[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Bronchopulmonary dysplasia of the premature newborn is characterized by lung injury, resulting in alveolar simplification and reduced pulmonary function. Exposure of neonatal mice to hyperoxia enhanced sphingosine-1-phosphate (S1P) levels in lung tissues; however, the role of increased S1P in the pathobiological characteristics of bronchopulmonary dysplasia has not been investigated. We hypothesized that an altered S1P signaling axis, in part, is responsible for neonatal lung injury leading to bronchopulmonary dysplasia. To validate this hypothesis, newborn wild-type, sphingosine kinase1(-/-) (Sphk1(-/-)), sphingosine kinase 2(-/-) (Sphk2(-/-)), and S1P lyase(+/-) (Sgpl1(+/-)) mice were exposed to hyperoxia (75%) from postnatal day 1 to 7. Sphk1(-/-), but not Sphk2(-/-) or Sgpl1(+/-), mice offered protection against hyperoxia-induced lung injury, with improved alveolarization and alveolar integrity compared with wild type. Furthermore, SphK1 deficiency attenuated hyperoxia-induced accumulation of IL-6 in bronchoalveolar lavage fluids and NADPH oxidase (NOX) 2 and NOX4 protein expression in lung tissue. In vitro experiments using human lung microvascular endothelial cells showed that exogenous S1P stimulated intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation, whereas SphK1 siRNA, or inhibitor against SphK1, attenuated hyperoxia-induced S1P generation. Knockdown of NOX2 and NOX4, using specific siRNA, reduced both basal and S1P-induced ROS formation. These results suggest an important role for SphK1-mediated S1P signaling-regulated ROS in the development of hyperoxia-induced lung injury in a murine neonatal model of bronchopulmonary dysplasia.
American Journal Of Pathology 08/2013; · 4.60 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF) is a chronic and progressive interstitial lung disease, wherein transforming growth factor β (TGF-β) and sphingosine-1-phosphate (S1P) contribute to the pathogenesis of fibrosis. However, the in vivo contribution of sphingosine kinase (SphK) in fibrotic processes has not been documented. Microarray analysis of blood mononuclear cells from patients with IPF and SphK1- or SphK2-knockdown mice and SphK inhibitor were used to assess the role of SphKs in fibrogenesis. The expression of SphK1/2 negatively correlated with lung function and survival in patients with IPF. Also, the expression of SphK1 was increased in lung tissues from patients with IPF and bleomycin-challenged mice. Knockdown of SphK1, but not SphK2, increased survival and resistance to pulmonary fibrosis in bleomycin-challenged mice. Administration of SphK inhibitor reduced bleomycin-induced mortality and pulmonary fibrosis in mice. Knockdown of SphK1 or treatment with SphK inhibitor attenuated S1P generation and TGF-β secretion in a bleomycin-induced lung fibrosis mouse model that was accompanied by reduced phosphorylation of Smad2 and MAPKs in lung tissue. In vitro, bleomycin-induced expression of SphK1 in lung fibroblast was found to be TGF-β dependent. Taken together, these data indicate that SphK1 plays a critical role in the pathology of lung fibrosis and is a novel therapeutic target.-Huang, L. S., Berdyshev, E., Mathew, B., Fu, P., Gorshkova, I. A., He, D., Ma, W., Noth, I., Ma, S.-F., Pendyala, S., Reddy, S. P., Zhou, T., Zhang, W., Garzon, S. A., Garcia, J. G. N., Natarajan, V. Targeting sphingosine kinase 1 attenuates bleomycin-induced pulmonary fibrosis.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Coronins are a highly conserved family of actin binding proteins that regulate actin-dependent processes such as cell motility and endocytosis. We found that treatment of human pulmonary artery endothelial cells (HPAECs) with the bioactive lipid, sphingosine-1-phosphate (S1P) rapidly stimulates coronin 1B translocation to lamellipodia at the cell leading edge, which is required for S1P-induced chemotaxis. Further, S1P-induced chemotaxis of HPAECs was attenuated by pretreatment with small interfering RNA (siRNA) targeting coronin 1B (∼36%), PLD2 (∼45%) or Rac1 (∼50%) compared to scrambled siRNA controls. Down regulation PLD2 expression by siRNA also attenuated S1P-induced coronin 1B translocation to the leading edge of the cell periphery while PLD1 silencing had no effect. Also, S1P-induced coronin 1B redistribution to cell periphery and chemotaxis was attenuated by inhibition of Rac1 and over-expression of dominant negative PKC δ, ε and ζ isoforms in HPAECs. These results demonstrate that S1P activation of PLD2, PKC and Rac1 is part of the signaling cascade that regulates coronin 1B translocation to the cell periphery and the ensuing cell chemotaxis.
