Paul W Jones

St. George's School, Middletown, Rhode Island, United States

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Publications (73)342.81 Total impact

  • Paul W Jones
    The European respiratory journal. 09/2014; 44(3):570-1.
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    ABSTRACT: The tradition classification of the severity of COPD, based on spirometry, fails to encompass the heterogeneity of the disease. The COPD assessment test (CAT), a multi-dimensional, patient-filled questionnaire, assesses the overall health status of patients, and is recommended as part of the assessment of individuals with COPD. However, information regarding the range of values for the test in a non-COPD population (normative values) is limited, and consequently, knowledge regarding the optimal cut-off, and the minimum clinically important difference (MCID) for the test remain largely empirical.
    Respiratory research. 06/2014; 15(1):68.
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    ABSTRACT: The Global Initiative for Chronic Obstructive Lung Disease (GOLD) 2011 consensus report proposed a new classification system, incorporating symptoms with future risk, in subjects with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). We hypothesized it could be applied to Japanese COPD patients. We previously analyzed clinical factors related to 5-year mortality in 150 male outpatients with COPD. We reviewed the data and reanalyzed the relationships between the new GOLD classification and various outcomes including mortality. There were 51 (34.0%), 12 (8.0%), 57 (38.0%), and 30 (20.0%) patients in GOLD A (forced expiratory volume in 1s [FEV1]≥50% predicted and modified Medical Research Council [mMRC] 0-1), GOLD B (FEV1≥50% predicted and mMRC≥2), GOLD C (FEV1<50% predicted and mMRC 0-1), and GOLD D (FEV1 <50% predicted and mMRC≥2), respectively. The GOLD 2011 classification correlated significantly with exercise capacity and multi-dimensional disease staging. Cox proportional hazards analysis revealed that, among several methods categorizing symptoms, the GOLD A-D classification was significantly associated with mortality (p=0.0055). Although the relative number of patients in each category of the combined COPD assessment classification depended on the choice of symptom measures, the categories defined by the mMRC scale (score 0-1 versus ≥2) were most useful for future risk assessed as mortality. GOLD A had the lowest mortality, followed by GOLD B and C, and D had the highest mortality. Exercise capacity was also stratified by the new GOLD classification.
    Respiratory investigation. 03/2014; 52(2):129-35.
  • Paul W Jones
    The lancet. Respiratory medicine. 03/2014; 2(3):167-9.
  • Thorax 02/2014; · 8.38 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) Assessment Test (CAT) is a concise health status measure for COPD. COPD patients have a variety of comorbidities, but little is known about their impact on quality of life. This study was designed to investigate comorbid factors that may contribute to high CAT scores. An observational study at Keio University and affiliated hospitals enrolled 336 COPD patients and 67 non-COPD subjects. Health status was assessed by the CAT, the St. Georges Respiratory Questionnaire (SGRQ), and all components of the Medical Outcomes Study Short-Form 36-Item (SF-36) version 2, which is a generic measure of health. Comorbidities were identified based on patients' reports, physicians' records, and questionnaires, including the Frequency Scale for the Symptoms of Gastro-esophageal reflux disease (GERD) and the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale. Dual X-ray absorptiometry measurements of bone mineral density were performed. The CAT showed moderate-good correlations with the SGRQ and all components of the SF-36. The presence of GERD, depression, arrhythmia, and anxiety was significantly associated with a high CAT score in the COPD patients. Symptomatic COPD patients have a high prevalence of comorbidities. A high CAT score should alert the clinician to a higher likelihood of certain comorbidities such as GERD and depression, because these diseases may co-exist unrecognized.Trial registration: Clinical trial registered with UMIN (UMIN000003470).
