Silvana C Faria

University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, TX, United States

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Publications (30)86 Total impact

  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is a major health problem worldwide. Moreover, the liver cancer field is evolving rapidly, with early diagnosis, new therapies, and a better understanding of HCC's biology and development. Accurate staging is important for determining prognosis and selecting the most appropriate treatment for each patient. Surgical intervention remains the most effective treatment for HCC and is the only potentially curative modality. However, in HCC patients, overall survival is also independently affected by underlying liver disease and cirrhosis, which in turn affect the applicability and efficacy of treatment. Although several staging classification and prognostic scoring systems have been proposed for determining the stage and prognosis of HCC, no consensus exists on the best classification method. The most common staging classification systems include tumor-node-metastasis stage, Okuda staging, Cancer of the Liver Italian Program score, Barcelona Clinic Liver Cancer staging classification, the French, the Chinese University Prognostic Index, Japanese Integrated Scoring, and the Tokyo score. Radiologists should be aware of the different staging classification systems for HCC and familiar with the system relevant to their respective referring clinicians, as it will provide pertinent radiological evaluation for multidisciplinary management.
    Abdominal Imaging 04/2014; · 1.91 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: OBJECTIVE. This article will describe and illustrate the relevant anatomy and surgical techniques used in pelvic reconstruction using regional pedicled thigh flaps, which is often necessary in oncologic surgeries. Examples of normal postoperative imaging and common complications that can accompany pelvic reconstruction with anterolateral, gracilis myocutaneous, and posterior thigh fasciocutaneous flaps will be provided. CONCLUSION. Pelvic reconstruction using regional pedicled thigh flaps is often needed with extirpative oncologic surgeries to eliminate dead space, provide pelvic organ support, restore form and function, and introduce vascularized tissue to promote wound healing. Radiologists need to be aware of the normal postoperative appearance of these flaps so that the flaps are not mistaken for residual or recurrent disease and so that residual or recurrent disease can be identified and treated.
    American Journal of Roentgenology 03/2014; 202(3):593-601. · 2.90 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Soft-tissue reconstruction of the pelvis with vascularized tissue flaps has become an increasingly common procedure. The types of flaps and the indications for their use vary, but all flap procedures are performed with the goal of transferring tissue from a donor site to a recipient site to restore form and function, obliterate dead space, and create an environment favorable to wound healing. Oncologic surgeries, including total pelvic exenteration and abdominoperineal resection, are the leading indications for pelvic reconstruction. The pedicle flaps most commonly used for pelvic reconstruction following these oncologic interventions are the vertical rectus abdominis myocutaneous flap (VRAM) and the omental pedicle flap. Familiarity with the surgical techniques used for pelvic reconstruction with these flaps is crucial for the accurate interpretation of cross-sectional imaging studies, allowing the radiologist to distinguish between normal postoperative findings and complications or recurrent disease.
    Radiographics 11/2011; 31(7):2005-19. · 2.79 Impact Factor
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    Abdominal Imaging 02/2011; · 1.91 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The complex extraperitoneal anatomy of the pelvis includes various outlets for the transit of organs and neurovascular structures to the rest of the body. These outlets include the greater sciatic foramen, lesser sciatic foramen, inguinal canal, femoral triangle, obturator canal, anal and genitourinary hiatuses of the pelvic floor, prevesical space, and iliopsoas compartment. All of these structures serve as conduits for the dissemination of malignant and benign inflammatory diseases from the pelvic cavity and into the soft-tissue structures of the abdominal wall, buttocks, and upper thigh. Knowledge of the pelvic anatomy is crucial to understand these patterns of disease spread. Cross-sectional imaging provides important anatomic information and depicts the extent of disease and its involvement of surrounding extrapelvic structures, information that is important for planning surgery and radiation therapy.
