[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Acute liver injury was induced in male BALB/c mice by coadministering isoniazid and rifampicin. In this work, the effects of resveratrol (1) were investigated in the hepatotoxicity caused by isoniazid-rifampicin in mice. Compound 1 was administered 30 min prior to isoniazid-rifampicin. Serum biochemical tests, liver histopathological examination, oxidative stress, myeloperoxidase activity, cytokine production (TNF-α, IL-12p70, and IL-10), and mRNA expression of SIRT1-7 and PPAR-γ/PGC1-α were evaluated. The administration of 1 significantly decreased aspartate transaminase and alanine aminotransferase levels, myeloperoxidase activity, and cytokine levels. Furthermore, 1 reverted the decrease of catalase and glutathione activities and ameliorated the histopathological alterations associated with antituberculosis drugs. Modulation of SIRT1 and PPAR-γ/PGC1-α expression is likely involved in the protective effects of 1. The results presented herein show that 1 was able to largely prevent the hepatotoxicity induced by isoniazid and rifampicin in mice, mainly by modulating SIRT1 mRNA expression.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Background and purposeSpinal voltage-gated calcium channels (VGCC) are pivotal regulators of painful and inflammatory alterations, representing attractive therapeutic targets. We examined the effects of epidural administration of the P/Q- and N-type VGCC blockers Tx3-3 and Phα1β, respectively, isolated from the spider P. nigriventer, on symptomatic, inflammatory and functional changes allied to mouse cyclophosphamide (CPA)-induced haemorrhagic cystitis (HC). The effects of P. nigriventer-derived toxins were compared to those displayed by MVIIC and MVIIA, extracted from the cone snail C. magus.Experimental approachHC was induced by a single intraperitoneal injection of CPA (300 mg/kg). Dose- and time-related effects of spinally-administered P/Q and N-type VGCC blockers were assessed on nociceptive behaviour and macroscopic inflammation elicited by CPA. The effects of toxins were also evaluated on cell migration, cytokine production, oxidative stress, functional cystometry alterations, and TRPV1, TRPA1 or NK1 mRNA expression.Key resultsThe spinal blockage of P/Q-type VGCC by Tx3-3 and MVIIC, or N-type VGCC by Phα1β attenuated nociceptive and inflammatory events associated with HC, including bladder oxidative stress and cytokine production. CPA produced a slight increase of bladder TRPV1 and TRPA1 mRNA expression, which was reversed by all the tested toxins. Noteworthy, Phα1β strongly prevented bladder neutrophil migration, besides HC-related functional alterations, and its effects were potentiated by co-injecting the selective NK1 receptor antagonist CP-96345.Conclusions and implicationsOur results shed new lights on the role of spinal P/Q and N-type VGCC in bladder dysfunctions, pointing out Phα1β as a promising alternative for treating complications associated to CPA-induced HC.
British Journal of Pharmacology 10/2014; · 5.07 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The present study investigated the effects of pharmacological spinal inhibition of voltage-gated calcium channels (VGCC) in mouse pruritus. The epidural administration of P/Q-type MVIIC or PhTx3.3, L-type verapamil, T-type NNC 55-0396 or R-type SNX-482 VGCC blockers failed to alter the scratching behavior caused by the PAR-2 activator trypsin, injected into the mouse nape skin. Otherwise, trypsin-elicited pruritus was markedly reduced by the spinal administration of preferential N-type VGCC inhibitors MVIIA and Phα1β. Time-course experiments revealed that C. magus-derived toxin MVIIA displayed significant effects when dosed from 1 to 4 h before trypsin, whilst the anti-pruritic effects of Phα1β from