    Respiratory research 02/2014; 15(1):13. · 3.64 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: We evaluated the predictive value of the COPD assessment test (CAT™) for exacerbation in the following six months or time to first exacerbation among COPD patients with previous exacerbations. COPD outpatients with a history of exacerbation from 19 hospitals completed the CAT questionnaire and spirometry over six months. Exacerbation events were prospectively collected using a structured questionnaire. The baseline CAT score categorised into four groups (0–9, 10–19, 20–29, and 30–40) showed strong prediction for time to first exacerbation and modest prediction for any exacerbation or moderate-severe exacerbation (AUC 0.83, 0.64, and 0.63 respectively). In multivariate analyses, the categorised CAT score independently predicted all three outcomes (p=0.001 or p<0.001). Compared with the lowest CAT score category, the higher categories were associated with significantly shorter time to first exacerbation and higher exacerbation risks. The corresponding adjusted median time was >24, 14, 9, and 5 weeks and the adjusted RR was 1.00, 1.30, 1.37, and 1.50 in the category of 0-9, 10-19, 20-29, and 30-40 respectively. Exacerbation history (≥2 vs. 1 event in the past year) was related to time to first exacerbation (adjusted HR 1.35; p=0.023) and any exacerbation during the study period (adjusted RR 1.15; p=0.016). The results of this study support the use of the CAT as a simple tool to assist in the identification of patients at increased risk of exacerbations. This could facilitate timely and cost-effective implementation of preventive interventions, and improve health resource allocation.
    Respiratory Medicine 02/2014; 108. · 2.59 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The concept of a minimal clinically important difference (MCID) is well established. Here, we review the evidence base and methods used to define MCIDs, as well as their strengths and limitations. Most MCIDs in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) are empirically derived estimates applying to populations of patients. Validated MCIDs are available for many commonly used outcomes in COPD, including lung function (100 mL for trough forced expiratory volume in 1 second), dyspnea (improvement of ≥1 unit in the Transition Dyspnea Index total score or 5 units in the University of California, San Diego Shortness of Breath Questionnaire), health status (reduction of 4 units in the St George's Respiratory Questionnaire total score) and exercise capacity (47.5 m for the incremental shuttle walking test, 45-85 seconds for the endurance shuttle walking test and 46-105 seconds for constant-load cycling endurance tests), but there is currently no validated MCID for exacerbations. In a clinical trial setting, many factors, including study duration, withdrawal rate, baseline severity and Hawthorne effects, can influence the measured treatment effect and determine whether it reaches the MCID. We also address recent challenges presented by clinical trials that compare active treatments, and suggest that MCIDs should be used to identify the additional proportion of patients who benefit, for example, when one drug is replaced by another or when a second drug is added to a first. We propose the term 'minimum worthwhile incremental advantage' to describe this parameter.
    American Journal of Respiratory and Critical Care Medicine 01/2014; · 11.04 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Cardiovascular disease (CVD) and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) commonly coexist and share common risk factors. The prevalence of COPD in outpatients with a smoking history and CVD in Japan is unknown. The aim of this study was to determine the proportion of Japanese patients with a smoking history being treated for CVD who have concurrent airflow limitation compatible with COPD. A secondary objective was to test whether the usage of lung function tests performed in the clinic influenced the diagnosis rate of COPD in the patients identified with airflow limitation.
    International journal of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. 01/2014; 9:563-8.