    Radiographics 01/2011; 31(1):117-33. · 2.79 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The purpose of this article is to describe and demonstrate the appearances of extramural vascular invasion on computed tomography in gastrointestinal malignancies as one of the pathways of disease spread. In this article, we demonstrate the imaging features with pathologically proven examples, along with a brief description of relevant vascular anatomy. We shall also discuss the clinical significance and prognostic implications of extramural vascular invasion in gastrointestinal malignancies.
    Abdominal Imaging 12/2010; 36(5):491-502. · 1.91 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The objective of our study was to assess the potential value of tumor perfusion parameters measured by perfusion CT as possible biomarkers of prognosis and early indicator of treatment efficacy in patients with metastatic conventional renal cell carcinoma (RCC) treated with interferon. This study comprised 37 patients with metastatic RCC who were enrolled in a larger (n=118) randomized clinical trial of intermediate- versus low-dose interferon. Tumor perfusion parameters-that is, tumor blood flow, blood volume, mean transit time (MTT), and permeability-surface area product-of index metastatic lesions were obtained at baseline and at 8-week follow-up. Baseline perfusion parameters and changes at follow-up were compared, and their associations with patient progression-free survival were estimated. Univariate and multivariate analyses were performed. Twenty-eight patients were assessable. Median progression-free survival was 5.3 months (95% CI, 2.4-7.4 months), with one partial response. Tumor blood flow at baseline was inversely associated with patient progression-free survival in both univariate (hazard ratio [HR]=1.006, p=0.025) and multivariate (HR=1.007, p=0.012) analyses. There were significant increases in tumor blood flow and reductions in MTT on follow-up scans compared with baseline scans (both, p=0.04), but no association between changes in perfusion parameters and progression-free survival was detected. Patients with highly vascularized metastatic RCC as shown by high baseline tumor blood flow appear to have a worse prognosis than those who do not. Tumor perfusion may be a useful biomarker of prognosis and additionally, in the future, may assist in treatment stratification. The potential utility of perfusion CT as an early response indicator was probably inadequately assessed in this study because of the limited antiangiogenic activity of interferon in metastatic RCC.
    American Journal of Roentgenology 01/2010; 194(1):166-71. · 2.90 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The objective of this study was to evaluate the prevalence and positron emission tomography (PET) imaging features of pulmonary drug toxicity in patients with lymphoma during or just following chemotherapy. A total of 677 PET scans on 460 patients with lymphoma (351 non-Hodgkin's lymphoma, 92 Hodgkin's disease, and 17 both Hodgkin's and non-Hodgkin's lymphoma) were performed for the evaluation of chemotherapy response. In 51 patients, abnormal accumulation on both sides of the chest was reported. A review of medical records, (18)fluorodeoxyglucose ((18)FDG)-PET scans, and chest computed tomography (CT) was performed, and cases with probable drug toxicity were identified. Inclusion criteria of probable drug toxicity were abnormal but symmetrical FDG accumulation in both lungs seen during or just following the completion of chemotherapy, the abnormal accumulation or corresponding abnormal CT findings resolved on subsequent studies, exclusion of clinical diagnosis of pneumonia, radiation pneumonitis, or lymphoma involvement. In 10 patients (six men and four women, average age 47.3), 2.2% of cases, probable drug toxicity was identified. In all 10 cases, diffuse and subpleural-dominant FDG accumulation was seen on FDG-PET scans, and scattered or diffuse ground-glass opacities were observed on chest CT. Four patients reported symptoms, and six patients did not report any symptoms. Diffuse and peripheral-dominant FDG accumulation in the lung, which may represent pulmonary drug toxicity, was not uncommon in patients with lymphoma who underwent chemotherapy. FDG-PET scan might be able to detect pulmonary drug toxicity in asymptomatic patients.
