Eric C Sung

Antioch University, Los Angeles, Los Angeles, California, United States

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Publications (25)30.76 Total impact

  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Objective Describe dental protocol for treating in the intensive care unit, end-stage heart-failure patients having ventricular assist devices (VAD) emergently implanted as a “bridge to heart transplantation”. This protocol permitted the rendering of safe and effective dental care in this setting and did not result in near-term (1-30 days) excessive hemorrhage, local and systemic infection, or contamination of the VAD. Study Design Descriptive cross-sectional study by UCLA Hospital Dental Service delineating dental care of 9 patients (mean age 50±12.9 years) with Class IV Stage D heart-failure. Results Nine patients, 22 days (mean) after VAD placement, received dental treatment after intravenous prophylactic antibiotics and maintenance of prior anticoagulation, antiplatelet or antithrombin regimen. Eight patients had extractions (4 mean: range 1-12) and one of them also required scaling and root planing (SRP) of the remaining teeth. A ninth individual only required SRP of four quadrants. No adverse outcomes developed. Conclusions Emergent removal of active dental disease in patients with VAD awaiting heart transplantation can be safely accomplished using established protocols with extended vigilance.
    Oral Surgery, Oral Medicine, Oral Pathology, Oral Radiology, and Endodontology 01/2014; · 1.50 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Using ex vivo human tooth, the authors demonstrated that dental pulp stromal cells that survive after placement of composite, mineral trioxide aggregate, and glass ionomer are weaker since they undergo synergistic cell death when exposed to 2-hydroxyethylmethacrylate. DPSCs extracted from teeth that were restored with the combination of composite or MTA or GI with N-acetyl cysteine were protectedfrom cell death. Therefore, application of NAC may protect the DPSCs from adverse effects after tooth restoration.
    Journal of the California Dental Association 05/2012; 40(5):409-17.
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    ABSTRACT: The radiation-induced fibroatrophic process (RIF) is a time-dependent adverse sequela to high-dose radiotherapy that can result in irreversible tissue death and bone exposure in the irradiated tissue. Osteoradionecrosis (ORN) is a late effect of RIF, described as bony exposure present for more than 3 months that can occur in 20% of patients irradiated for head and neck cancer. The intractable characteristics of ORN make both management and resolution of the disease process challenging, with 25% of cases recurring despite aggressive treatment with resection and reconstruction of the necrotic bone. In this article, we present a case of a 66-year-old man with unevoked ORN of the left posterior lingual mandibular cortex that was successfully treated and resolved with 6 months of pentoxifylline 400 mg twice a day and tocopherol 1000 IU every day.
    Oral surgery, oral medicine, oral pathology and oral radiology. 04/2012; 113(4):e18-23.
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    Bret Dyer, Eric C Sung
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    ABSTRACT: MINIMALLY INVASIVE SURGERY (MIS) USING THE ERBIUM, CHROMIUM: yttrium-scandium-gallium-garnet (Er,Cr:YSGG) laser (Waterlase MD, Biolase, Irvine, CA) to treat moderate to advanced periodontal disease is presented as an alternative to conventional therapies. To date, there are few short- or long-term studies to demonstrate the effects of this laser in treating and maintaining periodontal health. Electronic clinical records from 16 patients - total of 126 teeth, with pocket depths ranging from 4 mm to 9 mm - were treated with the same protocol using the Er,Cr:YSGG laser. The mean baseline probing depths (PD) were 5 mm and clinical attachment levels (CAL) were 5 mm in the 4 - 6 mm pretreated laser group. The mean baseline probing depths were 7.5 and 7.6 mm for PD and CAL respectfully in the 7 - 9 mm pretreatment laser group. At the 2 year mark, the average PD was 3.2 ± 1.1 mm for the 4-6 mm pocket group and the 7-9 mm pocket group had a mean PD of 3.7 ± 1.2 mm. mean CAL was 3.1 ± 1.1 mm for the 4-6 mm group and 3.6 ± 1.2 for the 7-9 mm group with an overall reduction of 1.9 mm and 4.0 mm respectively. At one and two years, both groups remained stable with PD comparable to the three-month gains. The CAL measurements at one and two years were also comparable to the three-month gains.
    The Open Dentistry Journal 01/2012; 6:74-8.