PLoS ONE 01/2013; 8(5):e63007. · 3.53 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: We recently demonstrated that hyperoxia (HO) activates lung endothelial cell NADPH oxidase and generates reactive oxygen species (ROS)/superoxide via Src-dependent tyrosine phosphorylation of p47(phox) and cortactin. Here, we demonstrate that the non-muscle ~214-kDa myosin light chain (MLC) kinase (nmMLCK) modulates the interaction between cortactin and p47(phox) that plays a role in the assembly and activation of endothelial NADPH oxidase. Overexpression of FLAG-tagged wild type MLCK in human pulmonary artery endothelial cells enhanced interaction and co-localization between cortactin and p47(phox) at the cell periphery and ROS production, whereas abrogation of MLCK using specific siRNA significantly inhibited the above. Furthermore, HO stimulated phosphorylation of MLC and recruitment of phosphorylated and non-phosphorylated cortactin, MLC, Src, and p47(phox) to caveolin-enriched microdomains (CEM), whereas silencing nmMLCK with siRNA blocked recruitment of these components to CEM and ROS generation. Exposure of nmMLCK(-/-) null mice to HO (72 h) reduced ROS production, lung inflammation, and pulmonary leak compared with control mice. These results suggest a novel role for nmMLCK in hyperoxia-induced recruitment of cytoskeletal proteins and NADPH oxidase components to CEM, ROS production, and lung injury.
Journal of Biological Chemistry 01/2012; 287(12):9360-75. · 4.65 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Malignant pleural mesothelioma (MPM) is a devastating disease with an overall poor prognosis. Despite the recent advances in targeted molecular therapies, there is a clear and urgent need for the identification of novel mesothelioma targets for the development of highly efficacious therapeutics.
In this study, we report that the expression of Sphingosine Kinase 1 (SphK1) protein was preferentially elevated in MPM tumor tissues (49 epithelioid and 13 sarcomatoid) compared to normal tissue (n = 13). In addition, we also observed significantly elevated levels of SphK1 and SphK2 mRNA and SphK1 protein expression in MPM cell lines such as H2691, H513 and H2461 compared to the non-malignant mesothelial Met5 cells. The underlying mechanism appears to be mediated by SphK1 induced upregulation of select gene transcription programs such as that of CBP/p300 and PCAF, two histone acetyl transferases (HAT), and the down regulation of cell cycle dependent kinase inhibitor genes such as p27Kip1 and p21Cip1. In addition, using immunoprecipitates of anti-acetylated histone antibody from SphK inhibitor, SphK-I2 treated Met5A and H2691 cell lysates, we also showed activation of other cell proliferation related genes, such as Top2A (DNA replication), AKB (chromosome remodeling and mitotic spindle formation), and suppression of p21 CIP1 and p27KIP1. The CDK2, HAT1 and MYST2 were, however, unaffected in the above study. Using SphK inhibitor and specific siRNA targeting either SphK1 or SphK2, we also unequivocally established that SphK1, but not SphK2, promotes H2691 mesothelioma cell proliferation. Using a multi-walled carbon nanotubes induced peritoneal mesothelioma mouse model, we showed that the SphK1-/- null mice exhibited significantly less inflammation and granulamatous nodules compared to their wild type counterparts.
The lipid kinase SphK1 plays a positive and essential role in the growth and development of malignant mesothelioma and is therefore a likely therapeutic target.