    Annals of Nuclear Medicine 03/2008; 22(2):111-4. · 1.41 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Surgery remains the only curative option for the treatment of pancreatic adenocarcinoma. Local tumor resectability depends on a number of factors, but most importantly, the relationship of the tumor to adjacent arterial structures. For example, surgery is rarely performed when the tumor involves the celiac axis or the superior mesenteric artery. Unexpected variant arterial anatomy or tumor involvement of aberrant arteries may complicate pancreatic surgery. The classic visceral arterial anatomy occurs in only 55%-60% of the population, with one or more variant vessels occurring in the remaining population. Knowledge of both variant and normal anatomy is essential for accurate preoperative planning. We describe here the arterial variant anatomy of the pancreas and its identification by multidetector CT imaging, with and without the aid of post-processed volume-rendered images.
    Abdominal Imaging 01/2008; 33(2):214-21. · 1.91 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Our objective was to use functional CT to evaluate the effects of thalidomide in patients with metastatic renal cell carcinoma. Patients with proven metastatic renal cell carcinoma were examined prospectively with functional CT. Functional CT studies (cine mode, 4 x 5 mm) were performed through the tumor after i.v. administration of a bolus of contrast material before and every 12 weeks after treatment with thalidomide. Quantitative values for blood flow, blood volume, mean transit time, and permeability-surface area product were calculated with commercial software. The average difference in percentage change in functional CT parameters from pretreatment to 12 and 24 weeks after treatment and the median difference in percentage change in functional CT parameters between response groups were assessed. We also tested whether percentage changes in functional CT parameters 12 weeks after treatment correlated with time to progression of disease and size of the perfused lesion. Sixteen patients with a total of 23 tumors underwent at least one follow-up functional CT examination. Blood flow, blood volume, and permeability-surface area product decreased significantly 12 weeks (-18%, p = 0.0039; -15%, p = 0.0350; -24%, p = 0.0010) and 24 weeks (-28%, p = 0.017; -19%, p = 0.0300; -25%, p = 0.0031) after treatment with thalidomide. Time to progression correlated significantly with percentage change in blood flow (r = -0.34; p = 0.040) and permeability-surface area product (r = -0.36, p = 0.023) at 12 weeks. Responders had a significantly larger decrease in blood flow 12 weeks after treatment than did nonresponders (-29% vs -6%; p = 0.032). We also found a significant correlation between decrease in size of the perfused lesion and percentage decrease in blood flow 12 weeks after treatment (r = 0.50; p = 0.019). Changes in functional CT parameters 12 weeks after treatment may be useful for monitoring the effects of thalidomide and predicting treatment outcome among patients with metastatic renal cell carcinoma. Further study with a larger clinical trial is needed.
    American Journal of Roentgenology 09/2007; 189(2):378-85. · 2.90 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The optimal approach for detecting small pancreatic tumors is uncertain. We compared multidetector CT (MDCT) with follow-up endoscopic ultrasonography (EUS) without or with fine-needle aspiration (EUS-FNA) for diagnosing pancreatic cancer. Patients with suspicion of pancreatic cancer who underwent dual-phase MDCT and follow-up EUS were retrospectively reviewed. This consisted of scoring MDCT scans independently by three radiologists on a 1-5 scale of certainty, determining whether a stent was present, scoring EUS reports regarding presence of a mass and analyzing EUS-FNA results. A total of 117 patients underwent MDCT and EUS. ROC values for MDCT were 0.85, 0.87, and 0.91. There was no significant difference in the accuracy of EUS and MDCT. Follow-up EUS (99%) was significantly more sensitive than MDCT (89% and 93%), as interpreted by two radiologists. Follow-up EUS was statistically significantly more sensitive than MDCT (96% vs. 70%) for one radiologist for tumors < 2 cm. Specificity of EUS was 50%, and sensitivity of EUS-FNA was 82%. Negative predictive value of EUS-FNA was significantly less in patients with (21%) than without (70%) biliary stents. Follow-up EUS improves lesion detection over MDCT alone. Close follow-up/repeat biopsy should be considered if FNA is negative, but EUS is positive.