  • B. DYER, E.C. SUNG
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    ABSTRACT: Objective: Dental lasers have been recently introduced in the treatment of periodontal disease. It has been shown that lasers treatment of periodontal disease can be positive. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness of Er,Cr:YSGG laser by measuring the clinical changes in probing depth (PD) and clinical attachment level (CAL) in pockets treated with conventional therapy with assistance of Er,Cr:YSGG laser. Methods: 126 teeth from 16 patients with pockets measuring 4-9mm and treated with the Er,Cr:YSGG laser were selected for the study. Baseline data were collected prior to treatment and followed every 3 months for 2 years. Treatment included mechanical debridement with a ultrasonic scaler followed by Er,Cr:YSGG therapy. The exclusion criterias included subjects that received antibiotics and anti-inflammatory medication in conjunction to periodontal therapy. All data gathered were analyzed using ANOVA with p<0.05 for significant differences. Results: All laser treated pockets demonstrated a significant reduction in pocket depth when compared to baseline. At the end of the study (2 year mark), the average PD was 3.2 1.1 mm for the 4-6 mm pocket group and the 7-9 mm pocket group had a mean PD of 3.7 1.2 mm. CAL also improved with the mean CAL at 3.1 1.1 mm for the 4-6 mm group and 3.6 1.2 for the 7-9 mm group. The overall reduction were 1.9 mm and 4.0 mm respectively. Conclusion: the Er,Cr:YSGG laser with conventional therapy is an effective modality for treatment of moderate to advanced periodontal diseases. In this study, significant improvement in probing depth and clinical attachment level were observed during the study period.
    IADR General Session 2011; 03/2011
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    ABSTRACT: Objective: To compare the protective effect of N-acethyl Cysteine when applied during composite, glass ionomer and MTA restorations in in-vitro assays and in Ex-vivo human tooth restorations Methods: DPSCs were cultured and treated with NAC before they were exposed to either composite, glass ionomer or MTA. Freshly extracted human teeth were restored by the combination of NAC with either composite, glass ionomer or MTA, and the effect on each restoration were determined and compared. Death was determined using Propidium Iodide stained DPSCs. Results: NAC protected DPSCs from composite induced death whereas it had low or moderate protective effect when used with MTA or glass ionomer. DPSCs obtained from NAC and composite, NAC and MTA and NAC and glass ionomer restored teeth proliferated, and their numbers expanded faster than teeth which were restored in the absence of NAC. A second exposure of DPSCs obtained from NAC+composite restored teeth to either HEMA or cis-platin resulted in less death of DPSCs when compared to those which were restored in the absence of NAC. However, this effect was less appreciable in either NAC and MTA or NAC and glass ionomer restorations. NAC triggered differentiation of DPSCs and protected against toxic effects of HEMA and cis-platin. Conclusions: NAC may have differential effect depending on the mechanisms of action of each of the restorative materials on DPSCs. Composites which induce toxic effect on DPSCs are protected by the application of NAC which triggers differentiation. The mechanisms of MTA and glass ionomer action on DPSCs are distinct and thus they are protected less when combined with NAC. Potential similarities between the functions of NAC, MTA and glass ionomer will be discussed.
    IADR General Session 2011; 03/2011
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    ABSTRACT: Bisphosphonates (BPs) are medications used commonly to treat primary and metastatic bone cancer, as well as osteoporosis. Although BPs improve bone mineral density, reduce fracture risk, and reduce hypercalcemia of malignancy, some patients develop BP-related osteonecrosis of the jaws (BRONJ). This devastating complication is defined as clinically exposed bone in the maxillofacial region for more than 8 weeks. Despite an increasing number of BRONJ cases since first reported, the disease pathophysiology remains largely unknown. Since published studies suggest a significant role for dental disease in the pathophysiology of BRONJ, we developed a BRONJ animal model where aggressive periodontal disease is induced by ligature placement around the crown of the right maxillary first molar in the presence of vehicle (veh) or zoledronic acid (ZA), a potent BP. Ligature placement induced significant alveolar bone loss, which was attenuated by ZA treatment. Osteonecrosis was observed associated with ligature-induced periodontitis in the ZA-treated group. This was seen as sequestration and extensive periosteal alveolar bone formation on micro-computed tomography (µCT) in the ligated site of BP-treated animals. Histologic examination confirmed these findings, seen as necrotic bone with diffuse loss of osteocytes and empty lacunae, rimming of the necrotic bone by squamous epithelium and inflammation, and exposure to the oral cavity. Importantly, the rat lesions were strikingly similar to those of BRONJ patients. Our data suggest that dental disease and potent BP therapy are sufficient for BRONJ development in the rat.
