[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Bipolar disorder (BD) is highly familial and characterized by deficits in reward processing. It is not known, however, whether these deficits precede illness onset or are a consequence of the disorder.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Bipolar disorder (BD) has been associated with dysfunctional brain connectivity and with family chaos. It is not known whether aberrant connectivity occurs before illness onset, representing vulnerability for developing BD amidst family chaos. We used resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) to examine neural network dysfunction in healthy offspring living with parents with BD and healthy comparison youth.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Objectives
The aim of the present study was to systematically evaluate the prodrome to mania in youth. Methods
New-onset/worsening symptoms/signs of ≥ moderate severity preceding first mania were systematically assessed in 52 youth (16.2 ± 2.8 years) with a research diagnosis of bipolar I disorder (BD-I). Youth and/or caregivers underwent semi-structured interviews, using the Bipolar Prodrome Symptom Scale–Retrospective. ResultsThe mania prodrome was reported to start gradually in most youth (88.5%), with either slow (59.6%) or rapid (28.8%) deterioration, while a rapid-onset-and-deterioration prodrome was rare (11.5%). The manic prodrome, conservatively defined as requiring ≥ 3 symptoms, lasted 10.3 ± 14.4 months [95% confidence interval (CI): 6.3–14.4], being present for ≥ 4 months in 65.4% of subjects. Among prodromal symptoms reported in ≥ 50% of youth, three were subthreshold manic in nature (irritability: 61.5%, racing thoughts: 59.6%, increased energy/activity: 50.0%), two were nonspecific (decreased school/work functioning: 65.4%, mood swings/lability: 57.7%), and one each was depressive (depressed mood: 53.8%) or subthreshold manic/depressive (inattention: 51.9%). A decreasing number of youth had ≥ 1 (84.6%), ≥ 2 (48.1%), or ≥ 3 (26.9%) ‘specific’ subthreshold mania symptoms (i.e., elation, grandiosity, decreased need for sleep, racing thoughts, or hypersexuality), lasting 9.5 ± 14.9 months (95% CI: 5.0–14.0), 3.5 ± 3.5 months (95% CI: 2.0–4.9), and 3.0 ± 3.2 months (95% CI: 1.0–5.0) for ≥ 1, ≥ 2, or ≥ 3 specific symptoms, respectively. Conclusions
In youth with BD-I, a relatively long, predominantly slow-onset mania prodrome appears to be common, including subthreshold manic and depressive psychopathology symptoms. This suggests that early clinical identification and intervention may be feasible in bipolar disorder. Identifying biological markers associated with clinical symptoms of impending mania may help to increase chances for early detection and prevention before full mania.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: This article reviews work published by the ENIGMA Consortium and its Working Groups (http://enigma.ini.usc.edu). It was written collaboratively; P.T. wrote the first draft and all listed authors revised and edited the document for important intellectual content, using Google Docs for parallel editing, and approved it. Some ENIGMA investigators contributed to the design and implementation of ENIGMA or provided data but did not participate in the analysis or writing of this report. A complete listing of ENIGMA investigators is available at http://enigma.ini.usc.edu/publications/the-enigma-consortium-in-review/ For ADNI, some investigators contributed to the design and implementation of ADNI or provided data but did not participate in the analysis or writing of this report. A complete listing of ADNI investigators is available at http://adni.loni.usc.edu/wp-content/uploads/how_to_apply/ ADNI_Acknowledgement_List.pdf The work reviewed here was funded by a large number of federal and private agencies worldwide, listed in Stein et al. (2012); the funding for listed consortia is also itemized in Stein et al. (2012).
Brain Imaging and Behavior 01/2014; · 2.67 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: We wished to determine whether decreases in N-acetyl aspartate (NAA) and increases in myoinositol (mI) concentrations as a ratio of creatine (Cr) occurred in the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC) of pediatric offspring of parents with bipolar disorder (BD) and a healthy comparison group (HC) over a 5-year period using proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy ((1)H-MRS). Paticipants comprised 64 offspring (9-18 years old) of parents with BD (36 with established BD, and 28 offspring with symptoms subsyndromal to mania) and 28 HCs, who were examined for group differences in NAA/Cr and mI/Cr in the DLPFC at baseline and follow-up at either 8, 10, 12, 52, 104, 156, 208, or 260 weeks. No significant group differences were found in metabolite concentrations at baseline or over time. At baseline, BD offspring had trends for higher mI/Cr concentrations in the right DLPFC than the HC group. mI/Cr concentrations increased with age, but no statistically significant group differences were found between groups on follow-up. It may be the case that with intervention youth at risk for BD are normalizing otherwise potentially aberrant neurochemical trajectories in the DLPFC. A longer period of follow-up may be required before observing any group differences.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Smaller amygdalar volumes have been consistently observed in pediatric bipolar disorder subjects compared to healthy control subjects. Whether smaller amygdalar volume is a consequence or antecedent of the first episode of mania is not known. Additionally, smaller volume has not been localized to specific amygdala subregions.
