E Pozio

Istituto Superiore di Sanità, Roma, Latium, Italy

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Publications (373)877.8 Total impact

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    ABSTRACT: Human Cystic Echinococcosis (CE) is estimated in 2-3 million global cases. CE diagnosis and clinical management are based on imaging and serology, which lacks sensitivity and does not provide cyst stage information. This study aimed to evaluate tools for improving diagnosis by analysing the Interleukin (IL)-4-response to Antigen B (AgB) of Echinococcus granulosus. Whole blood (WB) and peripheral blood mononuclear cells were stimulated with AgB. IL-4 levels were measured by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. WB 1-day stimulation resulted the best experimental condition for evaluating AgB IL-4-response. IL-4 levels were significantly higher in CE patients than healthy donors (p ≤ 0.0001). A ROC analysis showed significant area under the curve (AUC) results (AUC, 0.85; p = 0.0001) identifying an IL-4 level cut-off point ≥0.39 pg/mL which predicted CE with 71.4% sensitivity and 93.3% specificity. Moreover, we found that IL-4 levels were significantly increased in patients with active cysts compared to those with inactive cysts (p ≤ 0.0001). ROC analysis showed significant AUC results (0.94; p = 0.0001) with a cut-off point of 4.6 pg/mL which predicted active cysts with 84.6% sensitivity and 92% specificity. We found immunological correlates associated with CE and biological cyst activity. Copyright © 2014 The British Infection Association. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
    The Journal of infection. 10/2014;
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    ABSTRACT: In the present study we sequenced or re-sequenced, assembled and annotated 15 mitochondrial (mt) genomes representing the 12 currently recognised taxa of Trichinella using a deep sequencing-coupled approach. We then defined and compared the gene order in individual mt genomes (∼ 14 to 17.7 kb), evaluated genetic differences among species/genotypes and re-assessed the relationships among these taxa using the mt nucleic acid or amino acid sequence data sets. In addition, a rich source of mt genetic markers was defined that could be used in future systematic, epidemiological and population genetic studies of Trichinella. The sequencing-bioinformatic approach employed herein should be applicable to a wide range of eukaryotic parasites.
    International journal for parasitology. 09/2014;
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    ABSTRACT: Trichinella spiralis and Trichinella pseudospiralis exhibit differences in the host-parasite relationship such as the inflammatory response in parasitized muscles. Several studies indicate that matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) represent a marker of inflammation since they regulate inflammation and immunity. The aim of this study was to evaluate the serum levels of gelatinases (MMP-9 and MMP-2) in mice experimentally infected with T. spiralis or T. pseudospiralis, to elucidate the involvement of these molecules during the inflammatory response to these parasites. Gelatin zymography on SDS polyacrilamide gels was used to assess the serum levels and in situ zymography on muscle histological sections to show the gelatinase-positive cells.In T. spiralis infected mice, the total MMP-9 serum level increased 6 days post infection whereas, the total MMP-2 serum level increased onward. A similar trend was observed in T. pseudospiralis infected mice but the MMP-9 level was lower than that detected in T. spiralis infected mice. Significant differences were also observed in MMP-2 levels between the two experimental groups. The number of gelatinase positive cells was higher in T. spiralis than in T. pseudospiralis infected muscles. We conclude that MMP-9 and MMP-2 are markers of the inflammatory response for both T. spiralis and T. pseudospiralis infections.This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
    Parasite Immunology 08/2014; · 2.21 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The wild boar is an important source of trichinellosis for people in European countries as a large number of hunted animals escape veterinary control. In November 2012, uncooked sausages made with meat from wild boar were consumed by 38 persons in a village of the Lucca province (Tuscany region, Italy). Of them, 34 were serologically positive, 32 developed clinical signs and symptoms of trichinellosis, and two were asymptomatic. Trichinella britovi larvae were detected in vacuum-packed sausages made with the same batch of sausages consumed raw which had been prepared with meat from wild boar hunted in the Lucca province. As no case of trichinellosis had been reported in this region during the last 20 years, the regional public health authority considered the risk for this zoonosis to be negligible and put in place a surveillance programme on Trichinella spp. in indicator animals (mainly foxes and including wild boar for private consumption), by testing only a percentage of heads. The experience from this outbreak shows that the definition of a region with a negligible risk for Trichinella infection is not applicable to wild boar and stresses the need to test all Trichinella-susceptible wild animals intended for human consumption and to implement risk communication to consumers and hunters.