    Journal of bone and mineral research: the official journal of the American Society for Bone and Mineral Research 02/2011; 26(8):1871-82. · 6.04 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Atherosclerosis may be initiated/accelerated by chronic dental infection (CDI). Noninvasively visualizing the carotid arteries is an accepted surrogate marker for determining coronary artery atherosclerosis (CAA). We hypothesized that 36 individuals with radiographic carotid atheromas would have more radiographic CDI than risk-matched individuals without atheromas. We determined the arithmetic sum of individuals' periapical and furcal lesions, pericoronitis sites, carious roots, teeth with pulpal caries, and vertical bony defects (>4 mm). Individuals with atheromas had a significantly (P < .01) greater mean score of 15.5 +/- 10.4 compared with control subjects (7.9 +/- 8.1). Similarly significant (P < .05) was the difference in the mean numbers of mesial and distal vertical bony defects in the atheroma group (4.1 +/- 3.9 and 4.8 +/- 3.8, respectively) compared with control subjects (1.6 +/- 2.4 and 1.8 +/- 2.7, respectively). Individuals with atheromas on their radiographs (and high probability of CAA) had significantly greater amounts of CDI than individuals without atheromas.
    Oral Surgery, Oral Medicine, Oral Pathology, Oral Radiology, and Endodontology 04/2010; 109(4):615-21. · 1.50 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Bisphosphonates (BPs) are commonly used medications to treat primary and metastatic bone cancer, as well as osteoporosis. Though BPs improve bone mineral density, reduce fracture risk, and reduce hypercalcemia of malignancy, some patients may develop osteonecrosis of the jaws (ONJ). BP related ONJ (BRONJ) is a devastating complication, presenting as clinically exposed bone in the maxillofacial region for more than 8 weeks. Despite an increasing number of BRONJ cases since first reported, the disease pathophysiology remains largely unknown. Published studies suggest a significant role for dental disease in the pathophysiology of BRONJ. Objectives: To further establish the importance of dental disease in BRONJ pathophysiology, we developed a BRONJ animal model. Methods: Aggressive periodontal disease was induced by ligature placement around the crown of the right maxillary first molar and animals were treated with veh or zoledronic acid (ZA), a potent BP. Animals were sacrificed and maxillas were collected and analyzed by microCT and histology. Results: Ligature placement induced significant alveolar bone loss and ZA treatment attenuated this effect. Significant changes of alveolar bone morphology including sequestration and extensive periosteal bone formation were observed by CT in the ligated site of BP treated animals. These findings were confirmed histologically, demonstrating necrotic bone with diffuse loss of osteocytes and empty lacunae, rimming of the necrotic bone by squamous epithelium and inflammation, and exposure to the oral cavity. Importantly, the rat lesions were strikingly similar to those of BRONJ patients. Conclusions: Our data suggest that dental disease and potent BP therapy are necessary and sufficient for BRONJ development in the rat. These findings suggest the rat as a suitable animal model and begin uncovering pathophysiologic mechanisms of BRONJ. This work was supported by NIH/NIDCR DE019465, and seed grants from UCLA's Older Americans Independece Center (OAIC) and Jonsson Cancer Center Foundation (JCCF).