    Abdominal Imaging 08/2007; 32(5):660-7. · 1.91 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Despite the use of radiologic, endoscopic, and laparoscopic staging techniques, the rate of nontherapeutic laparotomies in patients with hilar cholangiocarcinoma remains high. This study evaluated the accuracy of preoperative high-resolution computed tomography (HRCT) to determine resectability in this setting. Preoperative helical HRCT (2 contrast phases, rapid intravenous contrast bolus, 2.5-mm section thickness) for 32 consecutive patients who underwent laparotomy for the diagnosis of hilar cholangiocarcinoma from 2000 to 2005 were reviewed by a hepatobiliary radiologist. The accuracy of HRCT was determined by comparison of the imaging interpretation to intraoperative and pathologic findings. The chi-square test was used to identify imaging findings that best predicted unresectability. Fourteen of the 32 (44%) study patients were unresectable (extension along bile duct, 4; peritoneal metastases, 4; vascular encasement, 3; noncontiguous liver metastases, 2; N2 lymphadenopathy, 1). HRCT correctly predicted resectability in 17 of 18 patients who underwent therapeutic laparotomy (sensitivity = 94%). HRCT correctly predicted the inability to resect in 11 of the remaining 14 cases (specificity = 79%). In the 3 cases in which HRCT predicted resectability and the patient was unresectable, subcentimeter peritoneal disease, a subcentimeter liver metastasis, and distal bile duct involvement were responsible factors. The negative and positive predictive values of HRCT were 92% and 85%, respectively. Individual radiographic findings that best predicted unresectability were peritoneal spread (P = .015) and hepatic artery (P = .006) or portal vein (P = .002) involvement. Preoperative HRCT accurately predicts resectability in patients with hilar cholangiocarcinoma. Identification of specific radiographic features, in particular major vascular involvement and peritoneal abnormalities, is now used by our group to avoid unnecessary laparotomy.
    American journal of surgery 07/2007; 193(6):702-6. · 2.36 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Response Evaluation Criteria in Solid Tumors (RECIST) are insensitive in evaluating gastrointestinal stromal tumors (GISTs) treated with imatinib. This study evaluates whether computed tomography (CT) findings of GIST after imatinib treatment correlate with tumor responses by [18F]fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG) positron emission tomography (PET) and develops reliable, quantitative, CT response criteria. A total of 172 lesions selected by RECIST were evaluated in 40 patients with metastatic GISTs treated with imatinib. All patients had pretreatment and 2-month follow-up CTs and FDG-PETs. Multivariate analysis was performed using tumor size and density (Hounsfield unit [HU]) on CT and maximum standardized uptake value (SUVmax) on FDG-PET. Patients were observed up to 28 months. Mean baseline tumor size and density on CT were 5.3 cm and 72.8 HU, respectively, and mean baseline SUVmax on FDG-PET was 5.8. Thirty-three patients had good response on FDG-PET. A decrease in tumor size of more than 10% or a decrease in tumor density of more than 15% on CT had a sensitivity of 97% and a specificity of 100% in identifying PET responders versus 52% and 100% by RECIST. Good responders on CT at 2 months had significantly longer time to progression than those who did not respond (P = .01). Small changes in tumor size or density on CT are sensitive and specific methods of assessing the response of GISTs. If the prognostic value of our proposed CT response criteria can be confirmed prospectively, the criteria should be employed in future studies of patients with GIST.
    Journal of Clinical Oncology 06/2007; 25(13):1753-9. · 18.04 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND: The optimal approach for detecting small pancreatic tumors is uncertain. We compared multidetector CT (MDCT) with follow-up endoscopic ultrasonography (EUS) without or with fine-needle aspiration (EUS-FNA) for diagnosing pancreatic cancer. METHODS: Patients presenting with suspicion of pancreatic cancer who underwent dual-phase MDCT and follow-up EUS were retrospectively reviewed. This consisted of scoring MDCT scans independently by 3 radiologists on a 1-5 scale of certainty, determining whether a stent was present, scoring EUS reports regarding presence of a mass and analyzing EUS-FNA results. RESULTS: One hundred seventeen patients underwent MDCT and EUS. ROC values for MDCT were 0.85, 0.87, and 0.91. There was no significant difference in the accuracy of EUS and MDCT. Follow-up EUS (99%) was significantly more sensitive than MDCT (89% and 93%), as interpreted by two radiologists. Follow-up EUS was statistically significantly more sensitive than MDCT (96% vs. 70%) for one radiologist for tumors < 2 cm. Specificity of EUS was 50%, and sensitivity of EUS-FNA was 82%. Negative predictive value of EUS-FNA was significantly less in patients with (21%) than without (70%) biliary stents. CONCLUSIONS: Followup EUS improves lesion detection over MDCT alone. Close follow-up/repeat biopsy should be considered if FNA is negative but EUS is positive.