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    ABSTRACT: Elevated plasma B-type natriuretic peptide (BNP) levels and their association with heart failure have been reported in subjects with acute exacerbations of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (AECOPD). To examine and compare plasma BNP levels and diastolic and systolic dysfunction in subjects with AECOPD and stable chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). In all, 87 unselected consecutive hospitalizations due to AECOPD in 61 subjects and a total of 190 consecutive subjects with stable COPD were recruited. Plasma BNP levels were compared cross-sectionally and longitudinally. Transthoracic echocardiographic examinations were also performed in the hospitalized subjects. In the hospitalized subjects, the median plasma BNP level (interquartile range) was 55.4 (26.9-129.3) pg/mL and was higher than that of patients with stable COPD: 18.3 (10.0-45.3) for Global Initiative for Chronic Obstructive Lung Disease grade I; 25.8 (11.0-53.7) for grade II; 22.1 (9.1-52.6) for grade III; and 17.2 (9.6-22.9) pg/mL for grade I V, all P<0.001. In 15 subjects studied prospectively, the median plasma BNP level was 19.4 (9.8-32.2) pg/mL before AECOPD, 72.7 (27.7-146.3) pg/mL during AECOPD, and 14.6 (12.9-39.0) pg/mL after AECOPD (P<0.0033 and P<0.0013, respectively). Median plasma BNP levels during AECOPD were significantly higher in ten unsuccessfully discharged subjects 260.5 (59.4-555.0) than in 48 successfully discharged subjects 48.5 (24.2-104.0) pg/mL (P=0.0066). Only 5.6% of AECOPD subjects were associated with systolic dysfunction defined as a left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF) <50%; a further 7.4% were considered to have impaired relaxation defined as an E/A wave velocity ratio <0.8 and a deceleration time of E >240 ms. BNP levels were weakly correlated with the E/peak early diastolic velocity of the mitral annulus (Ea) ratio (Spearman's rank correlation coefficient =0.353, P=0.018), but they were not correlated with the LVEF (Spearman's rank correlation coefficient =-0.221, P=0.108). A modest elevation of plasma BNP is observed during AECOPD. It appears that AECOPD may have an impact on plasma BNP levels that is not attributable to heart failure.
    International Journal of COPD 01/2014; 9:155-62.
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    ABSTRACT: GOLD proposed a COPD assessment framework focussed on symptoms measured by the COPD Assessment Test™ (CAT) or the mMRC and on exacerbation risk based on poor lung function (FEV1 <50%) or a history of ≥2 exacerbations in the previous year. This analysis examined the characteristics of COPD patients recruited from routine clinical settings and classified using the GOLD framework. 1041 European COPD patients (38.5% from primary care) from the Adelphi Respiratory Disease Specific Programme with information on CAT, mMRC, spirometry and exacerbation history in the previous year were analysed. Their mean age was 64.9 ± 9.9 years and mean FEV1 was 62.5 ± 17.8% predicted; 80% were in GOLD 2 spirometric grade or milder. CAT and mMRC cut points identified different groups of patients; using CAT, the composition was: Group A 9.3%, Group B 48.5%, Group C 0.7% and Group D 41.5%. 80% were classified as high risk based on exacerbation history and 25% of patients in a low risk category (GOLD A and B) had 1 exacerbation in the previous year. The incidence of diabetes, hypertension and hyperlipidaemia rose with worsening GOLD group (all p < 0.0001); diabetes GOLD A 4%, GOLD B 16%, GOLD D 29%; hypertension GOLD A 38%, GOLD B 55%, GOLD D 65%; hyperlipidaemia GOLD A 13%, GOLD B 30%, GOLD D 37%. In patients seen in routine clinical settings, 25% of GOLD low risk patients had one exacerbation per year and the incidence of cardio-vascular and metabolic diseases increases with worsening GOLD group.
    Respiratory medicine 08/2013; · 2.33 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND: It has been debated whether treatment should be started early in subjects with mild to moderate COPD. An impaired health status score was associated with a higher probability of being diagnosed with COPD as compared with undiagnosed COPD.Purpose: To investigate the health status in a healthy working population, to determine reference scores for healthy non-smoking subjects, and to investigate the relationship between their health status and airflow limitation. METHODS: A total of 1333 healthy industrial workers aged >=40 years performed spirometry and completed the St. George's Respiratory Questionnaire (SGRQ) and the COPD Assessment Test (CAT). RESULTS: The prevalence of COPD defined by the fixed ratio of the forced expiratory volume in one second (FEV1)/forced vital capacity (FVC) was 10.9%, and the prevalence defined by the Lower Limit of Normal was 5.0%. All SGRQ and CAT scores were skewed to the milder end. In 512 non-smoking subjects with normal spirometry, the mean SGRQ score was 5.7, and the mean CAT score was 5.8. In 145 people with COPD defined by the fixed ratio, the mean SGRQ score was 7.9, with a zero score in 6.9% of the subjects. Using the CAT, the mean score was 7.3, with 7.6% of the scores being zero. The scores in patients identified using the Lower Limit of Normal approach were: SGRQ 8.4 (13.4% had a score of zero) and CAT 7.4 (13.4% had a score of zero). Although the 95th percentiles of the Total, Symptoms, Activity, and Impact scores of the SGRQ and CAT sores were 13.8, 34.0, 23.4, 7.2 and 13.6 in the 512 healthy non-smoking subjects, respectively, they were also distributed under their upper limits in over 80% of the COPD subjects. CONCLUSION: The COPD-specific health status scores in a working population were good, even in those with spirometrically diagnosed COPD. All scores were widely distributed in both healthy non-smoking subjects and in subjects with COPD, and the score distribution overlapped remarkably between these two groups. This suggests that symptom-based methods are not suitable screening tools in a healthy general population.