    Zoonoses and Public Health 08/2014; · 2.09 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The objective of this study was to assess the presence of anti-Trichinella IgG in the serum of persons from ethnic minorities from northwest Vietnam with clinical signs and symptoms that are compatible with trichinellosis. A total of 645 persons were enrolled, of which 200 people lived in two villages where outbreaks of human trichinellosis had been documented in 2004 and 2008, and 445 people who were hospitalized in the Dien Bien and Son La provincial hospitals without a definitive diagnosis. Presence of anti-Trichinella IgG was demonstrated in serum samples by a standardized Enzyme-linked Immunosorbant Assay (ELISA); positive serum samples were subjected to Western Blot (WB) for confirmation. Seven (3.5%; 95% CI: 1.4 - 7.1) persons from the villages and seven (1.6%; 95% CI: 0.6 - 3.2) hospitalized patients, tested positive by both ELISA and WB. Fever (N=13), eosinophilia (N=12), myalgia (N=9), facial oedema (N=9) and leukocytosis (N=8) were the most common clinical signs and symptoms in the serologically positive persons. The concomitant occurrence of facial oedema and myalgia among the enrolled persons from the villages, accounted for 75% of the positive predictive value (PPV) and 99.5% of the negative predictive value (NPV), suggesting that they could be used for suspecting trichinellosis when serology is not available. The high prevalence (1.6 - 3.5%) of anti-Trichinella IgG in persons from Vietnamese provinces where T. spiralis is circulating in pigs strongly supports the need to develop control programmes to eliminate the infection from pigs and for consumers' education and protection.
    Acta tropica. 07/2014;
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    ABSTRACT: Several outbreaks of trichinellosis associated with the consumption of raw pork have occurred in Laos since 2004. This cross-sectional study was conducted in four provinces of northern Laos to investigate the seroepidemiology of trichinellosis in the human population and determine the prevalence and species of Trichinella infection in the domestic pig population. Serum samples and questionnaire data were obtained from 1419 individuals. Serum samples were tested for Trichinella antibodies by ELISA using larval excretory-secretory (ES) antigens and a subset of 68 positive samples were tested by western blot. The seroprevalence of Trichinella antibodies was 19.1% (95% confidence interval (CI) = 17.1-21.1%). The risk of having antibodies detected by ELISA using ES antigens increased with age, being of Lao-Tai ethnicity, living in Oudomxay province and being male. Tongue and diaphragm muscle samples were collected from 728 pigs and tested for Trichinella larvae by the artificial digestion method. Trichinella larvae were isolated from 15 pigs (2.1%) of which 13 were identified as T. spiralis by molecular typing; the species of the two remaining isolates could not be determined due to DNA degradation. Trichinella spp. are endemic in the domestic environment of northern Laos and targeted preventative health measures should be initiated to reduce the risk of further outbreaks occurring.
    PLoS neglected tropical diseases. 07/2014; 8(7):e3034.
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    ABSTRACT: Trichinellosis is a cosmopolitan foodborne disease that may result in severe health disorders and even death. Despite international awareness of the public health risk associated with trichinellosis, current data on its public health impact are still lacking. Therefore we assessed, for the first known time, the global burden of trichinellosis using the Disability-Adjusted Life Year (DALY) metric. The global number of DALYs due to trichinellosis was estimated to be 76 per billion persons per year (95% credible interval (CrI): 38-129). The World Health Organization (WHO) European Region was the main contributor to this global burden, followed by the WHO region of the Americas and the WHO Western Pacific region. The global burden of trichinellosis is much lower than that of other foodborne parasitic diseases and is in sharp contrast to the high budget allocated to prevent the disease in many industrialized countries. To decrease the uncertainty around the current estimates, more knowledge is needed on the level of underreporting of clinical trichinellosis in different parts of the world.
