Toshihiko Yajima

Health Sciences University of Hokkaido, Tōbetsu, Hokkaido, Japan

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Publications (49)89.38 Total impact

  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Fibrillin-1 is the major structural component of extracellular microfibrils. However, the mechanism by which extracellular fibrillin-1 assembles into microfibrils is not fully understood. Fibrillin-1 contains the Arg-Gly-Asp (RGD) motif, which may allow binding to RGD-recognizing integrins. We hypothesized that integrin alphavbeta3 on the cell surface of human periodontal ligament (PDL) fibroblasts may influence fibrillin-1 assembly into cell/matrix layers. We treated PDL fibroblasts with an integrin alphavbeta3-specific antagonist to examine fibrillin-1 assembly. Western blotting and immunofluorescence analysis showed that treatment with the integrin alphavbeta3 antagonist at 5 muM clearly abolished fibrillin-1 deposition. These results provide for the first time evidence that integrin alphavbeta3 regulates extracellular assembly of fibrillin-1, thereby modulating cell-mediated homeostasis of microfibrils.
    Tissue and Cell 10/2008; 41(2):85-9. · 1.04 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The middle portion of Meckel's cartilage resembles endochondral bone formation accompanied by chondrocyte hypertrophy and death, cartilaginous matrix calcification, and chondroclastic resorption. We examined Meckel's cartilage specimens from mice mandibles taken on embryonic days 14-16 (E14-E16) using immunohistochemistry for hypoxia-inducible factor-1alpha (HIF-1alpha), glucose transporter 1 (GLUT1), glucose transporter 3 (GLUT3), and glucose transporter 5 (GLUT5), and using enzyme histochemistry for glucose-6-phosphate isomerase (GPI), lactate dehydrogenase (LDH), and cytochrome oxidase (COX), along with the periodic acid-Schiff (PAS) reaction, and compared the results with those of endochondral bones from E16 hind limbs. Periodic acid-Schiff-positive glycogen, HIF-1alpha, and GLUT immunoreactivity, and GPI, LDH, and COX activities were observed in Meckel's cartilage in E14 and E15 mandibles. In E16 mandibles, hypertrophic chondrocytes showed a transitory loss of HIF-1alpha immunoreactivity and consumed glycogen, while those closest to the resorption front showed intense immunoreactivity for HIF-1, GLUT3, and GLUT5. Hypertrophic chondrocytes of metatarsals possessed HIF-1alpha immunoreactivity in the nuclei and diminished COX activity, whereas developing tibias showed weak HIF-1alpha immunoreactivity even in hypoxic regions characterized by little or no COX activity. These findings suggest that HIF-1alpha becomes stabilized independently of the concentration of oxygen, and largely contributes to the development and resorption of Meckel's cartilage, probably through shifting the predominant metabolic mode from aerobic to anaerobic glycolysis.
    European Journal Of Oral Sciences 08/2008; 116(4):341-52. · 1.42 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: We subjected periodontal ligament fibroblasts to stretching strain to examine the effects on their formation of oxytalan fibers in cell/matrix layers. Stretching increased the levels of fibrillin-1 and fibrillin-2 by 25% relative to the control, but did not affect the gene expression level of either type of fibrillin. Immunofluorescence and immunogold electron microscopy analysis revealed that bundles of oxytalan fibers became thicker under stretching conditions. These results suggest that tension strain functionally regulates microfibril assembly in periodontal ligament fibroblasts and thus may contribute to the homeostasis of oxytalan fibers in periodontal ligaments.