    Respiratory research 06/2013; 14(1):61. · 3.64 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Whether the combination of a once-daily inhaled corticosteroid with a once-daily longacting β2 agonist is more protective than a once-daily longacting β2 agonist alone against exacerbations of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is unknown. We hypothesised that fluticasone furoate and vilanterol would prevent more exacerbations than would vilanterol alone. We did two replicate double-blind parallel-group 1 year trials. Both studies began on Sept 25, 2009. Study 1 ended on Oct 31, 2011, and study 2 on Oct 17, 2011. Eligible patients were aged 40 years or older, had a history of COPD, a smoking history of 10 or more pack-years, a ratio of forced expiratory volume in 1 s (FEV1) to forced vital capacity of 0·70 or less after bronchodilators (and an FEV1 of 70% or less of predicted), and a documented history of one or more moderate or severe disease exacerbations in the year before screening. Patients were randomly assigned (1:1:1:1) on the basis of the Registration and Medication Ordering System to 25 μg vilanterol alone or 25 μg vilanterol combined with either 50 μg, 100 μg, or 200 μg fluticasone furoate once daily. Our primary endpoint was the yearly rate of moderate and severe exacerbations. The trials were analysed separately and a pooled analysis was also done. These trials are registered with (NCT01009463 and NCT01017952). 1622 patients in study 1 and 1633 patients in study 2 were randomly assigned. In study 1, no significant difference in exacerbation rate was noted between the 200/25 μg fluticasone furoate/vilanterol group and the vilanterol only group (mean 0·90 events vs 1·05 events per year; ratio 0·9 [95% CI 0·7-1·0]). Because of the statistical hierarchy used, we could not infer significance for the 50 μg and 100 μg groups. In study 2, significantly fewer moderate and severe exacerbations were noted in all fluticasone furoate/vilanterol groups than in the vilanterol only group (p=0·0398 for the 50 μg group, 0·0244 for the 100 μg group, and 0·0004 for the 200 μg group). In the pooled analysis, significantly fewer moderate and severe exacerbations were noted in all fluticasone furoate/vilanterol groups than in the vilanterol only group (0·0141 for the 50 μg group, <0·0001 for the 100 μg group, and 0·0003 for the 200 μg group). Nasopharyngitis was the most frequently reported adverse event in both studies. Pneumonia and fractures were reported more frequently with fluticasone furoate and vilanterol than with vilanterol alone. Eight deaths from pneumonia were noted in the fluticasone furoate/vilanterol groups compared with none in the vilanterol only group. Addition of fluticasone furoate to vilanterol was associated with a decreased rate of moderate and severe exacerbations of COPD in patients with a history of exacerbation, but was also associated with an increased pneumonia risk. GlaxoSmithKline.
    The lancet. Respiratory medicine. 05/2013; 1(3):210-23.
  • Paul W Jones
    COPD Journal of Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease 04/2013; 10(2):269-71. · 2.31 Impact Factor
  • The lancet. Respiratory medicine. 03/2013; 1(1):e17-8.