    AADR Annual Meeting 2010; 03/2010
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    ABSTRACT: Necrotic bone exposure in the oral cavity has recently been reported in patients treated with nitrogen-containing bisphosphonates as part of their therapeutic regimen for multiple myeloma or metastatic cancers to bone. It has been postulated that systemic conditions associated with cancer patients combined with tooth extraction may increase the risk of osteonecrosis of the jaw (ONJ). The objective of this study was to establish an animal model of bisphosphonate-related ONJ by testing the combination of these risk factors. The generation of ONJ lesions in rats resembling human disease was achieved under the confluence of intravenous injection of zoledronate (ZOL; 35 microg/kg every 2 weeks), maxillary molar extraction, and vitamin D deficiency [VitD(-)]. The prevalence of ONJ in the VitD(-)/ZOL group was 66.7%, which was significantly higher (p < .05, Fisher exact test) than the control (0%), VitD(-) (0%), and ZOL alone (14.3%) groups. Similar to human patients, rat ONJ lesions prolonged the oral exposure of necrotic bone sequestra and were uniquely associated with pseudoepitheliomatous hyperplasia. The number of terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase-mediated deoxyuridine triphosphate-biotin nick-end label-positive (TUNEL(+)) osteoclasts significantly increased on the surface of post-tooth extraction alveolar bone of the VitD(-)/ZOL group, where sustained inflammation was depicted by [(18)F]fluorodeoxyglucose micro-positron emission tomography (microPET). ONJ lesions were found to be associated with dense accumulation of mixed inflammatory/immune cells. These cells, composed of neutrophils and lymphocytes, appeared to juxtapose apoptotic osteoclasts. It is suggested that the pathophysiologic mechanism(s) underpinning ONJ may involve the interaction between bisphosphonates and compromised vitamin D functions in the realm of skeletal homeostasis and innate immunity.
    Journal of bone and mineral research: the official journal of the American Society for Bone and Mineral Research 01/2010; 25(6):1337-49. · 6.04 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Objective: To identify the strategy to induce maximal regeneration of Dental Pulp Stromal Cells (DPSCs) under adverse effects. Methods: Highly purified human NK cells and monocytes were co-cultured with untreated and HEMA treated DPSCs in the presence and absence of N-acetyl cysteine. The function of NK cells was assessed in a three way interaction using 51Cr release assay, and the release of IFN-&Gamma and TNF-&Alpha by multiplex cytokine array or specific ELISAs. Cell death was determined by either Propidium iodide alone or by staining with Annexin V and PI. The function of DPSCs was assessed using secretion of VEGF, bFGF and IL-6. Results: Monocytes increased NFkB activity and further augmented the survival and function of NAC treated DPSCs. Increased function of DPSCs by monocytes and NAC is evident by significant increase in VEGF, and IL-6 secretion by DPSCs. NK cells in the absence of monocytes and NAC mediated significant lysis of DPSCs. However, the addition of monocytes and NAC to DPSCs prior to the addition of NK cells to the co-cultures rendered DPSCs resistant to NK cell cytotoxicity even though they also increased NK cell survival and function. Increased survival of NK cells and DPSCs by monocytes coincided with an increased secretion of IFN-&Gamma by the NK cells. Conclusion: Monocytes in combination with NAC increases the overall survival and function of DPSCs and NK cells resulting in the orchestrated amplification of the immune responses and the release of cytokines important in maturation and differentiation of DPSCs. Therefore, maximal regeneration of DPSCs can be obtained if these cells are treated with NAC and cultured with monocytes.
    IADR General Session 2009; 04/2009
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    ABSTRACT: Objective: There have been many developments in light-emitting diode (LEDs) light curing unit technology in the past few years. One of the major advances includes increased intensity. By increasing the intensity, a greater depth of cure has been expected. However, the capacity of these lights to cure composite resins at a distance has not been fully examined. This investigation is to determine the depth of cure of a conventional composite resin attained with 5 different LED curing light at 1 cm in distance. Materials and Methods: The LED curing lights studied were Bluephase (Ivoclar Vivadent), DEMI (Kerr Corp.), Flashlite Magna (Discus Dental), Radii plus (SDI), and SmartLite IQ (Dentsply). Individual specimens of composite-resin (Matrixx, Discus Dental) cylinders were subjected to 20 second exposures with one of LED lights. The specimens were 8 mm wide and 8 mm in depth. The LED light was positioned one centimeter from the composite resin surface with only half of the specimen directly under the light. The depth and width of cure was then determined immediately by the scraping technique. A total of 10 specimens were utilized per group. The data were then analyzed using t-Test assuming unequal variances at alpha=0.05. Results: For all light curing units tested, at the distance of 1 cm, the width of all specimens were cured. The depth of cure varied depending on the light curing unit tested and did not correlate directly to intensity. The results were the following: Bluephase 5.66 0.25 mm, DEMI 6.22 0.24 mm, Flashlite Magna 5.6 0.29 mm, Radii plus 4.86 0.16 mm, and SmartLite IQ 5.27 0.20mm (.20). Conclusion: This study demonstrated that new high intensity LED light curing units provides significant depth of cure even at 1 cm in distance from composite resin surface.