    International journal for parasitology. 06/2014;
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    IX ATIt Conference, Civitella Alfedena (AQ); 05/2014
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    ABSTRACT: Trichinella spp. infections in wild boar (Sus scrofa), one of the main sources of human trichinellosis, continue to represent a public health problem. The detection of Trichinella spp. larvae in muscles of wild boar by digestion can prevent the occurrence of clinical trichinellosis in humans. However, the analytical sensitivity of digestion in the detection process is dependent on the quantity of tested muscle. Consequently, large quantities of muscle have to be digested to warrant surveillance programs, or more sensitive tests need to be employed. The use of indirect detection methods, such as the ELISA to detect Trichinella spp. infections in wild boar has limitations due to its low specificity. The aim of the study was to implement serological detection of anti-Trichinella spp. antibodies in meat juices from hunted wild boar for the surveillance of Trichinella spp. infections. Two tests were used, ELISA for the initial screening test, and a specific and sensitive Western blot (Wb) as a confirmatory test. The circulation of anti-Trichinella IgG was determined in hunted wild boar muscle juice samples in 9 provinces of 5 Italian regions. From 1,462 muscle fluid samples, 315 (21.5%, 95% C.I. 19.51-23.73) were tested positive by ELISA. The 315 ELISA-positive muscle fluid samples were further tested by Wb and 32 (10.1%, 95% C.I. 7.29-13.99) of these were positive with a final seroprevalence of 2.2% (95% C.I 1.55-3.07; 32/1,462). Trichinella britovi larvae were detected by artificial digestion in muscle tissues of one (0.07%, 95%C.I. 0.01-0.39) out of the 1,462 hunted wild boars. No Trichinella spp. larvae were detected in Wb-negative wild boar. From 2006 to 2012, a prevalence of 0.017% was detected by muscle digestion in wild boar hunted in the whole Italian territory. The combined use of both serological methods had a sensitivity 31.4 times higher than that of the digestion (32/1,462 versus 1/1,462), suggesting their potential use for the surveillance of the Trichinella spp. infection in wild boar populations.
    Parasites & Vectors 04/2014; 7(1):171. · 3.25 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The 14-3-3s are a family of dimeric evolutionary conserved pSer/pThr binding proteins that play a key role in multiple biological processes by interacting with a plethora of client proteins. Giardia duodenalis is a flagellated protozoan that affects millions of people worldwide causing an acute and chronic diarrheal disease. The single giardial 14-3-3 isoform (g14-3-3), unique in the 14-3-3 family, needs the constitutive phosphorylation of Thr214 and the polyglycylation of its C-terminus to be fully functional in vivo. Alteration of the phosphorylation and polyglycylation status affects the parasite differentiation into the cyst stage. To further investigate the role of these post-translational modifications, the crystal structure of the g14-3-3 was solved in the unmodified apo form. Oligomers of g14-3-3 were observed due to domain swapping events at the protein C-terminus. The formation of filaments was supported by TEM. Mutational analysis, in combination with native PAGE and chemical cross-linking, proved that polyglycylation prevents oligomerization. In silico phosphorylation and molecular dynamics simulations supported a structural role for the phosphorylation of Thr214 in promoting target binding. Our findings highlight unique structural features of g14-3-3 opening novel perspectives on the evolutionary history of this protein family and envisaging the possibility to develop anti-giardial drugs targeting g14-3-3.