    Abdominal Imaging 06/2007; · 1.91 Impact Factor
  • Revathy B Iyer, Silvana Faria, Ronelle Dubrow
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    ABSTRACT: Colorectal cancer is a leading cause of morbidity and mortality in the United States. It is also a disease that is preventable if precursor adenomatous polys are removed. Once a diagnosis of colorectal cancer is made, surgical resection is the only means of cure. The ability to resect colorectal cancer for cure is largely dependent upon the stage of tumor at presentation. Once a patient has been treated for colorectal cancer with surgery and in some cases neo-adjuvant or adjuvant therapy, they will present for follow-up. Surveillance is performed on these patients in order to detect local recurrence that if detected early can be surgically resected for cure. Surveillance also allows detection of distant metastatic disease that may in some cases also be cured with resection. Finally, surveillance of the remaining colon is important to detect the development of new or metachronous adenomatoid polyps that if left in place could develop into new colon cancers. Imaging can play a part in patient surveillance to detect recurrent disease at extracolonic sites as well as the development of new colonic lesions. CT colonography is a promising tool for surveillance in patients with a history of colorectal cancer.
    Abdominal Imaging 01/2007; 32(2):234-8. · 1.91 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: OBJECTIVE: The objective of this article is to describe the imaging appearances of radiation injury to normal tissues in the abdomen that may be seen during imaging surveillance of oncology patients. CONCLUSION: Therapeutic radiation is used to treat various malignant conditions in the abdomen. Radiation damages normal surrounding tissues as well as the intended tumor. Radiation changes vary based on the target organ and the time from completion of therapy. Familiarity with the spectrum of changes that may be seen on follow-up imaging studies should help in the differentiation of radiation injury from other causes such as recurrent malignancy.
    American Journal of Roentgenology 12/2006; 187(5):1204-11. · 2.90 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND: Preoperative chemoradiation can potentially improve outcomes in patients with pancreatic cancer. This study addresses its impact on staging pancreatic cancer with multidetector CT (MDCT). METHODS: Fifty-five patients underwent a dual phase MDCT pancreas protocol for proven pancreatic cancer. Of these, 16 patients underwent preoperative chemoradiation. Three radiologists independently reviewed images to assess for locally advanced disease, and liver and peritoneal metastases on the baseline studies of all 55 patients, and on the followup preoperative studies for the 16 patients receiving preoperative therapy. Overall score for resectability was given on a 1-5 scale (1 definitely resectable, 5 definitely unresectable). ROC curves and weighted kappa statistics were determined. RESULTS: The area under the ROC curves for Readers 1, 2, and 3 were 0.98, 0.96, and 0.90 respectively. Weighted K values for Reader 1 vs. 2, Reader 1 vs. 3, and Reader 2 vs. 3 were 0.90, 0.57, and 0.54, respectively. Interpreting scores of 1-3 for resectability as resectable disease, the mean sensitivity, specificity, negative predictive value, positive predictive value, and accuracy were 0.92, 0.91, 0.74, 0.98, and 0.92, respectively. CONCLUSION: The negative predictive value for MDCT for identifying unresectable pancreatic cancer in the setting of preoperative therapy is comparable with that reported in the absence of neoadjuvant therapy.