    Journal of Periodontal Research 07/2008; 44(2):170-4. · 1.99 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The morphology of the osteocyte changes during the cell's lifetime. Shortly after becoming buried in the matrix, an osteocyte is plump with a rich rough endoplasmic reticulum and a well-developed Golgi complex. This "immature" osteocyte reduces its number of organelles to become a "mature" osteocyte when it comes to reside deeper in the bone matrix. We hypothesized that mineralization of the surrounding matrix is the trigger for osteocyte maturation. To verify this, we prevented mineralization of newly formed matrix by administration of 1-hydroxyethylidene-1,1-bisphosphonate (HEBP) and then examined the morphological changes in the osteocytes in rats. In the HEBP group, matrix mineralization was disturbed, but matrix formation was not affected. The osteocytes found in the unmineralized matrix were immature. Mature osteocytes were seen in the corresponding mineralized matrix in the control group. The immature osteocytes in the unmineralized matrix failed to show immunoreactivity with anti-sclerostin antibody, whereas mature osteocytes in the mineralized matrix showed immunoreactivity in both control and HEBP groups. These findings suggest that mineralization of the matrix surrounding the osteocyte is the trigger for cytodifferentiation from a plump immature form to a mature osteocyte. The osteocyte appears to start secreting sclerostin only after it matures in the mineralized bone matrix.
    Journal of Histochemistry and Cytochemistry 07/2008; 56(6):561-7. · 2.26 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Female perineal structures located around the perineal body were histologically examined using semiserial sections obtained from 15 elderly female cadavers. The smooth muscle content of the perineal body was greater in multiparous women. The connective tissue of the perineal body extended inferolaterally and provided a fibromuscular mass that was 10-30 mm long mediolaterally and 3-15 mm long superoinferiorly. The lateral extension (LEX) of the perineal body occupies a space that is surrounded by the vestibular bulb, internal anal sphincter, and levator ani slings. The LEX did not directly connect to the ischiopubic bony rami but did connect indirectly via the vestibular bulb and ischiocavernosus. Thus, the LEX appears to play a critical role for maintaining the topographical relationship between the vagina and the rectum. The surgical approximation of bilateral LEX instead of levator ani may be of key importance when doing a perineorrhaphy. As pudendal nerve branches run along the inferior margin of the LEX, a mediolateral episiotomy may not be the best option.
    International Urogynecology Journal 01/2008; 18(12):1423-30. · 2.17 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: We examined effects of local and whole body irradiation before tooth extraction on appearance and differentiation of osteoclasts in the alveolar bone of rat maxillary first molars. Wistar rats weighting 100 g were divided into three groups: non-irradiation group, local irradiation group, and whole body irradiation group. In the local irradiation group, a field made with lead blocks was placed over the maxillary left first molar tooth. In the whole body irradiation group, the animals were irradiated in cages. Both groups were irradiated at 8 Gy. The number of osteoclasts around the interradicular alveolar bone showed chronological changes common to non-irradiated and irradiated animals. Several osteoclasts appeared one day after tooth extraction, and the maximal peak was observed 3 days after extraction. Local irradiation had no difference from non-irradiated controls. In animals receiving whole body irradiation, tooth extraction one day after irradiation caused smaller number of osteoclasts than that 7 day after irradiation during the experimental period. Whole body-irradiated rats had small osteoclasts with only a few nuclei and narrow resorption lacunae, indicating deficiency of radioresistant osteoclast precursor cells. Injection of intact bone marrow cells to whole body-irradiated animals immediately after tooth extraction recovered to some content the number of osteoclasts. These findings suggest that bone resorption in the wound healing of alveolar socket requires radioresistant, postmitotic osteoclast precursor cells from hematopoietic organs, but not from local sources around the alveolar socket, at the initial phase of wound healing.
