[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Virologic surveillance is a critical component of measles surveillance because one of the criteria for verification of elimination of endemic measles is genetic analysis of wild-type viruses to demonstrate lack of an indigenous genotype. Measles has not yet been eliminated in China, and genotype H1 has been detected continuously since virologic surveillance was initiated in 1993. Virologic surveillance has been very strong in China and this provided a unique opportunity to conduct a detailed study of the evolution of a single, endemic genotype over a time span of nearly 20 years. Phylogenetic analysis performed on the 450 nucleotides coding for the COOH terminal 150 amino acids of the nucleoprotein (N-450), the fusion (F) gene and the hemagglutinin (H) gene confirmed the continued circulation of genotype H1 viruses for 19 years. No evidence was found for selective pressure on the H protein. The substitution rates ranged from 0.75 x 10(-3) substitutions/site/year for H to 1.65 x10(-3) substitutions/site/year for N-450. An estimate of the time of the most recent common ancestor for genotype H1 was approximately 1985 (95% Highest Probability Density = 1979-1989). Finally, the overall diversity of the measles sequences from China decreased from 2005 to 2012 which is coincident with a substantial decrease in measles cases. Overall, the results suggest that detailed evolutionary analyses will help to document the eventual elimination of measles in China, and the molecular approaches used in this study can be applied in other countries that are approaching measles elimination.
Journal of General Virology 06/2014; · 3.13 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: To characterize the genetic properties of coxsackievirus A12 (CVA12) strains isolated from hand, foot and mouth disease (HFMD) patients in Qingdao during 2008-2011, the complete genome and VP1 coding region were sequenced and analyzed. Phylogenetic analysis showed that all strains from China clustered into three different branches, suggesting multiple lineages of CVA12 co-circulating in Asia. Sequence analysis indicated a monophyletic group only when the P1 region was examined, indicating possible recombination between CVA12 and other HEV-A serotypes. The emergence of CVA12 involved in an HFMD outbreak in China is a public-health issue.
Archives of Virology 05/2014; · 2.28 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: With the achievement of high coverage for routine immunization and supplementary immunization activities (SIAs), measles incidence in mainland China reached its lowest level in 2010. The proportion of measles cases in the vaccination targeted population decreased during 2007-2010 after the SIAs. More than 60% of measles cases were adults or infants, especially in the coastal and eastern provinces during 2009 and 2010. A total 567 isolates of measles virus (MeV) were obtained from clinical specimens from 27 of 31 provinces in mainland China during 2009 and 2010. Except for 2 vaccine associated cases, 1 genotype D4, 2 genotype D9 and 4 genotype D11 strains, the other 558 strains were genotype H1 Cluster H1a. Genotype H1 has been the only endemic genotype detected in China since surveillance began in 1993. Only genotype H1 was found in mainland China during 1993-2008, except for 1 detection of genotype H2. More recently multiple genotypes of imported measles were detected even with the background of endemic H1 viruses. Analysis of the 450 nucleotide sequencing window of the MeV N gene showed the overall genetic diversity of the recent H1 viruses was decreasing between 2008 and 2010. The lower genetic diversity of H1 strains suggested that enhanced vaccination may have reduced the co-circulating lineages of endemic genotype H1 viruses in mainland China. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
Clinical Microbiology and Infection 01/2014; · 4.58 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Acute respiratory infections (ARIs) are the leading cause of children and their leading killer. ARIs are responsible for at least six percent of the world's disability and death. Viruses are one of the most common agents causing ARIs. Few studies on the viral etiology and clinical characteristics of ARIs have been performed in the northwest region of China, including Gansu Province.
Clinical and demographic information and throat swabs were collected from 279 patients from January 1st to December 30st, 2011. Multiplex RT-PCR was performed to detect 16 respiratory viral pathogens.
279 patients were admitted for ARIs. The patients aged from 1 month to 12 years, with the median age of 2 years. Of which, 105 (37.6%) were positive for at least one pathogen. A total of 136 respiratory viral pathogens were identified from the 105 patients. Respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) was the most frequently detected pathogen (26.5%, 36/136), followed by parainfluenza virus (PIV) 1-3 (22.1%, 30/136), human rhinovirus (HRV) (21.3%, 29/136), human coronavirus (CoV) (10.3%, 14/136) and human adenovirus (HAdV) (9.6%, 13/136). Influenza A (Flu A), human metapneumovirus (hMPV) and human bocavirus (BoCA) were found 4.4%, 3.7% and 2.2%, respectively. Influenza B (Flu B) and seasonal influenza A H1N1(sH1N1) were not detected. Single-infections were detected in 30.5% (85/279) of cases. RSV was the most common pathogens in patients under 1 year and showed seasonal variation with peaks during winter and spring.