    PLoS ONE 01/2014; 9(3):e92902. · 3.53 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Abstract Trichinella spiralis and Trichinella britovi are the two most common species of the genus Trichinella persisting in the European wildlife. To investigate the spatial distribution of these Trichinella spp. and the factors influencing their circulation in Hungary, 3304 red foxes (Vulpes vulpes) and 0.29 million wild boars (Sus scrofa) were tested for Trichinella sp. infection in Hungary from 2006 to 2013. Trichinella spp. larvae from 68 (2.06%) foxes and 44 (0.015%) wild boars were identified by a multiplex PCR as T. britovi or T. spiralis. The locality of origin of foxes and wild boars were recorded in a geographic information system database. There was no correlation between environmental parameters in the home range of foxes and wild boars and the T. spiralis larval counts, but there was a positive correlation between the boundary zone of Hungary and T. spiralis infection (P < 0.0001; odds ratio: 24.1). These results indicate that the distribution of T. spiralis in the Hungarian wildlife is determined by the transborder transmission of the parasite from the surrounding endemic countries. Multiple regression analysis was performed with environmental parameter values and T. britovi larval counts. Based on the statistical analysis, non-agricultural areas (forests, scrubs, herbaceous vegetation and pastures) and the mean annual temperature (P < 0.0001; odds ratios: 9.53 and 0.61) were the major determinants of the spatial distribution of T. britovi in Hungary. The positive relationship with non-agricultural areas can be explained by the generalist feeding behaviour including scavenging of foxes in these areas. The negative relationship with the mean annual temperature can be attributed to the slower decomposition of wildlife carcasses favouring a longer survival of T. britovi larvae in the host carrion and to the increase of scavenging of foxes.
    Veterinary Parasitology 01/2014; · 2.38 Impact Factor
  • Edoardo Pozio
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    ABSTRACT: Each year, millions of pigs worldwide are tested for Trichinella spp. at slaughterhouses with negative results. Yet, thousands of people acquire trichinellosis by consuming pork. So, where is the problem? Testing for Trichinella spp. is often performed on the 'wrong' animals; while the parasites are mainly circulating in backyard and free-ranging pigs, herds kept under controlled management conditions are the ones tested. Veterinary services should: (i) introduce a risk-based surveillance system for Trichinella by documenting the control of housing conditions and feedstuff sources, and (ii) introduce a capillary network of field laboratories for monitoring the parasites in free-ranging and backyard pigs. Investment of funds into the education of farmers, hunters, and consumers should be a priority for public health services.
    Trends in Parasitology 12/2013; · 5.51 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Trichinella infections in humans and pigs have been documented in Greece since 1945 and a high prevalence of infection in pigs occurred in the 1950s. Up to 1984 only sporadic infections in humans were documented, and this zoonosis was not considered as a public health problem until 2009 when a human outbreak caused by the consumption of pork from an organic pig farm occurred. In the present study, we describe the re-emergence of Trichinella spp. infections in free-ranging pigs from organic farms of 3 counties (Dramas, Evros and Kavala) in Northern-Eastern Greece during the period 2009-2012. Totally 37 out of 12,717 (0.29%) free-ranging pigs which were tested during the period in question, were positive for Trichinella spp. larvae. The etiological agent was identified as Trichinella britovi. The average larval burden was 13.7 in the masseter, 6.2 in the foreleg muscles and 7.5 in the diaphragm. The 37 positive animals originated from seven free range pig farms. The practice of organic pig production systems in Greece has grown in popularity over the last years due to the increasing interest of consumers for products considered as traditional. However, this type of pig production increases the risk for Trichinella spp. infections, since animals can acquire the infection by feeding on carcasses or the offal of hunted or dead wild animals. The awareness and education of hunters and farmers is extremely important to reduce the transmission among free ranging pigs and the risk for humans.
    Veterinary Parasitology 11/2013; · 2.38 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: In Germany and Poland, the high population density of the red fox (Vulpes vulpes) is considered a public health risk since this wild canid is one of the main reservoirs of Trichinella spp. In 2010 in Poland, a program to monitor the prevalence of Trichinella spp. in the red fox population was launched. After two years, Trichinella spp. larvae were detected in 44 (2.7%) out of 1634 foxes tested. In Germany in the period 2002-2011, Trichinella spp. larvae were in 27 foxes. The Trichinella species detected were: T. spiralis in 15 foxes from Germany (one co-infection with Trichinella britovi and one with Trichinella pseudospiralis) and in 9 foxes from Poland; T. britovi in 8 and 32 foxes from Germany and Poland, respectively; and T. pseudospiralis in 1 fox from Germany. The arctic species Trichinella nativa was detected in 3 foxes from Germany (one co-infection with Trichinella spiralis) and in 1 fox from Poland. The detection of T. nativa outside its known distribution area opens new questions on the ability of this Trichinella species to colonize temperate regions.
