascribed to the inhibitory effects of these modifications on the flexibility/mobility of the SH1-SH2 helix.