[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The canonical pathway for IL-1β production requires TLR-mediated NF-κB-dependent Il1b gene induction, followed by caspase-containing inflammasome-mediated processing of pro-IL-1β. Here we show that IL-21 unexpectedly induces IL-1β production in conventional dendritic cells (cDCs) via a STAT3-dependent but NF-κB-independent pathway. IL-21 does not induce Il1b expression in CD4(+) T cells, with differential histone marks present in these cells versus cDCs. IL-21-induced IL-1β processing in cDCs does not require caspase-1 or caspase-8 but depends on IL-21-mediated death and activation of serine protease(s). Moreover, STAT3-dependent IL-1β expression in cDCs at least partially explains the IL-21-mediated pathologic response occurring during infection with pneumonia virus of mice. These results demonstrate lineage-restricted IL-21-induced IL-1β via a non-canonical pathway and provide evidence for its importance in vivo.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Mixed lineage kinase domain-like pseudokinase (MLKL) mediates necroptosis by translocating to the plasma membrane and inducing its rupture. The activation of MLKL occurs in a multimolecular complex (the 'necrosome'), which is comprised of MLKL, receptor-interacting serine/threonine kinase (RIPK)-3 (RIPK3) and, in some cases, RIPK1. Within this complex, RIPK3 phosphorylates the activation loop of MLKL, promoting conformational changes and allowing the formation of MLKL oligomers, which migrate to the plasma membrane. Previous studies suggested that RIPK3 could phosphorylate the murine MLKL activation loop at Ser345, Ser347 and Thr349. Moreover, substitution of the Ser345 for an aspartic acid creates a constitutively active MLKL, independent of RIPK3 function. Here we examine the role of each of these residues and found that the phosphorylation of Ser345 is critical for RIPK3-mediated necroptosis, Ser347 has a minor accessory role and Thr349 seems to be irrelevant. We generated a specific monoclonal antibody to detect phospho-Ser345 in murine cells. Using this antibody, a series of MLKL mutants and a novel RIPK3 inhibitor, we demonstrate that the phosphorylation of Ser345 is not required for the interaction between RIPK3 and MLKL in the necrosome, but is essential for MLKL translocation, accumulation in the plasma membrane, and consequent necroptosis.Cell Death and Differentiation advance online publication, 29 May 2015; doi:10.1038/cdd.2015.70.
Cell death and differentiation 05/2015; DOI:10.1038/cdd.2015.70 · 8.18 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Inflammasomes are central mediators of host defense to a wide range of microbial pathogens. The nucleotide-binding domain and leucine-rich repeat containing family (NLR), pyrin domain-containing 3 (NLRP3) inflammasome plays a key role in triggering caspase-1-dependent IL-1β maturation and resistance to fungal dissemination in Candida albicans infection. β-Glucans are major components of fungal cell walls that trigger IL-1β secretion in both murine and human immune cells. In this study, we sought to determine the contribution of β-glucans to C. albicans-induced inflammasome responses in mouse dendritic cells. We show that the NLRP3-apoptosis-associated speck-like protein containing caspase recruitment domain protein-caspase-1 inflammasome is absolutely critical for IL-1β production in response to β-glucans. Interestingly, we also found that both complement receptor 3 (CR3) and dectin-1 play a crucial role in coordinating β-glucan-induced IL-1β processing as well as a cell death response. In addition to the essential role of caspase-1, we identify an important role for the proapoptotic protease caspase-8 in promoting β-glucan-induced cell death and NLRP3 inflammasome-dependent IL-1β maturation. A strong requirement for CR3 and caspase-8 also was found for NLRP3-dependent IL-1β production in response to heat-killed C. albicans. Taken together, these results define the importance of dectin-1, CR3, and caspase-8, in addition to the canonical NLRP3 inflammasome, in mediating β-glucan- and C. albicans-induced innate responses in dendritic cells. Collectively, these findings establish a novel link between β-glucan recognition receptors and the inflammatory proteases caspase-8 and caspase-1 in coordinating cytokine secretion and cell death in response to immunostimulatory fungal components.