PLoS ONE 01/2012; 7(9):e45330. · 3.53 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The alveolar epithelium is composed of the flat type I cells comprising 95% of the gas-exchange surface area and cuboidal type II cells comprising the rest. Type II cells are described as facultative progenitor cells based on their ability to proliferate and trans-differentiate into type I cells. In this study, we observed that pneumonia induced by intratracheal instillation of Pseudomonas aeruginosa (PA) in mice increased the expression of the forkhead transcription factor FoxM1 in type II cells coincidentally with the induction of alveolar epithelial barrier repair. FoxM1 was preferentially expressed in the Sca-1(+) subpopulation of progenitor type II cells. In mice lacking FoxM1 specifically in type II cells, type II cells showed decreased proliferation and impaired trans-differentiation into type I cells. Lungs of these mice also displayed defective alveolar barrier repair after injury. Expression of FoxM1 in the knockout mouse lungs partially rescued the defective trans-differentiation phenotype. Thus, expression of FoxM1 in type II cells is essential for their proliferation and transition into type I cells and for restoring alveolar barrier homeostasis after PA-induced lung injury.
Journal of Experimental Medicine 06/2011; 208(7):1473-84. · 13.21 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Reactive oxygen species (ROS) generated by vascular endothelial and smooth muscle cells contribute to the development and progression of vascular diseases. We have recently shown that hyperoxia enhances NADPH oxidase 4 (Nox4) expression, which regulates lung endothelial cell migration and angiogenesis. Regulation of Nox4 in the vasculature is poorly understood. The objective of this study was to identify the transcriptional factor(s) involved in regulation of endothelial Nox4. We found that hyperoxia-induced Nox4 expression was markedly reduced in Nrf2(-/-) mice, compared to Nrf2(+/+) mice. Exposure of human lung microvascular endothelial cells (HLMVECs) to hyperoxia stimulated Nrf2 translocation from the cytoplasm to the nucleus and increased Nox4 expression. Knockdown of Nrf2 expression using an siRNA approach attenuated basal Nox4 expression; however, it enhanced superoxide/ROS generation under both normoxia and hyperoxia. In silico analysis revealed the presence of at least three consensus sequences for the antioxidant response element (ARE) in the promoter region of Nox4. In transient transfections, hyperoxia stimulated Nox4 promoter activity in HLMVECs, and deletion of the -438 to -458 and -619 to -636 sequences markedly reduced hyperoxia-stimulated Nox4 promoter activation. ChIP analysis revealed an enhanced recruitment of Nrf2 to the endogenous Nox4 promoter spanning these two AREs after hyperoxic insult. Collectively, these results demonstrate, for the first time, a novel role for Nrf2 in regulating hyperoxia-induced Nox4 transcription via AREs in lung endothelium.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: A defining feature of acute lung injury (ALI) is the increased lung vascular permeability and alveolar flooding, which leads to associated morbidity and mortality. Specific therapies to alleviate the unremitting vascular leak in ALI are not currently clinically available; however, our prior studies indicate a protective role for sphingosine-1-phosphate (S1P) in animal models of ALI with reductions in lung edema. As S1P levels are tightly regulated by synthesis and degradation, we tested the hypothesis that inhibition of S1P lyase (S1PL), the enzyme that irreversibly degrades S1P via cleavage, could ameliorate ALI. Intratracheal instillation of LPS to mice enhanced S1PL expression, decreased S1P levels in lung tissue, and induced lung inflammation and injury. LPS challenge of wild-type mice receiving 2-acetyl-4(5)-[1(R),2(S),3(R),4-tetrahydroxybutyl]-imidazole to inhibit S1PL or S1PL(+/-) mice resulted in increased S1P levels in lung tissue and bronchoalveolar lavage fluids and reduced lung injury and inflammation. Moreover, down-regulation of S1PL expression by short interfering RNA (siRNA) in primary human lung microvascular endothelial cells increased S1P levels, and attenuated LPS-mediated phosphorylation of p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase and I-κB, IL-6 secretion, and endothelial barrier disruption via Rac1 activation. These results identify a novel role for intracellularly generated S1P in protection against ALI and suggest S1PL as a potential therapeutic target.