We compared surface contour maps of the amygdala between 22 youths at high risk for bipolar disorder, 26 youths meeting full diagnostic criteria for pediatric familial bipolar disorder, and 24 healthy control subjects matched for age, gender, and intelligence quotient. Amygdalae were manually delineated on three-dimensional spoiled gradient echo images by a blinded rater using established tracing protocols. Statistical surface mesh modeling algorithms supported by permutation statistics were used to identify regional surface differences between the groups.
When compared to high-risk subjects and controls, youth with bipolar disorder showed surface deformations in specific amygdalar subregions, suggesting smaller volume of the basolateral nuclei. The high-risk subjects did not differ from controls in any subregion.
These findings support previous reports of smaller amygdala volume in pediatric bipolar disorder and map the location of abnormality to specific amygdala subregions. These subregions have been associated with fear conditioning and emotion-enhanced memory. The absence of amygdala size abnormalities in youth at high risk for bipolar disorder suggests that reductions might occur after the onset of mania.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Depressive and anxiety disorders are common in youth who are at risk for bipolar disorder (i.e., youth who have at least one parent with bipolar disorder) and antidepressants are commonly prescribed as treatment. However, there are few data regarding the safety and tolerability of antidepressants in this population. Therefore, we sought to prospectively examine the effects of these medications in children and adolescents who are diagnosed with depressive or anxiety disorders and have a parent with bipolar I disorder.
Youth aged 9-20 years, with at least one parent with bipolar I disorder [high risk (HR)], were recruited (n = 118) and assessed using semi-structured diagnostic interviews. Participants were prospectively evaluated using a modified version of the Longitudinal Interval Follow-up Evaluation to assess changes in affective and anxiety symptoms and were treated naturalistically.
Over the course of 43-227 weeks (mean duration of follow-up: 106 ± 55 weeks), 21% (n = 25) of youth had antidepressant exposure and, of these, 57% (n = 12) had an adverse reaction (e.g., irritability, aggression, impulsivity, or hyperactivity) that led to antidepressant discontinuation. Those patients who experienced an adverse reaction were significantly younger than those who did not (p = 0.02) and discontinuation of antidepressant therapy secondary to an adverse event occurred at an average of 16.7 ± 17.4 weeks (median: 11 weeks, range: 2-57 weeks). Cox proportional hazard analyses yielded a hazard ratio of 0.725 (p = 0.03), suggesting that there is a 27% decrease in the likelihood of an antidepressant-related adverse event leading to discontinuation with each one-year increase in age.
Antidepressant medications may be poorly tolerated in youth with a familial risk for developing mania. Controlled studies further assessing treatments for depression and anxiety in HR youth are urgently needed.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Depression in children and adolescents with bipolar disorder is more commonly observed than mania or hypomania, and is associated with significant functional disability in multiple environmental realms. Optimal management of pediatric bipolar depression is often defined by its multimodal nature with emphasis on both psychopharmacological and psychosocial treatment. This article provides a brief overview of the epidemiology and clinical course of pediatric bipolar depression, a clinically-oriented guide to the evidence-based psychopharmacological and psychosocial management of bipolar depression in youth, and suggestions on how best to integrate medication and therapy. Recommended treatment for bipolar depression in pediatric populations usually includes both medication and psychosocial interventions given a paucity of double-blind, placebo-controlled psychopharmacological studies. Lithium and lamotrigine are feasible and tentatively efficacious options; however, treatment with quetiapine monotherapy may be no better than placebo. Furthermore, some youth may be at heightened risk for developing manic symptoms after treatment with selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs). Psychotherapy, either alone or adjunctively with medications, provides practitioners with a safe and feasible alternative. Interpersonal and Social Rhythm Therapy for Adolescents (IPSRT-A), Child- and Family-Focused Cognitive Behavioral Therapy (CFF-CBT), Dialectical Behavior Therapy for Adolescents (DBT-A), family psychoeducation, and Family Focused Therapy for Adolescents (FFT-A) are evidence-based treatments available to clinicians treating youth with bipolar depression.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Depression and brief periods of (hypo)mania are linked to an increased risk of progression to bipolar I or II disorder (BD) in children of bipolar parents. This randomized trial examined the effects of a 4-month family-focused therapy (FFT) program on the 1-year course of mood symptoms in youth at high familial risk for BD, and explored its comparative benefits among youth in families with high versus low expressed emotion (EE).