    Veterinary Parasitology 08/2013; · 2.38 Impact Factor
  • Edoardo Pozio, Dante S Zarlenga
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    ABSTRACT: Contrary to our understanding of just a few decades ago, the genus Trichinella now consists of a complex assemblage of no less than nine different species and three additional genotypes whose taxonomic status remains in flux. New data and methodologies have allowed advancements in detection and differentiation at the population level which in turn have demonstrably advanced epidemiological, immunological and genetic investigations. In like manner, molecular and genetic studies have permitted us to hypothesize biohistorical events leading to the worldwide dissemination of this genus, and to begin crystalizing the evolution of Trichinella on a macro scale. The finding of species in countries and continents otherwise considered Trichinella-free has raised questions regarding host adaptation and associations, and advanced important findings on the biogeographical histories of its members. Using past reviews as a backdrop, we have ventured to present an up-to-date assessment of the taxonomy, phylogenetic relationships and epidemiology of the genus Trichinella with additional insights on host species, survival strategies in nature and the shortcomings of our current understanding of the epidemiology of the genus. In addition, we have begun compiling information available to date on genomics, proteomics, transcriptomics and population studies of consequence in the hope we can build on this in years to come.
    International journal for parasitology 06/2013; · 3.39 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Nematodes of the genus Trichinella which infect wildlife and domestic animals show a cosmopolitan distribution. These zoonotic parasites are the aetiological agents of a severe human disease, trichinellosis. Twelve taxa are recognized in the Trichinella genus, but they cannot be identified by morphology since they are sibling species/genotypes. For epidemiological studies, it is extremely important to identify each taxon since they have different distribution areas and host ranges. In the present study, polymerase chain reaction (PCR) amplification of the mitochondrial large subunit ribosomal RNA (lsu-RNA) gene coupled with a pyrosequencing technique was developed to distinguish among four Trichinella species: Trichinella spiralis, T. pseudospiralis, T. papuae and T. zimbabwensis. A PCR method was used to amplify the lsu-RNA of Trichinella sp. larvae in mouse muscles and single larvae collected from infected muscles by digestion. The results show that the four Trichinella species can be distinguished by using 26 nucleotides in the target region and the method is sensitive enough to identify individual larvae. The pyrosequencing provides a simple, rapid and high-throughput tool for the differentiation of Trichinella species.
    Journal of Helminthology 05/2013; · 1.16 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Trichinellosis is an important helminthic food-borne zoonosis, which is caused by nematodes of the genus Trichinella. Although, Trichinella spp. has been detected frequently in Iranian wildlife, this parasitic infection is not considered a major public health problem. This is largely because Islamic codes forbid consumption of pork meat in this country. However, knowledge about this zoonotic pathogen is important because human trichinellosis has been documented in countries where most of the population is Muslim. The aims of the present work were to investigate whether Trichinella spp. was still circulating in wildlife of the Khuzestan Province (south-west Iran) about 30 years after the first investigation, to identify the aetiological agent at the species level by molecular analyses, and to review the literature on Trichinella spp. in animals of Iran. During the winter 2009-2010, muscle samples from 32 road-killed animals (14 dogs and 18 jackals, Canis aureus) were collected. Muscle samples were digested and Trichinella sp. larvae were isolated from two jackals. The Trichinella sp. larvae have been identified as Trichinella britovi by molecular analyses. These results confirm that T. britovi is the prevalent species circulating in wild animals of Iran.
    Journal of Helminthology 05/2013; · 1.16 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Over the last decades the distribution area of the golden jackal (Canis aureus) has increased significantly in Europe, particularly in the Balkan Peninsula and in Central Europe. Vagrant individuals were described in many European countries. Herein, we report Echinococcus multilocularis (total worm count: 412) and Trichinella spiralis (101 larvae/g for muscles of the lower forelimb) infections in two golden jackals shot in Hungary. It is a new host record of E. multilocularis and T. spiralis in Europe and Hungary, respectively. As jackals migrate for long distances through natural ecological corridors (e.g., river valleys), they may play a significant role in the long distance spread of zoonotic parasites into non-endemic areas of Europe. Therefore, monitoring zoonotic parasites in this host species can be recommended in the European Union.