American Journal of Respiratory Cell and Molecular Biology 12/2010; 45(2):426-35. · 4.15 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) plays a major role in endothelial signaling and function. Of the several potential sources of ROS in the vasculature, the endothelial NADPH oxidase (Nox) family of proteins, Nox1, Nox2, Nox4 and Nox5, are major contributors of ROS. Excess generation of ROS contributes to the development and progression of vascular disease. While hyperoxia stimulates ROS production through Nox proteins, hypoxia appears to involve mitochondrial electron transport in the generation of superoxide. ROS generated from Nox proteins and mitochondria are important for oxygen sensing mechanisms. Physiological concentrations of ROS function as signaling molecule in the endothelium; however, excess ROS production leads to pathological disorders like inflammation, atherosclerosis, and lung injury. Regulation of Nox proteins is unclear; however, antioxidants, MAP Kinases, STATs, and Nrf2 regulate Nox under normal physiological and pathological conditions. Studies related to redox regulation of Nox should provide a better understanding of ROS and its role in the pathophysiology of vascular diseases.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Lysophosphatidic acid (LPA) plays a critical role in airway inflammation through G protein-coupled LPA receptors (LPA1-3). We have demonstrated that LPA induced cytokine and lipid mediator release in human bronchial epithelial cells. Here we provide evidence for the role of LPA and LPA receptors in Th2-dominant airway inflammation.
Wild type, LPA1 heterozygous knockout mice (LPA1+/-), and LPA2 heterozygous knockout mice (LPA2+/-) were sensitized with inactivated Schistosoma mansoni eggs and local antigenic challenge with Schistosoma mansoni soluble egg Ag (SEA) in the lungs. Bronchoalveolar larvage (BAL) fluids and lung tissues were collected for analysis of inflammatory responses. Further, tracheal epithelial cells were isolated and challenged with LPA.
BAL fluids from Schistosoma mansoni egg-sensitized and challenged wild type mice (4 days of challenge) showed increase of LPA level (approximately 2.8 fold), compared to control mice. LPA2+/- mice, but not LPA1+/- mice, exposed to Schistosoma mansoni egg revealed significantly reduced cell numbers and eosinophils in BAL fluids, compared to challenged wild type mice. Both LPA2+/- and LPA1+/- mice showed decreases in bronchial goblet cells. LPA2+/- mice, but not LPA1+/- mice showed the decreases in prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) and LPA levels in BAL fluids after SEA challenge. The PGE2 production by LPA was reduced in isolated tracheal epithelial cells from LPA2+/- mice. These results suggest that LPA and LPA receptors are involved in Schistosoma mansoni egg-mediated inflammation and further studies are proposed to understand the role of LPA and LPA receptors in the inflammatory process.
Respiratory research 11/2009; 10:114. · 3.64 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation, particularly by the endothelial NADPH oxidase family of proteins, plays a major role in the pathophysiology associated with lung inflammation, ischemia/reperfusion injury, sepsis, hyperoxia, and ventilator-associated lung injury. We examined potential regulators of ROS production and discovered that hyperoxia treatment of human pulmonary artery endothelial cells induced recruitment of the vesicular regulator, dynamin 2, the non-receptor tyrosine kinase, c-Abl, and the NADPH oxidase subunit, p47(phox), to caveolin-enriched microdomains (CEMs). Silencing caveolin-1 (which blocks CEM formation) and/or c-Abl expression with small interference RNA inhibited hyperoxia-mediated tyrosine phosphorylation and association of dynamin 2 with p47(phox) and ROS production. In addition, treatment of human pulmonary artery endothelial cells with dynamin 2 small interfering RNA or the dynamin GTPase inhibitor, Dynasore, attenuated hyperoxia-mediated ROS production and p47(phox) recruitment to CEMs. Using purified recombinant proteins, we observed that c-Abl tyrosine-phosphorylated dynamin 2, and this phosphorylation increased p47(phox)/dynamin 2 association (change in the dissociation constant (K(d)) from 85.8 to 6.9 nm). Furthermore, exposure of mice to hyperoxia increased ROS production, c-Abl activation, dynamin 2 association with p47(phox), and pulmonary leak, events that were attenuated in the caveolin-1 knock-out mouse confirming a role for CEMs in ROS generation. These results suggest that hyperoxia induces c-Abl-mediated dynamin 2 phosphorylation required for recruitment of p47(phox) to CEMs and subsequent ROS production in lung endothelium.