    IADR General Session 2009; 04/2009
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    ABSTRACT: Potential risks of the use of resin-based restorative materials include direct damage to the pulp cells and the induction of hypersensitivity reactions in patients. In this study, we tested the hypothesis that N-acetyl cysteine (NAC) inhibits resin toxicity and restores the function of pulp cells. Analysis of our data demonstrates toxicity of composite resins on pulp cells in both an in vivo rat and an ex vivo human model system. Moreover, cells that survive after the placement of composites are weaker, and they are induced to undergo cell death when exposed to 2-hydroxyethyl methacrylate (HEMA). The toxic effect of composites on pulp cells is neutralized by NAC. Therefore, NAC protects the cells from damage induced by clinically relevant levels of restorative materials, in both rat and human model systems. The addition of N-acetyl cysteine prior to or concomitant with the application of restorative materials may be beneficial for the health and safety of dental patients.
    Journal of Dental Research 07/2008; 87(6):537-41. · 3.83 Impact Factor
  • Evelyn M Chung, Eric C Sung
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    ABSTRACT: The utilization of combined chemoradiation therapy has recently increased in the treatment of head and neck cancers. This patient population is significantly more prone to various oral complications during and after medical therapy. Oral complications and long-term effects include mucositis, xerostomia, alterations in taste, vascular compromise, mucosal thinning and increased risk of rampant caries and periodontal disease. The most serious oral complication that can arise is osteoradionecrosis. Managing patients properly prior to medical treatment can help decrease these potential complications during and after treatment. This purpose of this article is to review the different radiation and chemotherapy regimens used to treat patients with head and neck cancers, as well as protocols in the dental management of these patients before, during, and after medical treatment.
    Journal of the California Dental Association 10/2006; 34(9):735-42.
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    ABSTRACT: This study sought to compare the cutting efficiency of different diamond burs on initial use as well as during repeated use, alternating with sterilization. Long, round-end, tapered diamond burs with similar diameter, profile, and diamond coarseness (125-150 microm grit) were used. A high-torque, high-speed electric handpiece (set at 200,000 rpm) was utilized with a coolant flow rate of 25 mL/min. Burs were tested under a constant load of 170 g while cuts were made on a machinable ceramic substrate block. Each bur was subjected to five consecutive cuts for 30 seconds of continuous operation and the cutting depths were measured. All burs performed similarly on the first cut. Cutting efficiencies for three of the bur groups decreased significantly after the first cycle; however, by the fifth cycle, all bur groups performed similarly without any significant differences (p > 0.05). A scanning electron microscope revealed significant crystal loss after each use.
    General dentistry 01/2006; 54(4):254-7.
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    ABSTRACT: This in vitro study evaluated the shear bond strength of a hybrid composite resin bonded to primary dentin prepared with an Er, Cr:YSGG hydrokinetic laser compared to conventional bur prepared primary dentin. The results suggest that primary dentin surfaces treated with the Er, Cr:YSGG laser, with or without etching, may provide comparable or increased composite resin bond strengths depending upon bonding agent used.
    The Journal of clinical pediatric dentistry 02/2005; 30(1):45-9. · 0.34 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: This article reviews the clinical features, epidemiology, pathophysiology, dental findings, and dental and medical management of the care of patients with panic disorder, or PD. The authors conducted a MEDLINE search for the period 1998 through 2003, using the key term "panic disorder" to define the pathophysiology of the disorder, its epidemiology and dental implications. The articles they selected for further review included those published in peer-reviewed journals. PD is a common and debilitating psychiatric disease in which a person experiences sudden and unpredictable panic attacks, or PAs, with symptoms of overwhelming anxiety, chest pain, palpitations and shortness of breath. Persistent concern about having another attack and worry that it may indicate a heart attack or "going crazy" impairs the person's social, family and working lives. Frequently accompanying the disorder is agoraphobia, depression and mitral valve prolapse, or MVP. In patients with PD, the prevalence of dental disease may be extensive because of the xerostomic effects of psychiatric medications used to treat it. Dental treatment consists of preventive dental education and prescribing saliva substitutes and anticaries agents. Precautions must be taken when prescribing or administering analgesics, antibiotics or sedative agents that may have an adverse interaction with the psychiatric medications. Because there is a connection between PAs and MVP, the dentist needs to consult with the patient's physician to determine the presence of MVP and whether there is associated mitral valve regurgitation. Patients with MVP and accompanying mitral valve regurgitation require prophylactic antibiotics when undergoing dental procedures known to cause a bacteremia and heightened risk of endocarditis.