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    ABSTRACT: Our objective was to evaluate the validity of the COPD Assessment Test (CAT), translated locally, for measuring the health status of patients in Asian countries. A pooled analysis of cross-sectional studies from Indonesia, Korea, Vietnam, and Hong Kong was performed. Smokers or ex-smokers, aged ≥ 40 years, with a smoking history of ≥ 10 pack-years and a COPD diagnosis in the past 6 months or more were recruited. Demographic, smoking, and COPD history and spirometry data were collected from patients who completed the CAT or St. George's Respiratory Questionnaire (SGRQ) and had their dyspnea assessed. The study included 333 patients with mean age of 69 ± 9 years and smoking history of 38 ± 25 pack-years; 82% had ceased smoking. One-third suffered from cardiovascular comorbidities, 72% reported at least one exacerbation in the past year, and 82% recorded at least moderate health impairment (CAT scores ≥ 10 units). The CAT score was positively correlated with the SGRQ score (r = 0.72, P < .001) and Medical Research Council (MRC) dyspnea score (r = 0.50, P < .001) and poorly correlated with the FEV1 (r = -0.23, P < .001) and number of exacerbations in the past year (r = 0.11, P = .04). The relationships between the CAT score and SGRQ score, MRC dyspnea score, or FEV1 did not differ between countries (P value for interaction term = 0.76, 0.75, and 0.06, respectively). The CAT correlated well with the SGRQ and MRC dyspnea score in all countries, and the relationship did not differ between countries despite varying patient characteristics. This suggests that a CAT score in one of these countries has the same clinical significance as the same score in another.
    Chest 03/2013; 143(3):703-10. · 5.85 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The 2011 GOLD (Global Strategy for the Diagnosis, Management, and Prevention of Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease [COPD]) consensus report uses symptoms, exacerbation history, and forced expiratory volume (FEV1)% to categorise patients according to disease severity and guide treatment. We aimed to assess both the influence of symptom instrument choice on patient category assignment and prospective exacerbation risk by category. Patients were recruited from 21 centres in the USA, as part of the COPDGene study. Eligible patients were aged 45-80 years, had smoked for 10 pack-years or more, and had an FEV1/forced vital capacity (FVC) <0·7. Categories were defined with the modified Medical Research Council (mMRC) dyspnoea scale (score 0-1 vs ≥2) and the St George's Respiratory Questionnaire (SGRQ; ≥25 vs <25 as a surrogate for the COPD Assessment Test [CAT] ≥10 vs <10) in addition to COPD exacerbations in the previous year (<2 vs ≥ 2), and lung function (FEV1% predicted ≥50 vs <50). Statistical comparisons were done with k-sample permutation tests. This study cohort is registered with, number NCT00608764. 4484 patients with COPD were included in this analysis. Category assignment using the mMRC scale versus SGRQ were similar but not identical. On the basis of the mMRC scale, 1507 (33·6%) patients were assigned to category A, 919 (20·5%) to category B, 355 (7·9%) to category C, and 1703 (38·0%) to category D; on the basis of the SGRQ, 1317 (29·4%) patients were assigned to category A, 1109 (24·7%) to category B, 221 (4·9%) to category C, and 1837 (41·0%) to category D (κ coefficient for agreement, 0·77). Significant heterogeneity in prospective exacerbation rates (exacerbations/person-years) were seen, especially in the D subcategories, depending on the risk factor that determined category assignment (lung function only [0·89, 95% CI 0·78-1·00]), previous exacerbation history only [1·34, 1·0-1·6], or both [1·86, 1·6-2·1; p<0·0001]). The GOLD classification emphasises the importance of symptoms and exacerbation risk when assessing COPD severity. The choice of symptom measure influences category assignment. The relative number of patients with low symptoms and high risk for exacerbations (category C) is low. Differences in exacerbation rates for patients in the highest risk category D were seen depending on whether risk was based on lung function, exacerbation history, or both. National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute, and the COPD Foundation through contributions from AstraZeneca, Boehringer Ingelheim, Novartis, and Sepracor.