    Veterinary Parasitology 04/2013; · 2.38 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND: Toxoplasmosis is caused by the apicomplexan parasite Toxoplasma gondii and can be acquired either congenitally or via the oral route. In the latter case, transmission is mediated by two distinct invasive stages, i.e., bradyzoites residing in tissue cysts or sporozoites contained in environmentally resistant oocysts shed by felids in their feces. The oocyst plays a central epidemiological role, yet this stage has been scarcely investigated at the molecular level and the knowledge of its expressed proteome is very limited. RESULTS: Using one-dimensional gel electrophoresis coupled to liquid chromatography-linked tandem mass spectrometry, we analysed total or fractionated protein extracts of partially sporulated T. gondii oocysts, producing a dataset of 1304 non reduntant proteins (~18% of the total predicted proteome), ~59% of which were classified according to the MIPS functional catalogue database. Notably, the comparison of the oocyst dataset with the extensively covered proteome of T. gondii tachyzoite, the invasive stage responsible for the clinical signs of toxoplasmosis, identified 154 putative oocyst/sporozoite-specific proteins, some of which were validated by Western blot. The analysis of this protein subset showed that, compared to tachyzoites, oocysts have a greater capability of de novo amino acid biosynthesis and are well equipped to fuel the Krebs cycle with the acetyl-CoA generated through fatty acid beta-oxidation and the degradation of branched amino acids. CONCLUSIONS: The study reported herein significantly expanded our knowledge of the proteome expressed by the oocyst/sporozoite of T. gondii, shedding light on a stage-specifc subset of proteins whose functional profile is consistent with the adaptation of T. gondii oocysts to the nutrient-poor and stressing extracellular environment. FREE ONLINE http://www.biomedcentral.com/1471-2164/14/183
    BMC Genomics 03/2013; 14(1):183. · 4.40 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Crocodiles are known reservoir hosts of Trichinella papuae and Trichinella zimbabwensis, two zoonotic parasites that also infect mammals. Since commercial crocodile farming represents a key source of income in several countries, it is important to monitor this nematode infection in both farmed crocodiles and in breeding stocks which are frequently introduced from the wild. For this purpose, an indirect ELISA was developed to detect the anti-Trichinella immune response in crocodile sera. New Zealand rabbits were immunized with pooled sera from non-infected farmed crocodiles in the presence of Freund's complete adjuvant. The anti-crocodile serum was then conjugated with horseradish peroxidase. Serum samples from four Nile crocodiles (Crocodylus niloticus) experimentally infected with T. zimbabwensis and from four uninfected crocodiles were used to set up the ELISA. The larval burden per gram of muscle tissue was determined by muscle biopsy. The test was performed on serum samples from an additional 15 experimentally infected crocodiles as well as eight wild Nile crocodiles. Among the 19 experimentally infected crocodiles, seroconversion was observed in 11 animals. The highest antibody response was observed six weeks post infection (p.i.), but in most of these animals, antibodies were not detectable after six weeks p.i. even though live larvae were present in the muscles up to six months p.i.