    Journal of Radiation Research 08/2007; 48(4):273-80. · 1.45 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Degradation of Meckel's cartilage in the middle portion is accompanied by hypertrophy and death of chondrocytes, calcification of the cartilaginous matrix, and chondroclastic resorption. We hypothesize that the gelatinolytic activity of matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) largely contributes to the degradation of extracellular matrix (ECM) in the process. The activity in Meckel's cartilage of mouse mandibular arches at embryonic days 14-16 (E14-E16) was examined by a combination of in situ zymography (ISZ), using quenched fluorescent dye-labeled gelatin as a substrate, with CTT (a selective inhibitor of MMP-2 and -9) or with EDTA (a general MMP inhibitor). On E14 and E15, ISZ showed fluorescence in the perichondrium, in the intercellular septa between chondrocytes, and in the nucleus of chondrocytes. CTT attenuated fluorescence, and EDTA eliminated it. On E16, calcified cartilaginous matrix showed intense fluorescence, and dot-like fluorescence was observed in as-yet uncalcified intercellular septa, even after CTT treatment. EDTA inhibited fluorescence, but unexpectedly intense fluorescence was found in the cytoplasm of hypertrophic chondrocytes facing the resorption front. MMP-2, -9, and -13 immunoreactivity was detected in the perichondrium and chondrocytes of Meckel's cartilage. These findings suggest that MMPs and other proteinases capable of degrading gelatin play an integral role in the development, calcification, and resorption of Meckel's cartilage through ECM reconstitution.
    European Journal Of Oral Sciences 07/2007; 115(3):212-23. · 1.42 Impact Factor
  • E Tsuruga, K Irie, T Yajima
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    ABSTRACT: Elastic system fibers, comprised of microfibrils and tropoelastin, are extracellular components of periodontal tissue. During development, the microfibrils act as a template on which tropoelastin is deposited. However, the process of elastic system fiber remodeling is not fully understood. Therefore, we examined whether matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) are involved in the remodeling of fibrillins (major components of microfibrils) by human gingival fibroblasts and periodontal ligament (PDL) fibroblasts. Gingival and PDL fibroblasts were cultured for 6 weeks. In some cultures, MMP inhibitor or tissue inhibitor of matrix metalloproteinsase-2 (TIMP-2) was added to the medium for an additional 2 weeks. Active MMP-2 (62 kDa) appeared as cell-membrane-associated or in extracellular matrix only in PDL fibroblast cell layers. The addition of MMP inhibitor or TIMP-2 significantly increased fibrillin-2 accumulation in PDL fibroblast cell layers, and decreased the amount of fibrillin-2 fragments, suggesting that active MMP-2 may degrade fibrillin-2, and that MMPs may play a role in the remodeling of elastic system fibers in PDL.
    Journal of Dental Research 05/2007; 86(4):352-6. · 3.83 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The middle portion of Meckel's cartilage (one of four portions that disappear with unique fate) degrades via hypertrophy and the cell death of chondrocytes and via the resorption of cartilage by chondroclasts. We have examined the immunolocalization of matrix metalloproteinase-2 (MMP-2), MMP-9, MMP-13, and MMP-14 (members of the MMP activation cascade) and galectin-3 (an endogenous substrate for MMP-9 and an anti-apoptotic factor) during resorption of Meckel's cartilage in embryonic mice and have compared the results with those of developing endochondral bones in hind limbs. MMP immunoreactivity, except for MMP-2, is present in nearly all chondrocytes in the middle portion of Meckel's cartilage. On embryonic day 15 (E15), faint MMP-2-immunoreactive and intense MMP-13-immunoreactive signals occur in the periosteal bone matrix deposited by periosteal osteoblasts on the lateral surface, whereas MMP-9 and MMP-14 are immunolocalized in the peripheral chondrocytes of Meckel's cartilage. The activation cascade of MMPs by face-to-face cross-talk between cells may thus contribute to the initiation of Meckel's cartilage degradation. On E16, immunopositive signaling for MMP-13 is detectable in the ruffled border of chondroclasts at the resorption front, whereas immunostaining for galectin-3 is present at all stages of chondrocyte differentiation, especially in hypertrophic chondrocytes adjacent to chondroclasts. Galectin-3-positive hypertrophic chondrocytes may therefore coordinate the resorption of calcified cartilage through cell-to-cell contact with chondroclasts. In metatarsal specimens from E16, MMPs are detected in osteoblasts, young osteocytes, and the bone matrix of the periosteal envelope, whereas galectin-3 immunoreactivity is intense in young periosteal osteocytes. In addition, intense MMP-9 and MMP-14 immunostaining has been preferentially found in pre-hypertrophic chondrocytes, although galectin-3 immunoreactivity markedly decreases in hypertrophic chondrocytes. These results indicate that the degradation of Meckel's cartilage involves an activation cascade of MMPs that differs from that in endochondral bone formation.