Journal of Biological Chemistry 10/2009; 284(50):34964-75. · 4.65 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Epidemiologic studies have linked exposure to airborne pollutant particulate matter (PM) with increased cardiopulmonary mortality and morbidity. The mechanisms of PM-mediated lung pathophysiology, however, remain unknown. We tested the hypothesis that PM, via enhanced oxidative stress, disrupts lung endothelial cell (EC) barrier integrity, thereby enhancing organ dysfunction. Using PM collected from Ft. McHenry Tunnel (Baltimore, MD), we assessed PM-mediated changes in transendothelial electrical resistance (TER) (a highly sensitive measure of barrier function), reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation, and p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) activation in human pulmonary artery EC. PM induced significant dose (10-100 microg/ml)- and time (0-10 h)-dependent EC barrier disruption reflected by reduced TER values. Exposure of human lung EC to PM resulted in significant ROS generation, which was directly involved in PM-mediated EC barrier dysfunction, as N-acetyl-cysteine (NAC, 5 mM) pretreatment abolished both ROS production and barrier disruption induced by PM. Furthermore, PM induced p38 MAPK activation and HSP27 phosphorylation, events that were both attenuated by NAC. In addition, PM-induced EC barrier disruption was partially prevented by the p38 MAP kinase inhibitor SB203580 (10 microM) as well as by reduced expression of either p38 MAPK beta or HSP27 (siRNA). These results demonstrate that PM induces ROS generation in human lung endothelium, resulting in oxidative stress-mediated EC barrier disruption via p38 MAPK- and HSP27-dependent pathways. These findings support a novel mechanism for PM-induced lung dysfunction and adverse cardiopulmonary outcomes.
American Journal of Respiratory Cell and Molecular Biology 07/2009; 42(4):442-9. · 4.15 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Respiratory motoneuron response to hypoxia is reflex in nature and carotid body sensory receptor constitutes the afferent limb of this reflex. Recent studies showed that repetitive exposures to hypoxia evokes long term facilitation of sensory nerve discharge (sLTF) of the carotid body in rodents exposed to chronic intermittent hypoxia (CIH). Although studies with anti-oxidants suggested the involvement of reactive oxygen species (ROS)-mediated signaling in eliciting sLTF, the source of and the mechanisms associated with ROS generation have not yet been investigated. We tested the hypothesis that ROS generated by NADPH oxidase (NOX) mediate CIH-evoked sLTF. Experiments were performed on ex vivo carotid bodies from rats and mice exposed either to 10 d of CIH or normoxia. Acute repetitive hypoxia evoked a approximately 12-fold increase in NOX activity in CIH but not in control carotid bodies, and this effect was associated with upregulation of NOX2 mRNA and protein, which was primarily localized to glomus cells of the carotid body. sLTF was prevented by NOX inhibitors and was absent in mice deficient in NOX2. NOX activation by CIH required 5-HT release and activation of 5-HT(2) receptors coupled to PKC signaling. Studies with ROS scavengers revealed that H(2)O(2) generated from O(2).(-) contributes to sLTF. Priming with H(2)O(2) elicited sLTF of carotid bodies from normoxic control rats and mice, similar to that seen in CIH-treated animals. These observations reveal a novel role for NOX-induced ROS signaling in mediating sensory plasticity of the carotid body.