Participants were 40 youth (mean 12.3±2.8 years, range 9-17) with BD not otherwise specified, major depressive disorder, or cyclothymic disorder who had a first-degree relative with BD I or II and active mood symptoms (Young Mania Rating Scale [YMRS]>11 or Child Depression Rating Scale>29). Participants were randomly allocated to FFT-High Risk version (FFT-HR; 12 sessions of psychoeducation and training in communication and problem-solving skills) or an education control (EC; 1-2 family sessions).
Youth in FFT-HR had more rapid recovery from their initial mood symptoms (hazard ratio = 2.69, p = .047), more weeks in remission, and a more favorable trajectory of YMRS scores over 1 year than youth in EC. The magnitude of treatment effect was greater among youth in high-EE (versus low-EE) families.
FFT-HR may hasten and help sustain recovery from mood symptoms among youth at high risk for BD. Longer follow-up will be necessary to determine whether early family intervention has downstream effects that contribute to the delay or prevention of full manic episodes in vulnerable youth. Clinical trial registration information-Early Family-Focused Treatment for Youth at Risk for Bipolar Disorder; http://www.clinicaltrials.gov/; NCT00943085.
Journal of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry 02/2013; 52(2):121-31. · 6.97 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Bipolar disorder (BD) is a debilitating psychiatric condition that commonly begins in adolescence, a developmental period that has been associated with increased reward seeking. Because youth with BD are especially vulnerable to negative risk-taking behaviors, understanding the neural mechanisms by which dysregulated affect interacts with the neurobehavioral processing of reward is clearly important. One way to clarify how manic symptoms evolve in BD is to "prime" the affect before presenting rewarding stimuli. The objective of this study was to investigate the neural effects of an affective priming task designed to positively induce mood before reward processing in adolescents with and without BD.
Neural activity and behaviors during the anticipation of and response to monetary reward and loss after an affective prime were compared using functional magnetic resonance imaging in 13- to 18-year-old adolescents with a recent onset of BD-I (n = 24) and demographically matched healthy comparison youth (n = 24).
Compared with the healthy control youth, youth with BD had speeded reaction times and showed decreased activation in the thalamus and inferior temporal gyrus while anticipating gains after priming but increased activations in the middle frontal gyrus and parietal cortices while anticipating losses after priming. Youth with BD also showed less activation in the inferior parietal lobule, thalamus, and superior frontal gyrus while receiving losses after priming.
Aberrant prefrontal and subcortical activations during reward processing suggest mechanisms that may underlie disordered self-awareness during goal pursuit and motivation in BD. Longitudinal studies are needed to examine whether this pattern of neural activation predicts a poorer long-term outcome.
Journal of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry 01/2013; 52(1):68-83. · 6.97 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Increasing evidence from retrospective and prospective studies is beginning to validate criteria to identify individuals at high risk for developing bipolar disorder or schizophrenia. In parallel, intervention trials are evaluating the efficacy and tolerability of pharmacologic and nonpharmacologic approaches for the treatment of subthreshold and possibly prodromal presentations in these high-risk populations with the ultimate objective of mitigating illness progression. This article reviews current evidence for candidate interventions for high-risk individuals to guide future research in this rapidly emerging field. A clinical vignette describing antidepressant-induced manic symptoms in an adolescent with a family history of bipolar disorder is provided.
Child and adolescent psychiatric clinics of North America 10/2012; 21(4):739-51. · 2.88 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Little is known about the neurobiological effects of psychotropic medications used in the treatment of children and adolescents diagnosed with a psychiatric disorder. This review provides a synopsis of the literature demonstrating the neural effects associated with exposure to psychotropic medication in youth using multimodal neuroimaging. The article concludes by illustrating how, taken together, these studies suggest that pharmacological interventions during childhood do indeed affect brain structure and function in a detectable manner, and the effects appear to be ameliorative.
Child and adolescent psychiatric clinics of North America 10/2012; 21(4):753-71. · 2.88 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: A range of prefrontal and subcortical volumetric abnormalities have been found in adults and adolescents with bipolar disorder. It is unclear, however, if these deficits are present early in the onset of mania or are a consequence of multiple mood episodes or prolonged exposure to medication. The goal of this study was to examine whether youth with bipolar I disorder who recently experienced their first episode of mania are characterized by brain volumetric abnormalities.
Anatomical images from magnetic resonance imaging of 26 13- to 18-year-old adolescents with bipolar I disorder and 24 age-comparable healthy controls with no personal or family history of psychopathology were analyzed using whole-brain voxel-based morphometry (VBM).
Compared with healthy controls, adolescents with bipolar I disorder had significantly less gray matter volume in the left subgenual cingulate cortex [p<0.05, family-wise error (FWE)-corrected].