This paper presents data on the epidemiology of viral pathogens associated with ARIs among children in Gansu Province, China. RSV is most frequently detected in our study. The findings could serve as a reference for local CDC in drawing up further plans to prevent and control ARIs.
PLoS ONE 07/2013; 8(5):e64254. · 3.53 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Large-scale Hand, Foot, and Mouth Disease (HFMD) outbreaks have frequently occurred in China since 2008, affecting more than one million children and causing several hundred children deaths every year. The pathogens of HFMD are mainly human enteroviruses (HEVs). Among them, human enterovirus 71 (HEV71) and coxsackievirus A16 (CVA16) are the most common pathogens of HFMD. However, other HEVs could also cause HFMD. To rapidly detect HEV71 and CVA16, and ensure detection of all HEVs causing HFMD, two real-time hybridization probe-based RT-PCR assays were developed in this study. One is a multiplex real-time RT-PCR assay, which was developed to detect and differentiate HEV71 specifically from CVA16 directly from clinical specimens within 1-2 h, and the other is a broad-spectrum real-time RT-PCR assay, which targeted almost all HEVs. The experiments confirmed that the two assays have high sensitivity and specificity, and the sensitivity was up to 0.1 TCID50/ml for detection of HEVs, HEV71, and CVA16, respectively. A total of 213 clinical specimens were simultaneously detected by three kinds of assays, including the two real-time RT-PCR assays, direct conventional RT-PCR assay, and virus isolation assay on human rhabdomyosarcoma cells (RD cells). The total positive rate of both HEV71 and CVA16 was 69.48% with real-time RT-PCR assay, 47.42% with RT-PCR assay, and 34.58% with virus isolation assay. One HFMD clinical specimen was positive for HEV, but negative for HEV71 or CVA16, which was identified as Echovirus 11 (Echo11) by virus isolation, RT-PCR, and sequencing for the VP1 gene. The two real-time RT-PCR assays had been applied in 31 provincial HFMD labs to detect the pathogens of HFMD, which has contributed to the rapid identification of the pathogens in the early stages of HFMD outbreaks, and helped to clarify the etiologic agents of HFMD in China.
PLoS ONE 01/2013; 8(4):e61451. · 3.53 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: China experienced several large measles outbreaks in the past two decades, and a series of enhanced control measures were implemented to achieve the goal of measles elimination. Molecular epidemiologic surveillance of wild-type measles viruses (MeV) provides valuable information about the viral transmission patterns. Since 1993, virologic surveillnace has confirmed that a single endemic genotype H1 viruses have been predominantly circulating in China. A component of molecular surveillance is to monitor the genetic characteristics of the hemagglutinin (H) gene of MeV, the major target for virus neutralizing antibodies.
Analysis of the sequences of the complete H gene from 56 representative wild-type MeV strains circulating in China during 1993-2009 showed that the H gene sequences were clustered into 2 groups, cluster 1 and cluster 2. Cluster1 strains were the most frequently detected cluster and had a widespread distribution in China after 2000. The predicted amino acid sequences of the H protein were relatively conserved at most of the functionally significant amino acid positions. However, most of the genotype H1 cluster1 viruses had an amino acid substitution (Ser240Asn), which removed a predicted N-linked glycosylation site. In addition, the substitution of Pro397Leu in the hemagglutinin noose epitope (HNE) was identified in 23 of 56 strains. The evolutionary rate of the H gene of the genotype H1 viruses was estimated to be approximately 0.76×10(-3) substitutions per site per year, and the ratio of dN to dS (dN/dS) was <1 indicating the absence of selective pressure.
Although H genes of the genotype H1 strains were conserved and not subjected to selective pressure, several amino acid substitutions were observed in functionally important positions. Therefore the antigenic and genetic properties of H genes of wild-type MeVs should be monitored as part of routine molecular surveillance for measles in China.