    Abdominal Imaging 10/2006; · 1.91 Impact Factor
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    American Journal of Roentgenology 03/2006; 186(2):467-9. · 2.90 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: To demonstrate the (18)F-fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography ((18)F-FDG PET) findings in patients with non-Hodgkinos lymphoma (NHL) involving the gastrointestinal (GI) tract and the clinical utility of modality despite of the known normal uptake of FDG in the GI tract. Thirty-three patients with biopsy-proven gastrointestinal NHL who had undergone FDG-PET scan were included. All the patients were injected with 10-15 mCi FDG and scanned approximately 60 min later with a CTI/Siemens HR (+) PET scanner. PET scans were reviewed and the maximum standard uptake value (SUV(max)) of the lesions was measured before and after the treatment, if data were available and compared with histologic diagnoses. Twenty-five patients had a high-grade lymphoma and eight had a low-grade lymphoma. The stomach was the most common site of the involvement (20 patients). In high-grade lymphoma, PET showed focal nodular or diffuse hypermetabolic activity. The average SUV(max)+/-SD was 11.58+/-5.83. After the therapy, the patients whose biopsies showed no evidence of lymphoma had a lower uptake without focal lesions. The SUV(max)+/-SD decreased from 11.58+/-5.83 to 2.21+/-0.78. In patients whose post-treatment biopsies showed lymphoma, the SUV(max)+/-SD was 9.42+/-6.27. Low-grade follicular lymphomas of the colon and stomach showed diffuse hypermetabolic activity in the bowel wall (SUV(max) 8.2 and 10.3, respectively). The SUV(max) was 2.02-3.8 (mean 3.02) in the stomach lesions of patients with MALT lymphoma. ONCLUSION: (18)F-FDG PET contributes to the diagnosis of high-grade gastrointestinal non-Hodgkin's lymphoma, even when there is the normal background FDG activity. Furthermore, the SUV plays a role in evaluating treatment response. Low-grade NHL demonstrates FDG uptake but at a lesser intensity than seen in high-grade NHL.
    World Journal of Gastroenterology 01/2006; 11(46):7284-9. · 2.55 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Preoperative chemoradiation can potentially improve outcomes in patients with pancreatic cancer. This study addresses its effect on staging pancreatic cancer with multidetector computed tomography (MDCT). Fifty-five patients underwent a dual-phase MDCT pancreas protocol for proved pancreatic cancer. Of these, 16 patients underwent preoperative chemoradiation. Three radiologists independently reviewed images to assess for locally advanced disease, liver and peritoneal metastases on baseline studies of all 55 patients, and on follow-up preoperative studies for the 16 patients receiving preoperative therapy. Overall score for resectability was graded on a scale from 1 to 5 (1, definitely resectable; 5. definitely unresectable). Receiver operating characteristic curves and weighted (kappa statistics were determined. The areas under the receiver operating characteristic curves for readers 1, 2, and 3 were 0.98, 0.96, and 0.90, respectively. Weighted kappa values for reader 1 versus reader 2, reader 1 versus reader 3, and reader 2 versus reader 3 were 0.90, 0.57, and 0.54, respectively. Interpreting scores of 1 to 3 for resectability as resectable disease, the mean values for sensitivity, specificity, negative predictive value, positive predictive value, and accuracy were 0.92, 0.91, 0.74, 0.98, and 0.92 respectively. The negative predictive value for MDCT for identifying unresectable pancreatic cancer in the setting of preoperative therapy is comparable to that reported in the absence of neoadjuvant therapy.
    Abdominal Imaging 01/2006; 31(5):568-74. · 1.91 Impact Factor

Publication Stats

884 Citations
86.00 Total Impact Points

Institutions

  • 2005–2011
    • University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center
      • • Division of Diagnostic Imaging
      • • Department of Surgical Oncology
      Houston, TX, United States
  • 2010
    • Tan Tock Seng Hospital
      Tumasik, Singapore
  • 2006
    • Ramathibodi Hospital
      Krung Thep, Bangkok, Thailand