The Journal of Immunology 07/2014; 193(5). DOI:10.4049/jimmunol.1400276 · 4.92 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Receptor-interacting protein kinase (RIPK)-1 is involved in RIPK3-dependent and -independent signaling pathways leading to cell death and/or inflammation. Genetic ablation of ripk1 causes postnatal lethality, which was not prevented by deletion of ripk3, caspase-8, or fadd. However, animals that lack RIPK1, RIPK3, and either caspase-8 or FADD survived weaning and matured normally. RIPK1 functions in vitro to limit caspase-8-dependent, TNFR-induced apoptosis, and animals lacking RIPK1, RIPK3, and TNFR1 survive to adulthood. The role of RIPK3 in promoting lethality in ripk1(-/-) mice suggests that RIPK3 activation is inhibited by RIPK1 postbirth. Whereas TNFR-induced RIPK3-dependent necroptosis requires RIPK1, cells lacking RIPK1 were sensitized to necroptosis triggered by poly I:C or interferons. Disruption of TLR (TRIF) or type I interferon (IFNAR) signaling delayed lethality in ripk1(-/-)tnfr1(-/-) mice. These results clarify the complex roles for RIPK1 in postnatal life and provide insights into the regulation of FADD-caspase-8 and RIPK3-MLKL signaling by RIPK1.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Toll-like receptor signaling and subsequent activation of NF-κB- and MAPK-dependent genes during infection play an important role in antimicrobial host defense. The YopJ protein of pathogenic Yersinia species inhibits NF-κB and MAPK signaling, resulting in blockade of NF-κB-dependent cytokine production and target cell death. Nevertheless, Yersinia infection induces inflammatory responses in vivo. Moreover, increasing the extent of YopJ-dependent cytotoxicity induced by Yersinia pestis and Yersinia pseudotuberculosis paradoxically leads to decreased virulence in vivo, suggesting that cell death promotes anti-Yersinia host defense. However, the specific pathways responsible for YopJ-induced cell death and how this cell death mediates immune defense against Yersinia remain poorly defined. YopJ activity induces processing of multiple caspases, including caspase-1, independently of inflammasome components or the adaptor protein ASC. Unexpectedly, caspase-1 activation in response to the activity of YopJ required caspase-8, receptor-interacting serine/threonine kinase 1 (RIPK1), and Fas-associated death domain (FADD), but not RIPK3. Furthermore, whereas RIPK3 deficiency did not affect YopJ-induced cell death or caspase-1 activation, deficiency of both RIPK3 and caspase-8 or FADD completely abrogated Yersinia-induced cell death and caspase-1 activation. Mice lacking RIPK3 and caspase-8 in their hematopoietic compartment showed extreme susceptibility to Yersinia and were deficient in monocyte and neutrophil-derived production of proinflammatory cytokines. Our data demonstrate for the first time to our knowledge that RIPK1, FADD, and caspase-8 are required for YopJ-induced cell death and caspase-1 activation and suggest that caspase-8-mediated cell death overrides blockade of immune signaling by YopJ to promote anti-Yersinia immune defense.
Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences 05/2014; 111(20). DOI:10.1073/pnas.1403252111 · 9.67 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The accumulation of improperly folded proteins within the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) generates perturbations known as ER stress that engage the unfolded protein response. ER stress is involved in many inflammatory pathologies that are also associated with the production of the proinflammatory cytokine IL-1β. In this study, we demonstrate that macrophages undergoing ER stress are able to drive the production and processing of pro-IL-1β in response to LPS stimulation in vitro. Interestingly, the classical NLRP3 inflammasome is dispensable, because maturation of pro-IL-1β occurs normally in the absence of the adaptor protein ASC. In contrast, processing of pro-IL-1β is fully dependent on caspase-8. Intriguingly, we found that neither the unfolded protein response transcription factors XBP1 and CHOP nor the TLR4 adaptor molecule MyD88 is necessary for caspase-8 activation. Instead, both caspase activation and IL-1β production require the alternative TLR4 adaptor TRIF. This pathway may contribute to IL-1-driven tissue pathology in certain disease settings.
The Journal of Immunology 01/2014; 192(5). DOI:10.4049/jimmunol.1302549 · 4.92 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The Nlrp3 inflammasome is critical for host immunity, but the mechanisms controlling its activation are enigmatic. In this study, we show that loss of FADD or caspase-8 in a RIP3-deficient background, but not RIP3 deficiency alone, hampered transcriptional priming and posttranslational activation of the canonical and noncanonical Nlrp3 inflammasome. Deletion of caspase-8 in the presence or absence of RIP3 inhibited caspase-1 and caspase-11 activation by Nlrp3 stimuli but not the Nlrc4 inflammasome. In addition, FADD deletion prevented caspase-8 maturation, positioning FADD upstream of caspase-8. Consequently, FADD- and caspase-8-deficient mice had impaired IL-1β production when challenged with LPS or infected with the enteropathogen Citrobacter rodentium. Thus, our results reveal FADD and caspase-8 as apical mediators of canonical and noncanonical Nlrp3 inflammasome priming and activation.