P. nigriventer remained significant for up to 12 h. In addition to reducing trypsin-evoked itching, MVIIA or Phα1β also prevented the itching elicited by intradermal (i.d.) injection of SLIGRL-NH2, compound 48/80 or chloroquine, although they did not affect H2O2-induced scratching behavior. Furthermore, the co-administration of MVIIA or Phα1β markedly inhibited the pruritus caused by the spinal injection of gastrin-releasing peptide (GRP), but not morphine. Notably, the epidural administration of MVIIA or Phα1β greatly prevented the chronic pruritus allied to dry skin model. However, either tested toxin failed to alter the edema formation or neutrophil influx caused by trypsin, whereas they significantly reduced the c-Fos activation in laminas I, II and III of the spinal cord. Our data brings novel evidence on itching transmission mechanisms, pointing out the therapeutic relevance of N-type VGCC inhibitors to control refractory pruritus.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Gliomas are the most common malignant brain tumors in adults. Bradykinin (BK) displays an important role in cancer, although the exact role of kinin receptors in the glioma biology remains unclear. This study investigated the role of kinin B1 and B2 receptors (B1R and B2R) on cell proliferation in human glioblastoma cell lineages. The mRNA expression of B1R and B2R was verified by RT-qPCR, whereas the effects of kinin agonists (des-Arg(9)-BK and BK) were analyzed by cell counting, MTT assay and annexin-V/PI determination. The PI3K/Akt and ERK1/2 signaling activation was assessed by flow cytometry. Our results demonstrated that both human glioblastoma cell lines U-138MG and U-251MG express functional B1R and B2R. The proliferative effects induced by the incubation of des-Arg(9)-BK and BK are likely related to the activation of PI3K/Akt and ERK 1/2 pathways. Moreover, the pre-incubation of the selective PI3Kγ blocker AS252424 markedly prevented kinin-induced AKT phosphorylation. Noteworthy, the selective B1R and B2R antagonists SSR240612 and HOE-140 were able to induce cell death of either lineages, with mixed apoptosis/necrosis characteristics. Taken together, the present results show that activation of B1R and B2R might contribute to glioblastoma progression in vitro. Furthermore, PI3K/Akt and ERK 1/2 signaling may be a target for adjuvant treatment of glioblastoma with a possible impact on tumor proliferation.
Journal of Neuro-Oncology 07/2014; · 3.12 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Purpose 5-fluorouracil (5-FU) has been broadly used to treat solid tumors for more than 50 years. One of the major side effects of fluoropyrimidines therapy is oral and intestinal mucositis. Human uridine phosphorylase (hUP) inhibitors have been suggested as modulators of 5-FU toxicity. Therefore, the present study aimed to test the ability of hUP blockers in preventing mucositis induced by 5-FU. Methods We induced intestinal mucositis in Wistar rats with 5-FU, and the intestinal damage was evaluated in presence or absence of two hUP1 inhibitors previously characterized. We examined the loss of weight and diarrhea following the treatment, the villus integrity, uridine levels in plasma, and the neutrophil migration by MPO activity. Results We found that one of the compounds, 6-hydroxy-4-methyl-1H-pyridin-2-one-3-carbonitrile was efficient to promote intestinal mucosa protection and to inhibit the hUP1 enzyme, increasing the uridine levels in the plasma of animals. However, the loss of body weight, diarrhea intensity or neutrophil migration remained unaffected. Conclusion Our results bring support to the hUP1 inhibitor strategy as a novel possibility of prevention and treatment of mucositis during the 5-FU chemotherapy, based on the approach of uridine accumulation in plasma and tissues.