    Journal of the American Dental Association (1939) 07/2004; 135(6):771-8; quiz 796-7. · 1.82 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: About 40% to 50% of Down syndrome (DS) patients can have significant congenital heart defects such as patent ductus arteriosus, Tetralogy of Fallot, and septal defects. Patients with large septal defects may develop Eisenmenger syndrome (ES), which is defined by the cardiac septal defect and pulmonary hypertension coupled with a reverse right to left shunting of blood flow. DS patients that suffer from this condition require special considerations in the delivery of their dental care to prevent further medical complications or emergencies such as infection, cyanotic episodes, and thromboemboli. Collaboration with the cardiologist is also essential to ensure a complete and comprehensive pre-operative work up. The purpose of this article is to describe the dental management of DS patients with ES under general anesthesia.
    The journal of contemporary dental practice 06/2004; 5(2):70-80.
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    ABSTRACT: Irrigation solutions used in the preparation of composite restorations have been reported to contain potential contaminants that may interfere with, and compromise, composite bonding. The purpose of this in vitro study was to evaluate microleakage of Class V composite restorations after irrigation of acid conditioner with various solutions. MATERIAL AND MENTODS: Standardized Class V preparations (5 mm wide, 4 mm high and 2 mm deep) were made at the cemento-enamel junction on available buccal, lingual, mesial, and distal surfaces of extracted human posterior teeth. The prepared teeth, separated into 7 groups (n=10), were etched for 10 seconds with a 37% phosphoric acid gel. Each group was irrigated with 1 of the following solutions: (1) tap water, (2) sterile water, (3) sodium chloride solution, (4) filtered water, (5) chlorhexidine, (6) sodium hypochlorite, and (7) distilled water. Each preparation was treated with a bonding agent (Opti-Bond Solo) and then restored with a hybrid composite (Herculite XRV). The restorations were polished with Soflex polishing disks and then thermal cycled for 1000 cycles between 5 degrees C and 55 degrees C with a 20-second dwell time. Assessment of microleakage was performed by application of a dye penetrant, sectioning of the teeth, and examination at original magnification x 20. The nonparametric Kruskal-Wallis test (alpha=.05) was used for statistical analysis. Microleakage ranging from 10% to 30% was observed in all groups tested. Tap water exhibited the highest incidence of leakage, sterile water the least, with the other irrigation solutions leading to intermediate leakage. However, there was no significant difference in microleakage resulting from any of the irrigation solutions tested. The effect of irrigation solutions used in this in vitro study was not significant.
    Journal of Prosthetic Dentistry 04/2004; 91(3):265-7. · 1.72 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Individuals with dilated cardiomyopathy (DCM) often die from heart failure without a transplant. Of those who do receive a transplant, a significant number suffer a perioperative stroke, although the cause is often in doubt. Our study attempts to determine whether the prevalence of calcified carotid artery atheromas, a known cause of stroke, is greater on the panoramic radiographs of individuals with DCM than it is among controls. Twenty-seven persons [mean age 62.3 years] enrolled in the UCLA Cardiac Transplantation Program were provided a panoramic radiograph. An age-matched, atherogenic risk-matched cohort of 54 patients free of DCM served as controls. The radiographs of patients in each group were examined for the presence of calcified carotid atheromas. Nine of the 27 patients with DCM had calcified atheromas, whereas only 2 of the 54 patients in the control group had such lesions. This difference was statistically significant (P<.001). Panoramic radiographs may be helpful in identifying some DCM patients with occult carotid artery atherosclerosis who may be at risk for a subsequent stroke.
    Oral Surgery, Oral Medicine, Oral Pathology, Oral Radiology, and Endodontology 03/2004; 97(3):404-7.

Publication Stats

230 Citations
30.76 Total Impact Points

Institutions

  • 2014
    • Antioch University, Los Angeles
      Los Angeles, California, United States
  • 2012
    • University of Texas at Tyler
      Tyler, Texas, United States
  • 2010
    • Harbor-UCLA Medical Center
      Torrance, California, United States
  • 1999–2010
    • University of California, Los Angeles
      • • Section of Hospital Dentistry
      • • School of Dentistry
      Los Angeles, California, United States