The Journal of Immunology 01/2014; 192(4). DOI:10.4049/jimmunol.1302839 · 4.92 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Caspase-8 or cellular FLICE-like inhibitor protein (cFLIP) deficiency leads to embryonic lethality in mice due to defects in endothelial tissues. Caspase-8(-/-) and receptor-interacting protein kinase-3 (RIPK3)(-/-), but not cFLIP(-/-) and RIPK3(-/-), double-knockout animals develop normally, indicating that caspase-8 antagonizes the lethal effects of RIPK3 during development. Here, we show that the acute deletion of caspase-8 in the gut of adult mice induces enterocyte death, disruption of tissue homeostasis, and inflammation, resulting in sepsis and mortality. Likewise, acute deletion of caspase-8 in a focal region of the skin induces local keratinocyte death, tissue disruption, and inflammation. Strikingly, RIPK3 ablation rescues both phenotypes. However, acute loss of cFLIP in the skin produces a similar phenotype that is not rescued by RIPK3 ablation. TNF neutralization protects from either acute loss of caspase-8 or cFLIP. These results demonstrate that caspase-8-mediated suppression of RIPK3-induced death is required not only during development but also for adult homeostasis. Furthermore, RIPK3-dependent inflammation is dispensable for the skin phenotype.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Caspase-8, the initiator caspase of the death receptor pathway of apoptosis, its adapter molecule, FADD, required for caspase-8 activation, and cFLIPL, a caspase-8-like protein that lacks a catalytic site and blocks caspase-8-mediated apoptosis, are each essential for embryonic development. Animals deficient in any of these genes present with E10.5 embryonic lethality. Recent studies have shown that development in caspase-8-deficient mice is rescued by ablation of RIPK3, a kinase that promotes a form of programmed, necrotic cell death. Here, we show that FADD, RIPK3 double-knockout mice develop normally but that the lethal effects of cFLIP deletion are not rescued by RIPK3 deficiency. Remarkably, in mice lacking FADD, cFLIP, and RIPK3, embryonic development is normal. This can be explained by the convergence of two cell processes: the enzymatic activity of the FADD-caspase-8-cFLIPL complex blocks RIPK3-dependent signaling (including necrosis), whereas cFLIPL blocks RIPK3-independent apoptosis promoted by the FADD-caspase-8 complex.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: To fulfill the bioenergetic and biosynthetic demand of proliferation, T cells reprogram their metabolic pathways from fatty acid β-oxidation and pyruvate oxidation via the TCA cycle to the glycolytic, pentose-phosphate, and glutaminolytic pathways. Two of the top-ranked candidate transcription factors potentially responsible for the activation-induced T cell metabolic transcriptome, HIF1α and Myc, were induced upon T cell activation, but only the acute deletion of Myc markedly inhibited activation-induced glycolysis and glutaminolysis in T cells. Glutamine deprivation compromised activation-induced T cell growth and proliferation, and this was partially replaced by nucleotides and polyamines, implicating glutamine as an important source for biosynthetic precursors in active T cells. Metabolic tracer analysis revealed a Myc-dependent metabolic pathway linking glutaminolysis to the biosynthesis of polyamines. Therefore, a Myc-dependent global metabolic transcriptome drives metabolic reprogramming in activated, primary T lymphocytes. This may represent a general mechanism for metabolic reprogramming under patho-physiological conditions.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: During apoptosis, the BCL-2 protein family controls mitochondrial outer membrane permeabilization (MOMP), but the dynamics of this regulation remain controversial. We employed chimeric proteins composed of exogenous BH3 domains inserted into a tBID backbone that can activate the proapoptotic effectors BAX and BAK to permeabilize membranes without being universally sequestered by all antiapoptotic BCL-2 proteins. We thus identified two "modes" whereby prosurvival BCL-2 proteins can block MOMP, by sequestering direct-activator BH3-only proteins ("MODE 1") or by binding active BAX and BAK ("MODE 2"). Notably, we found that MODE 1 sequestration is less efficient and more easily derepressed to promote MOMP than MODE 2. Further, MODE 2 sequestration prevents mitochondrial fusion. We provide a unified model of BCL-2 family function that helps to explain otherwise paradoxical observations relating to MOMP, apoptosis, and mitochondrial dynamics.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: An old puzzle in the field of cell death was solved recently: the mysterious embryonic lethality of animals deficient in caspase-8 or Fas-associated death domain (FADD), proteins involved in a pathway of apoptosis. This lethality is caused by a failure to develop the yolk sac vasculature rather than a lack of apoptosis. Remarkably, development is rescued by ablation of either of two receptor interacting serine-threonine kinases (RIPKs). Despite being well known cell killers, caspase-8 and FADD act together to block RIPK-mediated necrosis. To manifest this newly elucidated pro-survival function, FADD and caspase-8 depend on FLIP(Long), a catalytically inactive caspase-8 homolog. In this review, the mechanism by which RIPK necrotic death is inhibited by this trio is discussed, as well as how RIPKs might themselves mediate cell death.