Investigational New Drugs 07/2014; · 3.50 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: This study investigated whether the spinal or systemic treatment with the lipid resolution mediators resolvin D1 (RvD1), aspirin-triggered resolvin D1 (AT-RvD1) and resolvin D2 (RvD2) might interfere with behavioral and neurochemical changes in the mouse fibromyalgia-like model induced by reserpine. Acute administration of AT-RvD1 and RvD2 produced a significant inhibition of mechanical allodynia and thermal sensitization in reserpine-treated mice, whereas RvD1 was devoid of effects. A similar antinociceptive effect was obtained by acutely treating animals with the reference drug pregabalin. Noteworthy, the repeated administration of AT-RvD1 and RvD2 also prevented the depressive-like behavior in reserpine-treated animals, according to assessment of immobility time, although the chronic administration of pregabalin failed to affect this parameter. The induction of fibromyalgia by reserpine triggered a marked decrease of dopamine and serotonin (5-HT) levels, as examined in total brain, spinal cord, cortex and thalamus. Reserpine also elicited a reduction of glutamate levels in total brain, and a significant increase in the spinal cord and thalamus. Chronic treatment with RvD2 prevented 5-HT reduction in total brain, and reversed the glutamate increases in total brain and spinal cord. Otherwise, AT-RvD1 led to a recovery of dopamine levels in cortex, and 5-HT in thalamus, whilst it diminished brain glutamate contents. Concerning pregabalin, this drug prevented dopamine reduction in total brain, and inhibited glutamate increase in brain and spinal cord of reserpine-treated animals. Our data provide novel evidence, showing the ability of D-series resolvins AT-RvD1, and mainly RvD2, in reducing painful and depressive symptoms allied to fibromyalgia in mice.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Background and PurposeCyclophosphamide induces urotoxicity characterized by the development of cystitis, which involves bladder overactivity and inflammation. Here, we investigated the roles of chemokine receptor 2 (CXCR2) and transient receptor potential vanilloid 1 (TRPV1) channels in a rat model of cyclophosphamide-induced cystitis. Experimental ApproachCystitis induced by cyclophosphamide in rats was assessed by gross morphology, histology and immunohistochemistry of bladder tissue. mRNA for CXCR2 and TRPV1 channels were measured by RT-PCR. Nociceptive responses in paw and abdomen, along with cystometric measures were recorded. Key ResultsCyclophosphamide, i.p., induced pain behaviour, bladder inflammation and voiding dysfunction. The CXCR2 antagonist, SB225002, the TRPV1 channel antagonist, SB366791 or their combination reduced the mechanical hypersensitivity of paw and abdominal area and nociceptive behaviour after cyclophosphamide. Cyclophosphamide-induced cystitis was characterized by haemorrhage, oedema, neutrophil infiltration and other inflammatory changes, which were markedly decreased by the antagonists. Up-regulation of CXCR2 and TRPV1 mRNA in the bladder after cyclophosphamide was inhibited by SB225002, SB366791 or their combination. Expression of CXCR2 and TRPV1 channels was increased in the urothelium after cyclophosphamide. Bladder dysfunction was shown by increased number of non-voiding contractions (NVCs) and bladder pressures and a reduction in bladder capacity (BC), voided volume (VV) and voiding efficiency (VE). SB225002 or its combination with SB366791 reduced bladder pressures, whereas SB225002, SB366791 or their combination increased BC, VV and VE, and also reduced the number of NVCs. Conclusions and ImplicationsCXCR2 and TRPV1 channels play important roles in cyclophosphamide-induced cystitis in rats and could provide potential therapeutic targets for cystitis.
British Journal of Pharmacology 01/2014; 171(2). · 5.07 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Paraquat (PQ) is an agrochemical agent commonly used worldwide, which is allied to potential risks of intoxication. This herbicide induces the formation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) that ends up compromising various organs, particularly the lungs and the brain. This study evaluated the deleterious effects of paraquat on the central nervous system (CNS) and peripherally, with special attempts to assess the putative protective effects of the selective CXCR2 receptor antagonist SB225002 on these parameters. PQ-toxicity was induced in male Wistar rats, in a total dose of 50 mg/kg, and control animals received saline solution at the same schedule of administration. Separate groups of animals were treated with the selective CXCR2 antagonist SB225002 (1 or 3 mg/kg), administered 30 min before each paraquat injection. The major changes found in paraquat-treated animals were: decreased body weight and hypothermia, nociception behavior, impairment of locomotor and gait capabilities, enhanced TNF-α and IL-1β expression in the striatum, and cell migration to the lungs and blood. Some of these parameters were reversed when the antagonist SB225002 was administered, including recovery of physiological parameters, decreased nociception, improvement of gait abnormalities, modulation of striatal TNF-α and IL-1β expression, and decrease of neutrophil migration to the lungs and blood. Taken together, our results demonstrate that damage to the central and peripheral systems elicited by paraquat can be prevented by the pharmacological inhibition of CXCR2 chemokine receptors. The experimental evidence presented herein extends the comprehension on the toxicodynamic aspects of paraquat, and opens new avenues to treat intoxication induced by this herbicide.