Journal of Neuroscience 05/2009; 29(15):4903-10. · 6.91 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The primary function of the lung is to facilitate the transfer of molecular oxygen (O(2); dioxygen) from the atmosphere to the systemic circulation. In addition to its essential role in aerobic metabolism, O(2) serves as the physiologic terminal acceptor of electron transfer catalyzed by the NADPH oxidase (NOX) family of oxidoreductases. The evolution of the lungs and circulatory systems in vertebrates was accompanied by increasing diversification of NOX family enzymes, suggesting adaptive roles for NOX-derived reactive oxygen species in normal physiology. However, this adaptation may paradoxically carry detrimental consequences in the setting of overwhelming/persistent environmental stressors, both infectious and noninfectious, and during the process of aging. Here, we review current understanding of NOX enzymes in normal lung physiology and their pathophysiologic roles in a number of pulmonary diseases, including lung infections, acute lung injury, pulmonary arterial hypertension, obstructive lung disorders, fibrotic lung disease, and lung cancer.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) in the vasculature plays a major role in the genesis of endothelial cell (EC) activation and barrier function. Of the several potential sources of ROS in the vasculature, the endothelial NADPH oxidase family of proteins is a major contributor of ROS associated with lung inflammation, ischemia/reperfusion injury, sepsis, hyperoxia, and ventilator-associated lung injury. The NADPH oxidase in lung ECs has most of the components found in phagocytic oxidase, and recent studies show the expression of several homologues of Nox proteins in vascular cells. Activation of NADPH oxidase of nonphagocytic vascular cells is complex and involves assembly of the cytosolic (p47(phox), p67(phox), and Rac1) and membrane-associated components (Noxes and p22(phox)). Signaling pathways leading to NADPH oxidase activation are not completely defined; however, they do appear to involve the cytoskeleton and posttranslation modification of the components regulated by protein kinases, protein phosphatases, and phospholipases. Furthermore, several key components regulating NADPH oxidase recruitment, assembly, and activation are enriched in lipid microdomains to form a functional signaling platform. Future studies on temporal and spatial localization of Nox isoforms will provide new insights into the role of NADPH oxidase-derived ROS in the pathobiology of lung diseases.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: In vascular endothelium, the major research focus has been on reactive oxygen species (ROS) derived from Nox2. The role of Nox4 in endothelial signal transduction, ROS production, and cytoskeletal reorganization is not well defined. In this study, we show that human pulmonary artery endothelial cells (HPAECs) and human lung microvascular endothelial cells (HLMVECs) express higher levels of Nox4 and p22(phox) compared to Nox1, Nox2, Nox3, or Nox5. Immunofluorescence microscopy and Western blot analysis revealed that Nox4 and p22(phox), but not Nox2 or p47(phox), are localized in nuclei of HPAECs. Further, knockdown of Nox4 with siRNA decreased Nox4 nuclear expression significantly. Exposure of HPAECs to hyperoxia (3-24 h) enhanced mRNA and protein expression of Nox4, and Nox4 siRNA decreased hyperoxia-induced ROS production. Interestingly, Nox4 or Nox2 knockdown with siRNA upregulated the mRNA and protein expression of the other, suggesting activation of compensatory mechanisms. A similar upregulation of Nox4 mRNA was observed in Nox2 2(-/-) ko mice. Downregulation of Nox4, or pretreatment with N-acetylcysteine, attenuated hyperoxia-induced cell migration and capillary tube formation, suggesting that ROS generated by Nox4 regulate endothelial cell motility. These results indicate that Nox4 and Nox2 play a physiological role in hyperoxia-induced ROS production and migration of ECs.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The statins, hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl-CoA reductase inhibitors that lower serum cholesterol, exhibit myriad clinical benefits, including enhanced vascular integrity. One potential mechanism underlying increased endothelial cell (EC) barrier function is inhibition of geranylgeranylation, a covalent modification enabling translocation of the small GTPases Rho and Rac to the cell membrane. While RhoA inhibition attenuates actin stress fiber formation and promotes EC barrier function, Rac1 inhibition at the cell membrane potentially prevents activation of NADPH oxidase and subsequent generation of superoxides known to induce barrier disruption. We examined the relative regulatory effects of simvastatin on RhoA, Rac1, and NADPH oxidase activities in the context