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The recognition and clearance of dead cells is a process that must occur efficiently to prevent an autoimmune or inflammatory response. Recently, a process was identified wherein the autophagy machinery is recruited to pathogen-containing phagosomes, termed MAPLC3A (LC3)-associated phagocytosis (LAP), which results in optimal degradation of the phagocytosed cargo. Here, we describe the engagement of LAP upon uptake of apoptotic, necrotic, and RIPK3-dependent necrotic cells by macrophages. This process is dependent on some members of the classical autophagy pathway, including Beclin1, ATG5, and ATG7. In contrast, ULK1, despite being required for autophagy, is dispensable for LAP induced by uptake of microbes or dead cells. LAP is required for efficient degradation of the engulfed corpse, and in the absence of LAP, engulfment of dead cells results in increased production of proinflammatory cytokines and decreased production of anti-inflammatory cytokines. LAP is triggered by engagement of the TIM4 receptor by either phosphatidylserine (PtdSer)-displaying dead cells or PtdSer-containing liposomes. Therefore, the consequence of phagocytosis of dead cells is strongly affected by those components of the autophagy pathway involved in LAP.
Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences 10/2011; 108(42):17396-401. DOI:10.1073/pnas.1113421108 · 9.67 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Caspase-8, FADD, and FLIP orchestrate apoptosis in response to death receptor ligation. Mysteriously however, these proteins are also required for normal embryonic development and immune cell proliferation, an observation that has led to their implication in several nonapoptotic processes. While many scenarios have been proposed, recent genetic and biochemical evidence points to unregulated signaling by the receptor-interacting protein kinases-1 (RIPK1) and RIPK3 as the lethal defect in caspase-8-, FADD-, and FLIP-deficient animals and tissues. The RIPKs are known killers, being responsible for a nonapoptotic form of cell death with features similar to necrosis. However, the mechanism by which caspase-8, FADD, and FLIP prevent runaway RIPK activation is unknown, and the signals that trigger these events during development and immune cell activation remain at large. In this review, we will lay out the evidence as it now stands, reinterpreting earlier observations in light of new clues and considering where the investigation might lead.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The recent EMBO Molecular Medicine Workshop on Cell Death and Disease was held this past March in the picturesque Alpen ski-town of Obergurgl, Austria. Scientists working on diverse mechanisms and pathways of cell death convened to present and discuss their current research. Topics included not only cell death signalling pathways, their etiology in human disease, and potential avenues for therapeutic intervention, but also new approaches and perspectives for understanding the subtle mechanisms regulating cell fate.
EMBO Molecular Medicine 07/2011; 3(7):363-6. DOI:10.1002/emmm.201100148 · 8.67 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Innate immunity is a fundamental defence response that depends on evolutionarily conserved pattern recognition receptors for sensing infections or danger signals. Nucleotide-binding and oligomerization domain (NOD) proteins are cytosolic pattern-recognition receptors of paramount importance in the intestine, and their dysregulation is associated with inflammatory bowel disease. They sense peptidoglycans from commensal microorganisms and pathogens and coordinate signalling events that culminate in the induction of inflammation and anti-microbial responses. However, the signalling mechanisms involved in this process are not fully understood. Here, using genome-wide RNA interference, we identify candidate genes that modulate the NOD1 inflammatory response in intestinal epithelial cells. Our results reveal a significant crosstalk between innate immunity and apoptosis and identify BID, a BCL2 family protein, as a critical component of the inflammatory response. Colonocytes depleted of BID or macrophages from Bid(-/-) mice are markedly defective in cytokine production in response to NOD activation. Furthermore, Bid(-/-) mice are unresponsive to local or systemic exposure to NOD agonists or their protective effect in experimental colitis. Mechanistically, BID interacts with NOD1, NOD2 and the IκB kinase (IKK) complex, impacting NF-κB and extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) signalling. Our results define a novel role of BID in inflammation and immunity independent of its apoptotic function, furthering the mounting evidence of evolutionary conservation between the mechanisms of apoptosis and immunity.