PLoS ONE 01/2013; 8(9):e73374. · 3.53 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Genetic recombination is a well-known phenomenon for enteroviruses. To investigate the genetic characterization and the potential recombination of enterovirus 71 (EV71) circulating in China, we determined the 16 complete genome sequences of EV71 isolated from Hand Foot Mouth Disease (HFMD) patients during the large scale outbreak and non-outbreak years since 1998 in China. The full length genome sequences of 16 Chinese EV71 in present study were aligned with 186 genome sequences of EV71 available from GenBank, including 104 China mainland and 82 international sequences, covering the time period of 1970-2011. The oldest strains of each subgenotype of EV71 and prototype strains of HEV-A were included to do the phylogenetic and Simplot analysis. Phylogenetic analysis indicated that all Chinese strains were clustered into C4 subgenotype of EV71, except for HuB/CHN/2009 clustered into A and Xiamen/CHN/2009 clustered into B5 subgenotype. Most of C4 EV71 were clustered into 2 predominant evolutionary branches: C4b and C4a evolutionary brunches. Our comprehensive recombination analysis showed the evidence of genome recombination of subgenotype C4 (including C4a and C4b) sequences between structural genes from genotype C EV71 and non-structural genes from the prototype strains of CAV16, 14 and 4, but the evidence of intratypic recombination between C4 strains and B subgenotype was not enough strong. This intertypic recombination C4 viruses were first seen in 1998 and became the predominant endemic viruses circulating in China mainland for at least 14 years. A shift between C4a and C4b evolutionary brunches of C4 recombination viruses were observed, and C4a viruses have been associated with large scale nationwide HFMD outbreak with higher morbidity and mortality since 2007.
PLoS ONE 01/2013; 8(2):e56341. · 3.53 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Coxsackievirus A16 (CVA16) is responsible for nearly 50% of all the conﬁrmed hand, foot, and mouth disease (HFMD) cases in mainland China, sometimes it could also cause severe complications, and even death. To clarify the genetic characteristics and the epidemic patterns of CVA16 in mainland China, comprehensive bioinfomatics analyses were performed by using 35 CVA16 whole genome sequences from 1998 to 2011, 593 complete CVA16 VP1 sequences from 1981 to 2011, and prototype strains of human enterovirus species A (EV-A). Analysis on complete VP1 sequences revealed that subgenotypes B1a and B1b were prevalent strains and have been co-circulating in many Asian countries since 2000, especially in mainland China for at least 13 years. While the prevalence of subgenotype B1c (totally 20 strains) was much limited, only found in Malaysia from 2005 to 2007 and in France in 2010. Genotype B2 only caused epidemic in Japan and Malaysia from 1981 to 2000. Both subgenotypes B1a and B1b were potential recombinant viruses containing sequences from other EV-A donors in the 5'-untranslated region and P2, P3 non-structural protein encoding regions.
PLoS ONE 01/2013; 8(12):e82861. · 3.53 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The relevance of human parainfluenza viruses (HPIVs) to the epidemiology of acute respiratory infections (ARI) in China is unclear. From May 2008 to September 2010, 443 nasopharyngeal aspirates (NPAs) from hospitalized pediatric patients (age from 1 to 93 months) in Beijing were collected and screened for HPIVs and other common respiratory viruses by real-time RT-PCR. Sixty-two of 443 samples were positive for HPIVs with 4 positive for HPIV-2 and 58 positive for HPIV-3, indicating that HPIV-3 was the predominant virus present during the study period. A phylogenetic tree based on all the available HN (hemagglutinin-neuraminidase) sequences of HPIV-3 indicated that three distinct clusters (A,B, and C) were circulating with some temporal and regional clustering. Cluster C was further divided into sub-clusters, C1, C2, C3 and C4. HPIV-3 from Beijing isolates belonged to sub-cluster C3, and were grouped with the isolates from two Provinces of China and the neighboring country of Japan. Genetic analysis based on entire HN gene revealed that the HPIV-3 isolates from Beijing were highly similar with 97.2%-100% identity at the nucleotide level and these could be divided into two closely related lineages, C3a and C3b. These findings suggested that there was co-circulation of multiple lineages of HPIV-3 in the Beijing region during the study period. This is the first study to describe the epidemiology and molecular characterization of HPIVs in China.