of human pulmonary artery EC barrier protection. Confluent EC treated with simvastatin demonstrated significantly decreased thrombin-induced FITC-dextran permeability, a reflection of vascular integrity, which was linked temporally to simvastatin-mediated actin cytoskeletal rearrangement. Compared with Rho inhibition alone (Y-27632), simvastatin afforded additional protection against thrombin-mediated barrier dysfunction and attenuated LPS-induced EC permeability and superoxide generation. Statin-mediated inhibition of both Rac translocation to the cell membrane and superoxide production were attenuated by geranylgeranyl pyrophosphate (GGPP), indicating that these effects are due to geranylgeranylation inhibition. Finally, thrombin-induced EC permeability was modestly attenuated by reduced Rac1 expression (small interfering RNA), whereas these effects were made more pronounced by simvastatin pretreatment. Together, these data suggest EC barrier protection by simvastatin is due to dual inhibitory effects on RhoA and Rac1 as well as the attenuation of superoxide generation by EC NADPH oxidase and contribute to the molecular mechanistic understanding of the modulation of EC barrier properties by simvastatin.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The signaling pathways by which sphingosine 1-phosphate (S1P) potently stimulates endothelial cell migration and angiogenesis are not yet fully defined. We, therefore, investigated the role of protein kinase C (PKC) isoforms, phospholipase D (PLD), and Rac in S1P-induced migration of human pulmonary artery endothelial cells (HPAECs). S1P-induced migration was sensitive to S1P(1) small interfering RNA (siRNA) and pertussis toxin, demonstrating coupling of S1P(1) to G(i). Overexpression of dominant negative (dn) PKC-epsilon or -zeta, but not PKC-alpha or -delta, blocked S1P-induced migration. Although S1P activated both PLD1 and PLD2, S1P-induced migration was attenuated by knocking down PLD2 or expressing dnPLD2 but not PLD1. Blocking PKC-epsilon, but not PKC-zeta, activity attenuated S1P-mediated PLD stimulation, demonstrating that PKC-epsilon, but not PKC-zeta, was upstream of PLD. Transfection of HPAECs with dnRac1 or Rac1 siRNA attenuated S1P-induced migration. Furthermore, transfection with PLD2 siRNA, infection of HPAECs with dnPKC-zeta, or treatment with myristoylated PKC-zeta peptide inhibitor abrogated S1P-induced Rac1 activation. These results establish that S1P signals through S1P(1) and G(i) to activate PKC-epsilon and, subsequently, a PLD2-PKC-zeta-Rac1 cascade. Activation of this pathway is necessary to stimulate the migration of lung endothelial cells, a key component of the angiogenic process.
Journal of Biological Chemistry 05/2008; 283(17):11794-806. · 4.65 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Although the actin cytoskeleton has been implicated in the control of NADPH oxidase in phagocytosis, very little is known about the cytoskeletal regulation of endothelial NADPH oxidase assembly and activation. Here, we report a role for cortactin and the tyrosine phosphorylation of cortactin in hyperoxia-induced NADPH oxidase activation and ROS production in human pulmonary artery ECs (HPAECs). Exposure of HPAECs to hyperoxia for 3 h induced NADPH oxidase activation, as demonstrated by enhanced superoxide production. Hyperoxia also caused a thickening of the subcortical dense peripheral F-actin band and increased the localization of cortactin in the cortical regions and lamellipodia at cell-cell borders that protruded under neighboring cells. Pretreatment of HPAECs with the actin-stabilizing agent phallacidin attenuated hyperoxia-induced cortical actin thickening and ROS production, whereas cytochalasin D and latrunculin A enhanced basal and hyperoxia-induced ROS formation. In HPAECs, a 3-h hyperoxic exposure enhanced the tyrosine phosphorylation of cortactin and interaction between cortactin and p47(phox), a subcomponent of the EC NADPH oxidase, when compared with normoxic cells. Furthermore, transfection of HPAECs with cortactin small interfering RNA or myristoylated cortactin Src homology domain 3 blocking peptide attenuated ROS production and the hyperoxia-induced translocation of p47(phox) to the cell periphery. Similarly, down-regulation of Src with Src small interfering RNA attenuated the hyperoxia-mediated phosphorylation of cortactin tyrosines and blocked the association of cortactin with actin and p47(phox). In addition, the hyperoxia-induced generation of ROS was significantly lower in ECs expressing a tyrosine-deficient mutant of cortactin than in vector control or wild-type cells. These data demonstrate a novel function for cortactin and actin in hyperoxia-induced activation of NADPH oxidase and ROS generation in human lung endothelial cells.
Journal of Biological Chemistry 09/2007; 282(32):23284-95. · 4.65 Impact Factor