    Cell and Tissue Research 05/2007; 328(1):137-51. · 3.68 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Little is known about which urogenital nerves are liable to be injured along surgical planes in front of or behind Denonvilliers' fascia. Using semiserial histology for five fixed male pelves, we demonstrated that: 1) left/right communicating branches of bilateral pelvic plexuses run immediately in front of Denonvilliers' fascia; and 2) a lateral continuation of Denonvilliers' fascia separates the urogenital neurovascular bundle from the mesorectum. Notably, the mesorectum contains no or few extramural ganglion cells. At the level of the seminal vesicles, incision in front of Denonvilliers' fascia seems likely to injure superior parts of the pelvic plexus and the left/right communication. Moreover, at the prostate level, this incision misleads the surgical plane into the neurovascular bundle. Fresh cadaveric dissections of five unfixed male pelves confirmed that the surgical plane in front of Denonvilliers' fascia continues to a fascial space for the pelvic plexus containing ganglion cell clusters lateral and/or inferior to the seminal vesicles. To preserve all autonomic nerves for urogenital function, optimal total mesorectal excision for rectal cancer requires dissection behind Denonvilliers' fascia.
    Diseases of the Colon & Rectum 08/2006; 49(7):1024-32. · 3.34 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: We examined the immunolocalization of receptor activator of nuclear factor-kappaB ligand (RANKL) and osteoprotegerin (OPG) in areas of resorption caused by osteoclasts/chondroclasts on embryonic days 14-16 (E14-16) in Meckel's cartilage, and compared the results with those in endochondral bones in mice. Intense RANKL and OPG immunoreactivity was detected in the chondrocytes in Meckel's cartilage. On E15, when the incisor teeth were closest to the middle portion of Meckel's cartilage, tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase (TRAP)-positive cells appeared on the lateral side of the cartilage. Furthermore, the dental follicle showed moderate immunoreactivity for RANKL and OPG, whereas osteoblasts derived from perichondral cells were immunonegative for RANKL and OPG in that area. On E16, cartilage resorption by TRAP-positive cells had progressed at the differential position, and intensely immunoreactive products of RANKL were overlapped on and found to exist next to TRAP-positive cells in the resorption area. In developing metatarsal tissue, OPG immunoreactivity was intense in periosteal osteoblasts, whereas RANKL was only faintly seen in some of the periosteal cells. In epiphyseal chondrocytes of the developing femur, RANKL immunoreactivity was moderate, and OPG scarcely detected. These results indicate a peculiarity of RANKL and OPG immunolocalization in resorption of Meckel's cartilage. Growth of the incisor teeth may be involved in the time- and position-specific resorption of Meckel's cartilage through local regulation of the RANKL/OPG system in dental follicular cells and periosteal osteoblasts, whereas RANKL and OPG in chondrocytes seem to contribute to resorption through regulation of the chondroclast function.