PLoS ONE 01/2014; 9(8):e105740. · 3.53 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Objective. Mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) p38 inhibitors have entered the clinical phase, although many of them have failed due to high toxicity and lack of efficacy. In the present study we compared the effects of the selective p38 inhibitor ML3403 and the dual p38-PDE4 inhibitor CBS-3595, on inflammatory and nociceptive parameters in a model of polyarthritis in rats.Methods. Male Wistar rats (180-200 g) were used for the complete Freund's adjuvant (CFA)-induced arthritis model and they were evaluated at 14-21 days. We also analysed the effects of these pharmacological tools on liver and gastrointestinal toxicity and on cytokine levels.Results. Repeated CBS-3595 (3 mg/kg) or ML3403 (10 mg/kg) administration produced significant anti-inflammatory actions in the chronic arthritis model induced by CFA. CBS-3595 and ML3403 treatment also markedly reduced the production of the proinflammatory cytokine IL-6 in the paw tissue, whereas it widely increased the levels of the anti-inflammatory cytokine IL-10. Moreover, CBS-3595 produced partial anti-allodynic effects in the CFA model at 4 and 8 days after treatment. Notably, ML3403 and CBS-3595 did not show marked signs of hepatoxicity, as supported by unaltered histological observations in the liver sections. Finally, both compounds were safe in the gastrointestinal tract, according to evaluation of intestinal biopsies.Conclusion. CBS-3595 displayed a superior profile regarding its anti-inflammatory effects. Thus p38 MAPK/PDE4 blocking might well constitute a relevant strategy for the treatment of RA.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Uridine (Urd) is a promising biochemical modulator to reduce host toxicity caused by 5-fluorouracil (5-FU), without impairing its antitumor activity. Elevated doses of Urd are required to achieve a protective effect against 5-FU toxicity, but exogenous administration of Urd is not well-tolerated. Selective inhibitors of human uridine phosphorylase (hUP) have been proposed as a strategy to increase Urd levels. We describe synthesis and characterization of a new class of ligands that inhibit hUP type 1 (hUP1). The design of ligands was based on a possible SN1 catalytic mechanism and as mimics of the carbocation in the transition-state of hUP1. The kinetic and thermodynamic profiles showed that the ligands here presented are the most potent in vitro hUP1 inhibitors developed to date. In addition, a lead compound improved the anti-proliferative effects of 5-FU on colon cancer cells, accompanied by a reduction of in vitro 5-FU cytotoxicity in aggressive SW-620 cancer cells.
Journal of Medicinal Chemistry 10/2013; · 5.61 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: In this work, the antitubercular activity of a pentacyano(isoniazid)ferrate(II) compound (IQG-607) was investigated using a macrophage model of Mycobacterium tuberculosis infection. Importantly, treatment of M.-tuberculosis-infected macrophages with IQG-607 significantly diminished the number of CFU compared with the untreated control group. The antitubercular activity of IQG-607 was similar to that observed for the positive control drugs isoniazid and rifampicin. Nevertheless, higher concentrations of IQG-607 produced a significantly greater reduction in bacterial load compared with the same concentrations of isoniazid. Analysis of the mechanism of action of IQG-607 revealed that the biosynthesis of mycolic acids was blocked. The promising activity of IQG-607 in infected macrophages and the experimental determination of its mechanism of action may help in further studies aimed at the development of a new antimycobacterial agent.
