[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: There is a need to identify new markers to assess recurrence risk in early-stage colorectal cancer (CRC) patients. We explored the prognostic impact of ether-a-gò-gò-related gene 1 channels and some hypoxia markers, in patients with nonmetastatic (stage I, II, and III) CRC.
The expression of hERG1, vascular endothelial growth factor A (VEGF-A), glucose transporter 1, carbonic anhydrase IX (CA-IX), epidermal growth factor receptor (EGF-R), and p53 was tested by immunohistochemistry in 135 patients. The median follow-up was 35 months. Clinicopathologic parameters and overall survival were evaluated.
hERG1 displayed a statistically significant association with Glut-1, VEGF-A, CA-IX, and EGF-R; p53 with VEGF-A and CA-IX; Glut-1 with the age of the patients; and EGF-R with TNM and mucin content. TNM and CA-IX were prognostic factors at the univariate analysis; TNM, hERG1, and Glut-1, at the multivariate analysis. Risk scores calculated from the final multivariate model allowed to stratify patients into four different risk groups: A) stage I-II, Glut-1 positivity, any hERG1; B) stage I-II, Glut-1 and hERG1 negativity; C) stage I-II, Glut-1 negativity, hERG1 positivity; D) stage III, any Glut-1 and any hERG1.
hERG1 positivity with Glut-1 negativity identifies a patient group with poor prognosis within stage I-II CRC. The possibility that these patients might benefit from adjuvant therapy, independently from the TNM stage, is discussed.
More robust prognostic and predictive markers, supplementing standard clinical and pathologic staging, are needed for node-negative patients.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Taxanes are chemotherapeutic agents with a large spectrum of antitumor activity when used as monotherapy or in combination regimens. Paclitaxel and docetaxel have poor solubility and require a complex solvent system for their commercial formulation, Cremophor EL(R) (CrEL) and Tween 80(R) respectively. Both these biological surfactants have recently been implicated as contributing not only to the hypersensitivity reactions, but also to the degree of peripheral neurotoxicity and myelosuppression, and may antagonize the cytotoxicity. Nab-paclitaxel, or nanoparticle albumin-bound paclitaxel (ABI-007; Abraxane(R)), is a novel formulation of paclitaxel that does not employ the CrEL solvent system. Nab-paclitaxel demonstrates greater efficacy and a favorable safety profile compared with standard paclitaxel in patients with advanced disease (breast cancer, non-small cell lung cancer, melanoma, ovarian cancer). Clinical studies in breast cancer have shown that nab-paclitaxel is significantly more effective than standard paclitaxel in terms of overall objective response rate (ORR) and time to progression. Nab-paclitaxel in combination with gemcitabine, capecitabine or bevacizumab has been shown to be very active in patients with advanced breast cancer. An economic analysis showed that nab-paclitaxel would be an economically reasonable alternative to docetaxel or standard paclitaxel in metastatic breast cancer. Favorable tumor ORR and manageable toxicities have been reported for nab-paclitaxel as monotherapy or in combination treatment in advanced breast cancer.
OncoTargets and Therapy 01/2009; 2:179-88. · 2.07 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Complete surgical resection of gastric cancer is potentially curative, but long-term survival is poor.
Patients with histologically proven adenocarcinoma of the stomach of stages IB, II, IIIA and B, or IV (T4N2M0) and treated with potentially curative surgery were randomly assigned to follow-up alone or to intravenous treatment with four cycles (repeated every 21 days) of PELF (cisplatin [40 mg/m(2), on days 1 and 5], epirubicin [30 mg/m(2), days 1 and 5], L-leucovorin [100 mg/m(2), days 1-4], and 5-fluorouracil [300 mg/m(2), days 1-4] in a hospital setting. Frequencies and severity of adverse events were determined. Overall survival (OS) and disease-free survival (DFS) were compared between the treatment arms using Kaplan-Meier analysis and a Cox proportional hazards regression model. All statistical tests were two-sided.
From January 1995 through September 2000, 258 patients were randomly assigned to chemotherapy (n = 130) or surgery alone (n = 128). Patient characteristics were well balanced between the two arms. Among those who received chemotherapy, grade 3 or 4 toxic effects including vomiting, mucositis, and diarrhea were experienced by 21.1%, 8.4%, and 11.8% of patients, respectively. Leucopenia, anemia, and thrombocytopenia of grade 3 or 4 were experienced by 20.3%, 3.3%, and 4.2% of patients, respectively. After a median follow-up of 72.8 months, 128 patients (49.6%) experienced recurrence and 139 (53.9%) deaths were observed, one toxicity-related. Relative to treatment with surgery alone, adjuvant chemotherapy did not increase disease-free survival (hazard ratio [HR] of recurrence = 0.92; 95% confidence interval [CI] = 0.66 to 1.27) or overall survival (HR of death = 0.90; 95% CI = 0.64 to 1.26).