    The lancet. Respiratory medicine. 03/2013; 1(1):43-50.
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    ABSTRACT: ABSTRACT RATIONALE: Cognitive impairment is one of the least well-studied COPD comorbidities. It is known to occur in hypoxemic patients, but its presence during acute exacerbation is not established. OBJECTIVES: To assess neuropsychological performance in COPD patients awaiting discharge from hospital following acute exacerbation and recovery and compare with stable outpatients with COPD and healthy controls. METHODS: 110 participants were recruited: 30 COPD in-patients awaiting discharge following an exacerbation, 50 stable COPD outpatients, and 30 controls. Neuropsychological tests measured episodic memory, executive function, visuo-spatial function, working memory, processing speed and an estimate of premorbid abilities. Follow up cognitive assessments for stable and exacerbating patients were completed at 3 months. RESULTS: Exacerbators were significantly worse (p<0.05) than stable patients over a range of measures of cognitive function, independent of hypoxemia, disease severity, cerebrovascular risk or pack years smoked. In exacerbators up to 57% were in the impaired range and 20% were considered to have suffered a pathological loss in processing speed. Impaired cognition was associated with worse SGRQ score (r=-0.40-0.62 p≤0.02) and longer length of stay (r=0.42, p =0.02). There was no improvement in any aspect of cognition at recovery three months later. CONCLUSION: In patients hospitalized with an acute exacerbation impaired cognitive function is associated with worse health status and greater hospital length of stay. A significant proportion of patients are discharged home with unrecognized mild-severe cognitive impairment, which may not improve with recovery.
    Chest 01/2013; · 5.85 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The Global initiative for chronic Obstructive Lung Disease (GOLD) Committee has proposed a chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) assessment framework focused on symptoms and on exacerbation risk. This study will evaluate a symptom and exacerbation risk-based treatment strategy based on GOLD in a real-world setting in Japan. Optimal management of COPD will be determined by assessing symptoms using the COPD Assessment Test (CAT) and by assessing the frequency of exacerbations. This study ( identifier: NCT01762800) is a 24-week, multicenter, randomized, double-blind, double-dummy, parallel-group study. It aims to recruit 400 patients with moderate-to-severe COPD. Patients will be randomized to receive treatment with either salmeterol/fluticasone propionate (SFC) 50/250 μg twice daily or with tiotropium bromide 18 μg once daily. Optimal management of patients will be assessed at four-weekly intervals and, if patients remain symptomatic, as measured using the CAT, or experience an exacerbation, they have the option to step up to treatment with both drugs, ie, SFC twice daily and tiotropium once daily (TRIPLE therapy). The primary endpoint of the study will be the proportion of patients who are able to remain on the randomized therapy. No data are available. This paper summarizes the methodology of the study in advance of the study starting. The results of this study will help physicians to understand whether TRIPLE therapy is more effective than either treatment strategy alone in controlling symptoms and exacerbations in patients with moderate-to-severe COPD. It will also help physicians to understand the GOLD recommendation work in Japan.
    International Journal of COPD 01/2013; 8:453-459.
  • James W Dodd, Paul W Jones
    American Journal of Respiratory and Critical Care Medicine 10/2012; 186(8):804-5. · 11.04 Impact Factor

Publication Stats

3k Citations
342.81 Total Impact Points


  • 2014
    • St. George's School
      Middletown, Rhode Island, United States
  • 2006–2014
    • St George's, University of London
      • Division of Clinical Sciences
      Londinium, England, United Kingdom
  • 2013
    • Keio University
      • School of Medicine
      Edo, Tōkyō, Japan
  • 2006–2013
    • University of London
      Londinium, England, United Kingdom
  • 2011
    • University of Salford
      Salford, England, United Kingdom
    • University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill
      • Department of Medicine
      Chapel Hill, NC, United States
  • 2003
    • Aintree University Hospital NHS Foundation Trust
      Liverpool, England, United Kingdom