Adolescents with a recent single episode of mania have smaller subgenual cingulate cortex volume than do their healthy counterparts, suggesting that this anomaly occurs early in the onset of, or may predate the disorder. Longitudinal studies are needed to examine the impact of this volumetric reduction on the course and outcome of this disorder.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Previous functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) studies in pediatric bipolar disorder (BD) have reported greater amygdala and less dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC) activation to facial expressions compared to healthy controls. The current study investigates whether these differences are associated with the early or late phase of activation, suggesting different temporal characteristics of brain responses.
A total of 20 euthymic adolescents with familial BD (14 male) and 21 healthy control subjects (13 male) underwent fMRI scanning during presentation of happy, sad, and neutral facial expressions. Whole-brain voxelwise analyses were conducted in SPM5, using a three-way analysis of variance (ANOVA) with factors group (BD and healthy control [HC]), facial expression (happy, sad, and neutral versus scrambled), and phase (early and late, corresponding to the first and second half of each block of faces).
There were no significant group differences in task performance, age, gender, or IQ. Significant activation from the main effect of group included greater DLPFC activation in the HC group, and greater amygdala/hippocampal activation in the BD group. The interaction of Group × Phase identified clusters in the superior temporal sulcus/insula and visual cortex, where activation increased from the early to late phase of the block for the BD but not the HC group.
These findings are consistent with previous studies that suggest deficient prefrontal cortex regulation of heightened amygdala response to emotional stimuli in pediatric BD. Increasing activation over time in superior temporal and visual cortices suggests difficulty processing or disengaging attention from emotional faces in BD.
Journal of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry 08/2012; 51(8):821-31. · 6.97 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Functional neuroimaging methods have proliferated in recent years, such that functional magnetic resonance imaging, in particular, is now widely used to study bipolar disorder. However, discrepant findings are common. A workgroup was organized by the Department of Psychiatry, University of Cincinnati (Cincinnati, OH, USA) to develop a consensus functional neuroanatomic model of bipolar I disorder based upon the participants' work as well as that of others.
Representatives from several leading bipolar disorder neuroimaging groups were organized to present an overview of their areas of expertise as well as focused reviews of existing data. The workgroup then developed a consensus model of the functional neuroanatomy of bipolar disorder based upon these data.
Among the participants, a general consensus emerged that bipolar I disorder arises from abnormalities in the structure and function of key emotional control networks in the human brain. Namely, disruption in early development (e.g., white matter connectivity and prefrontal pruning) within brain networks that modulate emotional behavior leads to decreased connectivity among ventral prefrontal networks and limbic brain regions, especially the amygdala. This developmental failure to establish healthy ventral prefrontal-limbic modulation underlies the onset of mania and ultimately, with progressive changes throughout these networks over time and with affective episodes, a bipolar course of illness.
This model provides a potential substrate to guide future investigations and areas needing additional focus are identified.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Neuroimaging is an important tool for better understanding the neurobiological underpinnings of bipolar disorder (BD). However, potential study participants are often receiving psychotropic medications which can possibly confound imaging data. To better interpret the results of neuroimaging studies in BD, it is important to understand the impact of medications on structural magnetic resonance imaging (sMRI), functional MRI (fMRI), and diffusion tensor imaging (DTI).
To better understand the impact of medications on imaging data, we conducted a literature review and searched MEDLINE for papers that included the key words bipolar disorder and fMRI, sMRI, or DTI. The search was limited to papers that assessed medication effects and had not been included in a previous review by Phillips et al. (Medication effects in neuroimaging studies of bipolar disorder. Am J Psychiatry 2008; 165: 313-320). This search yielded 74 sMRI studies, 46 fMRI studies, and 15 DTI studies.
Medication appeared to influence many sMRI studies, but had limited impact on fMRI and DTI findings. From the structural studies, the most robust finding (20/45 studies) was that lithium was associated with increased volumes in areas important for mood regulation, while antipsychotic agents and anticonvulsants were generally not. Regarding secondary analysis of the medication effects of fMRI and DTI studies, few showed significant effects of medication, although rigorous analyses were typically not possible when the majority of subjects were medicated. Medication effects were more frequently observed in longitudinal studies designed to assess the impact of particular medications on the blood oxygen level-dependent (BOLD) signal. With a few exceptions, the observed effects were normalizing, meaning that the medicated individuals with BD were more similar than their unmedicated counterparts to healthy subjects.
The effects of psychotropic medications, when present, are predominantly normalizing and thus do not seem to provide an alternative explanation for differences in volume, white matter tracts, or BOLD signal between BD participants and healthy subjects. However, the normalizing effects of medication could obfuscate differences between BD and healthy subjects, and thus might lead to type II errors.