Our results failed to provide proof of an effect of adjuvant chemotherapy with PELF on overall survival or disease-free survival. The estimated effect of chemotherapy (10% reduction in the hazard of death or relapse) is modest and consistent with the results of meta-analyses of adjuvant chemotherapy without platinum agents.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: In the recent X-ACT (Xeloda in Adjuvant Colon cancer Therapy) trial, oral capecitabine (Xeloda) demonstrated superior efficacy and an improved safety profile compared with infused fluorouracil + leucovorin (folinic acid) [FU+LV] in patients with Dukes' C colorectal cancer. We used the X-ACT results to determine the cost effectiveness of capecitabine compared with FU+LV from the perspective of the Italian National Health Service (NHS).
Medical resource use data were collected throughout the treatment period. Unit costs for drug administration, hospitalization, emergency room visits and concomitant medications were obtained using Italian published sources. A health-state transition model was used to estimate the incremental cost-effectiveness ratio per quality-adjusted life-month (QALM) gains in the intent-to-treat population (1004 and 983 patients in the capecitabine and FU+LV arms, respectively). Costs and effectiveness were discounted at 3.5%. Costs were calculated in euros (2005 values).
Administration of capecitabine required fewer clinic visits per patient than FU+LV (7.35 vs 28.0, respectively). Mean acquisition costs per patient for capecitabine were higher than for FU+LV (euro 2533 vs euro 231, respectively), but this difference was offset by the difference in mean chemotherapy administration costs per patient for FU+LV (euro 4338, compared with euro 152 for capecitabine). Mean total hospital days and medication costs for treatment-related adverse events were higher for FU+LV than for capecitabine (euro 352 vs euro 78, respectively). The cost of emergency room visits for the treatment of adverse events did not differ between the treatment groups. With respect to the lifetime horizon, compared with FU+LV, capecitabine is projected to increase QALMs by a mean 6.5 months, with overall cost savings of euro 2234 over the treatment period. These findings show that capecitabine is an economically dominant treatment in this setting.
Adjuvant capecitabine for patients with Dukes' C colon cancer has the same activity in terms of outcome when compared with FU+LV but is a lower cost option from the economic perspective of the Italian NHS.
Clinical Drug Investigation 02/2008; 28(10):645-55. · 1.92 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: This study was designed as a multicentre phase II trial to assess the efficacy and safety of gefitinib in association with capecitabine and oxaliplatin in patients with untreated metastatic colorectal cancer.
Patients with metastatic colorectal cancer that had received no prior chemotherapy for advanced disease were treated with oral gefitinib (250 mg daily) plus oral capecitabine (1000 mg/m2 twice a day on Days 1-14) and intravenous oxaliplatin (120 mg/m2 on Day 1 of each 3-week cycle).
Thirty-five patients were enrolled. In the intention-to-treat analysis, 3 (8.6%) patients experienced a complete response (CR), 14 (40%) a partial response (PR) and 11 (31.4%) had stable disease (SD). The disease control rate (CR + PR + SD) was 80%, the median time to progression was 7.3 months (95%CI: 4.76-9.2) and the estimated median overall survival was 21.9 months (95% CI: 15.1--not reached). The most common grade 3 to 4 toxicities included diarrhoea (31%) and vomiting (5.7%).
The combination of capecitabine, oxaliplatin and gefitinib appears to have promising activity in chemotherapy-naïve metastatic colorectal cancer. A higher disease control rate and an increase in median overall survival were seen compared with previous reports with capecitabine and oxaliplatin in similar patient populations. The tolerability profile appears to be predictable and similar to capecitabine/oxaliplatin regimens.
Current Medical Research and Opinion 10/2007; 23(9):2117-23. · 2.26 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: To study the prognostic value for overall survival of baseline assessment of functional status, comorbidity, and quality of life (QoL) in elderly patients with advanced non-small-cell lung cancer treated with chemotherapy.
Data from 566 patients enrolled onto the phase III randomized Multicenter Italian Lung Cancer in the Elderly Study (MILES) study were analyzed. Functional status was measured as activities of daily living (ADL) and instrumental ADL (IADL). The presence of comorbidity was assessed with a checklist of 33 items; items 29 and 30 of the European Organisation for Research and Treatment of Cancer (EORTC) core questionnaire QLQ-C30 (EORTC QLQ-C30) were used to estimate QoL. ADL was dichotomized as none versus one or more dependency. For IADL and QoL, three categories were defined using first and third quartiles as cut points. Comorbidity was summarized using the Charlson scale. Analysis was performed by Cox model, and stratified by treatment arm.
Better values of baseline QoL (P = .0003) and IADL (P = .04) were significantly associated with better prognosis, whereas ADL (P = .44) and Charlson score (P = .66) had no prognostic value. Performance status 2 (P = .006) and a higher number of metastatic sites (P = .02) also predicted shorter overall survival.