International journal of antimicrobial agents 10/2013; · 3.03 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The use of zebrafish (Danio rerio) is increasing as an intermediate preclinical model, to prioritize drug candidates for mammalian testing. As the immune system of the zebrafish is quite similar to that of mammals, models of inflammation are being developed for the screening of new drugs. The characterization of these models is crucial for studies that seek for mechanisms of action and specific pharmacological targets. It is well known that copper is a metal that induces damage and cell migration to hair cells of lateral line of zebrafish. Extracellular nucleotides/nucleosides, as ATP and adenosine (ADO), act as endogenous signaling molecules during tissue damage by exerting effects on inflammatory and immune responses. The present study aimed to characterize the inflammatory status, and to investigate the involvement of the purinergic system in copper-induced inflammation in zebrafish larvae. Fishes of 7days post fertilization were exposed to 10μM of copper for a period of 24h. The grade of oxidative stress, inflammatory status, copper uptake, the activity and the gene expression of the enzymes responsible for controlling the levels of nucleotides and adenosine were evaluated. Due to the copper accumulation in zebrafish larvae tissues, the damage and oxidative stress were exacerbated over time, resulting in an inflammatory process involving IL-1β, TNF-α, COX-2 and PGE2. Within the purinergic system, the mechanisms that control the ADO levels were the most involved, mainly the reactions performed by the isoenzyme ADA 2. In conclusion, our data shed new lights on the mechanisms related to copper-induced inflammation in zebrafish larvae.
Toxicology and Applied Pharmacology 08/2013; · 3.98 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Zebrafish (Danio rerio) has been adopted as a model for behavioral, immunological and toxicological studies. Mercury is a toxic heavy metal released into the environment. There is evidence indicating that heavy metals can modulate ionotropic receptors, including the purinergic receptor P2X7. Therefore, this study evaluated the in vivo effects of acute exposure to mercury chloride (HgCl2) in zebrafish larvae and to investigate the involvement of P2X7R in mercury-related toxicity. Larvae survival was evaluated for 24 h after exposure to HgCl2, ATP or A740003. The combination of ATP (1 mM) and HgCl2 (20 μg/L) decreased survival when compared to ATP 1 mM. The antagonist A740003 (300 and 500 nM) increased the survival time, and reversed the mortality caused by ATP and HgCl2 in association. Quantitative real time PCR showed a decrease of P2X7R expression in the larvae treated with HgCl2 (20 μg/L). Evaluating the oxidative stress our results showed decreased CAT (catalase) activity and increased MDA (malondialdehyde) levels. Of note, the combination of ATP with HgCl2 showed an additive effect. This study provides novel evidence on the possible mechanisms underlying the toxicity induced by mercury, indicating that it is able to modulate P2X7R in zebrafish larvae.
Comparative Biochemistry and Physiology Part C Toxicology & Pharmacology 07/2013; · 2.71 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: This study evaluated the development of periapical lesions in a rat model of type 2 diabetes and assessed the potential actions of the antioxidant agent tempol in this model.
Male Wistar rats were used; they received tap water (N = 5) or a 20% glucose solution (N = 15) during a period of 9 weeks. At the sixth week, periapical lesions were induced on the first mandibular molars, and the animals were subdivided into 4 groups. The subgroup 1 was composed of nondiabetic rats orally receiving saline solution (10 mL/kg). Chronically glucose-fed rats were divided into the following subgroups: (2) saline-treated animals (10 mL/kg by oral route), and animals treated with tempol by gavage at doses of (3) 50 mg/kg or (4) 100 mg/kg. The body weight was monitored thoroughly. After 21 days of apical periodontitis induction, the animals were killed, and the mandibles were collected and submitted to radiographic and histologic analysis. The livers were collected to determine free radicals, and the blood plasma was used to measure insulin levels.
Type 2 diabetic rats displayed a significant decrease of body weight gain and a slight increase of insulin levels, which were allied to reduced levels of the antioxidant components catalase and reduced glutathione; these alterations were reversed by tempol. Concerning the periapical lesions, neither radiographic nor histologic analysis revealed any significant difference between control and type 2 diabetic rats. In diabetic rats, the apical periodontitis was refractory to tempol treatment.
The extent and cellularity of periapical lesions in glucose-fed type 2 diabetic rats were similar to those seen in control rats. Despite affecting other parameters related to diabetes, tempol failed to improve the outcome of endodontic lesions in type 2 diabetic animals.