    Journal of Anatomy 11/2005; 207(4):325-37. · 2.36 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: We investigated the role of the caspase activation cascade in apoptosis induced by ionizing radiation or hydrogen peroxide (H(2)O(2)) in human leukemia HL60 cells. Electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) spectra revealed that hydroxyl and hydrogen radicals were generated in the culture medium after exposure to radiation or H(2)O(2). Initial accumulation of DNA fragments at 2 h after exposure was delayed in irradiated cells compared with H(2)O(2)-treated cells, although formation of abasic sites immediately after exposure was significantly higher in irradiated cells and similar quantities of hydroxyl radicals were produced under both conditions. Activity assay of caspases revealed that caspase-3, -8 and -9 were activated 2 h after exposure to H(2)O(2), whereas in irradiated cells caspase-3 and -9 activation occurred 4 h after exposure but increased caspase-8 activation was not observed. Release of cytochrome c into cytosol was seen at 2 h after radiation and H(2)O(2) treatment. Radiation did not affect proapoptotic proteins (Bax and Bid), whereas H (2)O(2) increased accumulation of Bax in the mitochondrial membrane 2 h to 6 h after treatment, independently of the truncation of Bid by activated caspase-8. Moreover, treatment with the caspase-8 inhibitor Z-IETD-FMK increased cell survival and prevented accumulation of DNA fragments in H(2)O(2)-treated cells, but not in irradiated cells. These results suggest that, unlike the caspase cascade of H(2)O(2)-induced apoptosis, cytochrome c and caspase-9 are important for the intrinsic pathway of radiation-induced apoptosis, independent of caspase-8.
    Journal of Radiation Research 10/2005; 46(3):293-303. · 1.45 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: We report the in vitro establishment of a highly stable green fluorescent protein (GFP)-expressing transfectant of a highly-invasive human tongue squamous cell carcinoma (HTSCC) cell line, SAS-H1. The fluorescent cells permitted the visualization of tumor growth, local invasion, micrometastasis and cervical lymph node metastasis after submucosal injection into the tongues of nude mice. SAS-H1 cells were transfected with the pEGFP-N1 expression vector containing the GFP and neomycin resistance genes. Stable SAS-H1 clones expressing high levels of GFP were selected stepwise in vitro in levels of geneticin (G418) of up to 3,500 μg/ml. Subsequent early stages of local invasion and micrometastasis were visualized by GFP fluorescence in a primary tumor of the tongue. Furthermore, lymph node metastasis was confirmed for all of the orthotopic transplants in mice. However, no distant metastases, including those of lung and liver, were observed. Thus, this model should be useful for studying the metastatic process and for evaluating anti-metastasis agents in pre-clinical trials.
    International Journal of Oral Science 05/2005; 2(1):45–53. · 2.72 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: To clarify the involvement of membrane-type matrix metalloproteinase 1 (MT1-MMP) in lung organogenesis, we studied the lung morphology of 13-day-old MT1-MMP null mice. The lung architecture in MT1-MMP null mice was abnormal, and the airspace compartments were characterized by smooth walls and larger size. Most of the compartment wall consisted of one or two layers of cells and interstitial connective tissue that was thicker than that of normal alveoli. The wall frequently had capillaries on both sides of the interstitial connective tissue. These findings indicate that the lung in MT1-MMP null mice at 13 days of age is comparable to that of neonatal mice, i.e., it represents the stage before alveolization, suggesting that the generation of a large respiratory surface - the final process of lung development - is impaired in MT1-MMP null mice. Moreover, a zymography assay revealed decreased activity of matrix metalloproteinase 2 (MMP-2) in MT1-MMP null mice, suggesting that activation of pro-MMP-2 by MT1-MMP is critical in this process.
    Medical Molecular Morphology 04/2005; 38(1):43-6. · 1.17 Impact Factor
  • Journal of Radiation Research - J RADIAT RES. 01/2005; 46(3):293-303.
  • Eichi Tsuruga, Toshihiko Yajima, Kazuharu Irie
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    ABSTRACT: Elastic system fibers consist of microfibrils and tropoelastin. During development, microfibrils act as a template on which tropoelastin is deposited. Microfibril-associated glycoprotein-1 (MAGP-1) and fibrillin-2, the major components of microfibrils, provide the likely template for tropoelastin deposition. In this study, we used the RNA interference (RNAi) technique to establish MAGP-1 and fibrillin-2 gene-specific knock-downs individually in elastin-producing cells (human gingival fibroblasts). We then examined the extracellular deposition of tropoelastin by western blotting. These two genes were specifically suppressed to < 30% of the control level, and this was responsible for the diminution of tropoelastin deposition. An immunofluorescence study also confirmed that RNAi-mediated down-regulation of MAGP-1 or fibrillin-2 led to the loss of tropoelastin immunoreactivity. These results suggest that MAGP-1 and fibrillin-2 are, directly or indirectly, associated with the extracellular deposition of tropoelastin during elastic fiber formation in human gingival fibroblasts in vitro.