Pretreatment global QoL and IADL scores, but not ADL and comorbidity, have significant prognostic value for survival of elderly patients with advanced non-small-cell lung cancer who were treated with chemotherapy. Using these scores in clinical practice might improve prognostic prediction for treatment planning.
Journal of Clinical Oncology 11/2005; 23(28):6865-72. · 18.04 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: In a previous dose-finding trial, in previously treated patients with metastatic breast cancer (MBC), we showed that the combination of Mitoxantrone (M) and Paclitaxel (P) may be an interesting (response rate: 69%) and well-tolerated regimen. On the basis of these results, our group started a new trial in chemotherapy-naive patients with MBC.
Forty-six women entered in this trial, and all patients were evaluated for response and toxicity. Schedule of treatment was P 175 mg/m2 over 3 hr day 1 and M 12 mg/m2 day 1, every 3 weeks. Patients were reevaluated every 3 months and chemotherapy was continued unless tumor progression or unacceptable toxicity occurred.
The intent-to-treat objective response was 61% (95% confidence interval: 49%-78%). Five patients (11%) obtained complete response and 23 (50%) partial response with a median time to failure of 14 months. The median survival was 22 months (range 1-39). The principal toxicity was hematological: 38 (82%) patients had grade 3 to 4 leukopenia; only 2 patients had grade 4 anemia and one grade 4 thrombocytopenia. Nonhematological toxicity (grade 3-4) was mild and cardiotoxicity was infrequent.
This trial suggests the combination of M and P is an active palliative regimen for patients with MBC. Toxicity was moderate. The infrequent development of cardiotoxicity suggests this combination may not share the problems reported with P plus doxorubicin combinations.
Cancer Investigation 02/2004; 22(3):331-7. · 2.24 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The present study describes supportive care (SC) in patients with advanced non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC), evaluating whether it is affected by concomitant chemotherapy, patient's performance status (PS) and age. Data of patients enrolled in three randomised trials of first-line chemotherapy, conducted between 1996 and 2001, were pooled. The analysis was limited to the first three cycles of treatment. Supportive care data were available for 1185 out of 1312 (90%) enrolled patients. Gastrointestinal drugs (45.7%), corticosteroids (33.4%) and analgesics (23.8%) were the most frequently observed categories. The mean number of drugs per patient was 2.43; 538 patients (45.4%) assumed three or more supportive drugs. Vinorelbine does not produce substantial variations in the SC pattern, while cisplatin-based treatment requires an overall higher number of supportive drugs, with higher use of antiemetics (41 vs 27%) and antianaemics (10 vs 4%). Patients with worse PS are more exposed to corticosteroids (42 vs 30%). Elderly patients require drugs against concomitant diseases significantly more than adults (20 vs 7%) and are less frequently exposed to antiemetics (12 vs 27%). In conclusion, polypharmacotherapy is a relevant issue in patients with advanced NSCLC. Chemotherapy does not remarkably affect the pattern of SC, except for some drugs against side effects. Elderly patients assume more drugs for concomitant diseases and receive less antiemetics than adults.
British Journal of Cancer 10/2003; 89(6):1013-21. · 5.08 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The objectives of this phase I/II study were to define the maximum tolerated dose (MTD), safety, and activity of cisplatin, etoposide, and gemcitabine (PEG) in the treatment of previously untreated patients with small-cell lung cancer (SCLC).
Chemonaive patients received fixed doses of gemcitabine (1000 mg/m(2) on days 1 and 8) and cisplatin (70 mg/m(2) on day 2) and escalating doses of etoposide (starting dose of 50 mg/m(2) on days 3, 4, and 5) every 3 weeks. No prophylactic granulocyte colony-stimulating factors were used.
From September 1998 to April 2000, 56 patients with limited- or extensive-stage SCLC were enrolled and received a total of 235 cycles. Two different etoposide doses were tested in eight patients. At the second level (75 mg/m(2)), two out of two patients experienced dose-limiting toxicities (neutropenia and thrombocytopenia) and no further dose-escalation was attempted, thus an etoposide dose of 50 mg/m(2) was defined as the MTD. In the subsequent phase II evaluation, 48 additional patients were enrolled, for a total of 54 patients treated at the MTD. Grade 3/4 neutropenia and thrombocytopenia occurred in 66.7 and 53.7% of patients, respectively. Non-hematologic toxicity was mild, with grade 3 diarrhea and fatigue as the main side effects. Two patients died of neutropenic sepsis (one at 75 mg/m(2) and the other at 50 mg/m(2) etoposide). Ten complete and 29 partial responses were reported, for an overall response rate of 72.2% (95% confidence interval, 56.6-85.0%). The median duration of response and median survival were 8.0 and 10 months, respectively, with a 1-year survival probability of 37.5%.
The combination of PEG is feasible and well tolerated as front-line chemotherapy in SCLC. A randomized comparison of this triplet is underway.
Lung Cancer 04/2003; 39(3):331-8. · 3.39 Impact Factor