Journal of endodontics 05/2013; 39(5):643-7. · 2.95 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: In the present study, we analyzed the role of purinergic P2X7 receptor in Mycobacterium tuberculosis infection and host interaction mechanisms in vitro and in vivo. For experimental procedures, a macrophage murine cell line RAW 264.7, and male Swiss, wild-type C57BL/6 and P2X7 receptor knockout (P2X7R(-/-)) mice were used throughout this study. We have demonstrated that treatment of RAW 264.7 cells with ATP (3 and 5mM) resulted in a statistically significant reduction of M. tuberculosis-colony-forming units. The purinergic P2X7 receptor expression was found significantly augmented in the lungs of mice infected with M. tuberculosis H37Rv. Infected wild-type mice showed a marked increase in the spleen weight, in comparison to non-infected animals. Furthermore, M. tuberculosis-infected P2X7R(-/-) mice showed an increase of M. tuberculosis burden in lung tissue, when compared to infected wild-type mice. In P2X7R(-/-) spleens, we observed a significant decrease in the populations of Treg (CD4(+)Foxp3(+)), T cells (CD4(+), CD8(+)CD25(+) and CD4(+)CD25(+)), dendritic cells (CD11c(+)) and B220(+) cells. However, a significant increase in CD11b(+) cells was observed in P2X7R(-/-) mice, when compared to wild-type animals. In the lungs, P2X7R(-/-)M. tuberculosis-infected mice exhibited pulmonary infiltrates containing an increase of Treg cells (CD4(+)Foxp3(+)), T cells (CD4(+) and CD8(+)) and a decrease in the B220(+) cells, when compared with wild-type M. tuberculosis-infected mice. The findings observed in the present study provide novel evidence on the role of P2X7 receptors in the pathogenesis of tuberculosis.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Irritant contact dermatitis (ICD) is an inflammatory reaction caused by chemical toxicity on the skin. The P2X7 receptor (P2X7R) is a key mediator of cytokine release, which recruits immune cells to sites of inflammation. We investigated the role of P2X7R in croton oil (CrO)-induced ICD using in vitro and in vivo approaches. ICD was induced in vivo by CrO application on the mouse ear and in vitro by incubation of murine macrophages and dendritic cells (DCs) with CrO and ATP. Infiltrating cells were identified by flow cytometry, histology and myeloperoxidase (MPO) determination. Effects of the ATP scavenger apyrase were assessed to investigate further the role of P2X7R in ICD. Animals were also treated with N-1330, a caspase-1 inhibitor, or with clodronate, which induces macrophage apoptosis. CrO application induced severe inflammatory Gr1(+) cell infiltration and increased MPO levels in the mouse ear. Selective P2X7R antagonism with A438079 or genetic P2X7R deletion reduced the neutrophil infiltration. Clodronate administration significantly reduced Gr1(+) cell infiltration and local IL-1β levels. In vitro experiments confirmed that A438079 or apyrase treatment prevented the increase in IL-1β that was evoked by macrophage and DC incubation with CrO and ATP. These data support a key role for P2X7 in ICD-mediated inflammation via modulation of inflammatory cells. It is tempting to suggest that P2X7R inhibition might be an alternative ICD treatment.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Pentylenetetrazole (PTZ) is a common convulsant agent used in animal models to investigate the mechanisms of seizures. Although adult zebrafish have been recently used to study epileptic seizures, a thorough characterization of the PTZ-induced seizures in this animal model is missing. The goal of this study was to perform a detailed temporal behavior profile characterization of PTZ-induced seizure in adult zebrafish. The behavioral profile during 20 min of PTZ immersion (5, 7.5, 10, and 15 mM) was characterized by stages defined as scores: (0) short swim, (1) increased swimming activity and high frequency of opercular movement, (2) erratic movements, (3) circular movements, (4) clonic seizure-like behavior, (5) fall to the bottom of the tank and tonic seizure-like behavior, (6) death. Animals exposed to distinct PTZ concentrations presented different seizure profiles, intensities and latencies to reach all scores. Only animals immersed into 15 mM PTZ showed an increased time to return to the normal behavior (score 0), after exposure. Total mortality rate at 10 and 15 mM were 33% and 50%, respectively. Considering all behavioral parameters, 5, 7.5, 10, and 15 mM PTZ, induced seizures with low, intermediate, and high severity, respectively. Pretreatment with diazepam (DZP) significantly attenuated seizure severity. Finally, the brain PTZ levels in adult zebrafish immersed into the chemoconvulsant solution at 5 and 10 mM were comparable to those described for the rodent model, with a peak after a 20-min of exposure. The PTZ brain levels observed after 2.5-min PTZ exposure and after 60-min removal from exposure were similar. Altogether, our results showed a detailed temporal behavioral characterization of a PTZ epileptic seizure model in adult zebrafish. These behavioral analyses and the simple method for PTZ quantification could be considered as important tools for future investigations and translational research.