    Veterinary Parasitology 02/2013; · 2.38 Impact Factor

Publication Stats

6k Citations
877.80 Total Impact Points


  • 1985–2014
    • Istituto Superiore di Sanità
      • Department of Infectious, Parasitic and Immune-mediated Diseases
      Roma, Latium, Italy
  • 2002–2013
    • Università di Pisa
      Pisa, Tuscany, Italy
    • Université René Descartes - Paris 5
      Lutetia Parisorum, Île-de-France, France
  • 1993–2013
    • University of Milan
      • • Department of Animal Pathology, Hygiene and Veterinary Public Health DIPAV
      • • Unitá di Patologia
      Milano, Lombardy, Italy
  • 2012
    • Ferdowsi University Of Mashhad
      • Department of Pathobiology
      Mashhad, Razavi Khorasan, Iran
  • 2010–2012
    • Croatian Veterinary Institute
      Zagrabia, Grad Zagreb, Croatia
    • National Institute of Health Dr. Ricardo Jorge
      Oporto, Porto, Portugal
  • 2009–2012
    • Belcolle Hospital, Viterbo
      Viterbo, Latium, Italy
    • University of Iceland
      • Institute for Experimental Pathology
      Reykjavík, Capital Region, Iceland
    • Università degli Studi di Bari Aldo Moro
      • Dipartimento di Scienze Biomediche ed Oncologia Umana (DIMO)
      Bari, Apulia, Italy
    • Tehran University of Medical Sciences
      • Department of Medical Parasitology and Mycology
      Tehrān, Ostan-e Tehran, Iran
  • 2011
    • University of Copenhagen
      • Department of Veterinary Disease Biology
      København, Capital Region, Denmark
  • 2008–2011
    • Oklahoma State University - Stillwater
      • Department of Veterinary Pathobiology
      Stillwater, OK, United States
    • University of Zimbabwe
      • Department of Paraclinical Veterinary Studies
      Harare, Harare Province, Zimbabwe
    • Technical University of Denmark
      København, Capital Region, Denmark
    • University of Novi Sad
      Varadinum Petri, Autonomna Pokrajina Vojvodina, Serbia
    • Ospedale Pediatrico Bambino Gesù
      Roma, Latium, Italy
    • French National Institute for Agricultural Research
      Lutetia Parisorum, Île-de-France, France
    • Agenzia di Sanità Pubblica della Regione Lazio
      Roma, Latium, Italy
    • Canadian Food Inspection Agency
      Fredericton, New Brunswick, Canada
  • 2005–2009
    • Bundesinstitut für Risikobewertung
      • Department of Biological Safety
      Berlín, Berlin, Germany
    • National Agriculture Quarantine and Inspection Authority
      Panguna, Bougainville, Papua New Guinea
  • 2005–2008
    • Dokuz Eylul University
      • • Department of Internal Medicine
      • • Department of Pediatrics
      İzmir, Izmir, Turkey
  • 2007
    • Gifu University
      • Department of Parasitology
      Gihu, Gifu, Japan
    • Addis Ababa University
      • Department of Microbiology and Immunology
      Addis Ababa, Adis Abeba Astedader, Ethiopia
  • 2006
    • Istituto Zooprofilattico Sperimentale Umbria e Marche
      Perugia, Umbria, Italy
    • Ankara Atatürk Training and Research Hospital
      Engüri, Ankara, Turkey
    • Estonian University of Life Sciences
      • Institute of Veterinary Medicine and Animal Sciences
      Tartu, Tartumaa, Estonia
  • 2004–2005
    • University of Melbourne
      • Faculty of Veterinary Science
      Melbourne, Victoria, Australia
    • University of Zagreb
      • Faculty of Veterinary Medicine (VEF)
      Zagreb, Grad Zagreb, Croatia
  • 1998–2005
    • National Institute for Public Health and the Environment (RIVM)
      • Centre for Public Health Forecasting (cVTV)
      Utrecht, Utrecht, Netherlands
    • Victoria University Melbourne
      Melbourne, Victoria, Australia
    • Chulalongkorn University
      • Department of Parasitology
      Bangkok, Bangkok, Thailand
  • 2003
    • Gyeongsang National University
      • Department of Parasitology and Institute of Health Sciences
      Chinju, South Gyeongsang, South Korea
  • 2001
    • Texas Tech University Health Sciences Center
      • Department of Pathology
      Lubbock, TX, United States
    • University of Pavia
      • Department of Public Health, Neuroscience, Experimental and Forensic Medicine
      Ticinum, Lombardy, Italy
  • 2000
    • United States Department of Agriculture
      • Agricultural Research Service (ARS)
      Washington, D. C., DC, United States
  • 1999
    • Università degli Studi di Modena e Reggio Emilia
      Modène, Emilia-Romagna, Italy
  • 1990–1997
    • Università degli Studi di Perugia
      • Department of Experimental Medicine and Biochemical Sciences
      Perugia, Umbria, Italy
  • 1996
    • Sapienza University of Rome
      Roma, Latium, Italy
  • 1995
    • Ministry of Health, Italy
      Roma, Latium, Italy
  • 1989
    • Università degli studi di Parma
      Parma, Emilia-Romagna, Italy