    The International Journal of Biochemistry & Cell Biology 01/2005; 37(1):120-9. · 4.15 Impact Factor
  • Eichi Tsuruga, Toshihiko Yajima, Kazuharu Irie
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    ABSTRACT: Fibulin-5 (also known as DANCE) is an elastin-binding protein that is thought to play a role in elastogenesis. We examined the relationship between the gene expression of fibulin-5 and the gene expression and accumulation of tropoelastin by comparing elastin-producing cells (human gingival fibroblasts) with non-elastin-producing cells (human periodontal ligament fibroblasts) by Northern blot analysis. Fibulin-5 gene induction was found only in elastin-producing cells. Induction of the fibulin-5 gene in elastin-producing cells occurred after induction of the tropoelastin gene, and the fibulin-5 level was reduced upon RNA interference-mediated down-regulation of tropoelastin. Fibulin-5 gene induction was also correlated with a rapid increase of tropoelastin accumulation within the cell layer. These results may suggest that the fibulin-5 gene induction is directly or indirectly regulated by tropoelastin gene expression and plays a role in the accumulation of elastic fibers within matrices.
    The International Journal of Biochemistry & Cell Biology 04/2004; 36(3):395-400. · 4.15 Impact Factor
  • Nihon Shishubyo Gakkai Kaishi (Journal of the Japanese Society of Periodontology) 01/2004; 46(4):288-293.
  • Toshihiko Yajima, Kazuharu Irie, Eichi Tsuruga
    Clinical calcium 12/2003; 13(11):1473-6.
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    ABSTRACT: Lymph node hyalinization has been comprehensively investigated using specimens obtained from elderly Japanese and white Americans. Onion-peel lesions and associated meshwork areas were often found in the medullary sinus of the thoracic node (mediastinal-type hyalinization), while eosinophilic, glassy and spotty lesions were consistently seen in B lymphocyte areas of the pelvic node (pelvic-type hyalinization). The mediastinal-type hyalinization was comprised of thin collagen fibrils (ca 50 nm in diameter), whereas the pelvic-type hyalinization had thick fibrils (ca 150 nm in diameter). This difference seemed to be consistent with a difference in composite collagen fibrils of vascular walls between the thoracic and pelvic regions. The pelvic-type hyalinization was often or sometimes seen in other nodes, such as cervical, axillary, abdominal and inguinal nodes, especially in white Americans. The mediastinal-type hyalinization, usually in combination with a sinus filled with anthracotic macrophages, tended to be observed in Japanese more frequently than in white Americans. Anthracosis seemed to be connected to the pathogenesis of the hyalinization. On the other hand, because the lesion was weakly positive for Factor VIII immunohistochemistry and because lesions were located along thin vessels, the pelvic-type hyalinization seemed to originate from vascular degeneration in the nodal cortex. Due to the high incidence and large proportion in total volume of the node, the hyalinization seems to be one of the major events that diminish the nodal filtration function and ruin the node with aging.
    Histology and histopathology 11/2003; 18(4):1169-80. · 2.28 Impact Factor

Publication Stats

495 Citations
89.38 Total Impact Points

Institutions

  • 1998–2008
    • Health Sciences University of Hokkaido
      • • Department of Anatomy
      • • School of Dentistry
      Tōbetsu, Hokkaido, Japan
    • Hokkaido University
      • School of Dental Medicine
      Sapporo-shi, Hokkaido, Japan