PLoS ONE 01/2013; 8(1):e54515. · 3.53 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: This study was aimed to characterize the depression-like behaviour in the classical model of chronic inflammation induced by Complete Freund's Adjuvant (CFA). Male Swiss mice received an intraplantar (i.pl.) injection of CFA (50 µl/paw) or vehicle. Behavioural and inflammatory responses were measured at different time-points (1 to 4 weeks), and different pharmacological tools were tested. The brain levels of IL-1β and BDNF, or COX-2 expression were also determined. CFA elicited a time-dependent edema formation and mechanical allodynia, which was accompanied by a significant increase in the immobility time in the tail suspension (TST) or forced-swimming (FST) depression tests. Repeated administration of the antidepressants imipramine (10 mg/kg), fluoxetine (20 mg/kg) and bupropion (30 mg/kg) significantly reversed depression-like behaviour induced by CFA. Predictably, the anti-inflammatory drugs dexamethasone (0.5 mg/kg), indomethacin (10 mg/kg) and celecoxib (30 mg/kg) markedly reduced CFA-induced edema. The oral treatment with the analgesic drugs dipyrone (30 and 300 mg/kg) or pregabalin (30 mg/kg) significantly reversed the mechanical allodyinia induced by CFA. Otherwise, either dipyrone or pregabalin (both 30 mg/kg) did not significantly affect the paw edema or the depressive-like behaviour induced by CFA, whereas the oral treatment with dipyrone (300 mg/kg) was able to reduce the immobility time in TST. Noteworthy, CFA-induced edema was reduced by bupropion (30 mg/kg), and depression behaviour was prevented by celecoxib (30 mg/kg). The co-treatment with bupropion and celecoxib (3 mg/kg each) significantly inhibited both inflammation and depression elicited by CFA. The same combined treatment reduced the brain levels of IL-1β, as well as COX-2 immunopositivity, whilst it failed to affect the reduction of BDNF levels. We provide novel evidence on the relationship between chronic inflammation and depression, suggesting that combination of antidepressant and anti-inflammatory agents bupropion and celecoxib might represent an attractive therapeutic strategy for depression.
PLoS ONE 01/2013; 8(9):e77227. · 3.53 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The effects of trans-resveratrol (1) were evaluated in acute nociception models induced by capsaicin or glutamate in mice, in an attempt to further characterize its mechanism of action. The oral administration of 1 (50 and 100 mg/kg) reduced significantly the licking behavior elicited by capsaicin (1.6 μg/paw) or glutamate (10 μmol/paw). The co-administration of 1 into the mouse paw (200 μg/site) markedly prevented glutamate-induced licking, without affecting capsaicin responses. In addition, the intrathecal (it) injection of 1 (150 to 600 μg/site) greatly reduced the licking behavior caused by capsaicin, but not glutamate. Similarly, the intracerebroventricular injection of 1 (300 μg/site) caused a potent inhibition of capsaicin-induced nociception, while the glutamate responses remained unaffected. However, the co-administration of 1 (300 μg/site) reduced the biting behavior induced by spinal injection of glutamate (30 μg/site, it), leaving capsaicin (6.4 μg/site)-induced biting unaltered. Notably, the oral administration of 1 (100 mg/kg) inhibited significantly the capsaicin-induced increase of c-Fos and COX-2 labeling in the spinal cord and COX-2 expression in the cortex, but failed to affect c-Fos and COX-2 expression in the glutamate model. This study has explored the effects of 1 in both the capsaicin and glutamate models, extending current knowledge on the analgesic effects of trans-resveratrol.
Journal of Natural Products 12/2012; · 3.29 Impact Factor