PLoS ONE 01/2012; 7(8):e43893. · 3.53 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND: An outbreak of aseptic meningitis occurred in Tianshui city of Gansu Province, the People's Republic of China, from March to June 2005. A total of 85 patients were clinical confirmed as aseptic meningitis in this outbreak. RESULTS: CVA9 was mainly responsible for this outbreak supported by the clinical manifestations of the patients, epidemiological data of the outbreak, the results of RT-PCR and complete VP1 sequence determination, conventional neutralization assays, IgM serological assays, viral isolation and phylogenetics analysis. Through phylogenetic analysis and homogeneity analysis for partial VP1 gene, the nucleotide and amino acid homologies between Gansu isolates and former Chinese CVA9 strains were 88.2%-96.1% and 97.2%-99.2%, respectively. Multiple transmission chains of CVA9 occurred in different provinces or years in China. Moreover, in order to clarify the genotype of CVA9, Gansu CVA9 strains isolated in this outbreak were compared with other CVA9 isolates based on VP1/2A junction regions (genotyping region) and they might belong to a new genotype of CVA9, which could be assigned for genotype XIII, CONCLUSIONS: CVA9 was confirmed as the pathogen responsible for this outbreak. The phylogenetic analysis indicated that the CVA9 strains isolated in this outbreak might belong to a new genotype.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: An outbreak of aseptic meningitis (AM) occurred in Jinzhai County in Anhui province from April to July in 2005. Totally, 97 children aged 3-15 years were hospitalized. To identify the etiologic agent, 77 cerebrospinal fluid specimens (CSF) and 5 fecal specimens were collected from the patients and cultured by human rhabdomyosarcoma (RD) cell line. Thirty isolates of human echovirus 6 (E6) from 27 CSF and 3 fecal specimens were confirmed by neutralization assay and sequencing analysis of the VP1 gene. The homology of VP1 gene among Anhui isolates was 99.7-100.0% and it indicated that this AM outbreak probable caused by a single transmission link of E6. Phylogenetic analysis based on all the available complete VP1 sequences indicated that E6 could be divided into clusters A, B, and C with at least 15% diversity between clusters and the C cluster could be further divided into C1, C2, C3, and C4. The Anhui isolates most resembled a 2005 strain from Russia (25465 Tambov) and belong to C4. This is the first report that E6 was responsible for an outbreak of AM in China. J. Med. Virol. 82:441-445, 2010. (c) 2010 Wiley-Liss, Inc.
Journal of Medical Virology 03/2010; 82(3):441-5. · 2.37 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Molecular characterization of wild-type measles viruses in China during 1995-2004 demonstrated that genotype H1 was endemic and widely distributed throughout the country. H1-associated cases and outbreaks caused a resurgence of measles beginning in 2005. A total of 210,094 measles cases and 101 deaths were reported by National Notifiable Diseases Reporting System (NNDRS) and Chinese Measles Laboratory Network (LabNet) from 2006 to 2007, and the incidences of measles were 6.8/100,000 population and 7.2/100,000 population in 2006 and 2007, respectively. Five hundred and sixty-five wild-type measles viruses were isolated from 24 of 31 provinces in mainland China during 2006 and 2007, and all of the wild type virus isolates belonged to cluster 1 of genotype H1. These results indicated that H1-cluster 1 viruses were the predominant viruses circulating in China from 2006 to 2007. This study contributes to previous efforts to generate critical baseline data about circulating wild-type measles viruses in China that will allow molecular epidemiologic studies to help measure the progress made toward China's goal of measles elimination by 2012.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Hand, foot and mouth disease (HFMD), a common contagious disease that usually affects children, is normally mild but can have life-threatening manifestations. It can be caused by enteroviruses, particularly Coxsackieviruses and human enterovirus 71 (HEV71) with highly variable clinical manifestations. In the spring of 2008, a large, unprecedented HFMD outbreak in Fuyang city of Anhui province in the central part of southeastern China resulted in a high aggregation of fatal cases. In this study, epidemiologic and clinical investigations, laboratory testing, and genetic analyses were performed to identify the causal pathogen of the outbreak. Of the 6,049 cases reported between 1 March and 9 May of 2008, 3023 (50%) were hospitalized, 353 (5.8%) were severe and 22 (0.36%) were fatal. HEV71 was confirmed as the etiological pathogen of the outbreak. Phylogenetic analyses of entire VP1 capsid protein sequence of 45 Fuyang HEV71 isolates showed that they belong to C4a cluster of the C4 subgenotype. In addition, genetic recombinations were found in the 3D region (RNA-dependent RNA polymerase, a major component of the viral replication complex of the genome) between the Fuyang HEV71 strain and Coxsackievirus A16 (CV-A16), resulting in a recombination virus. In conclusion, an emerging recombinant HEV71 was responsible for the HFMD outbreak in Fuyang City of China, 2008.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Measles morbidity and mortality decreased significantly after measles vaccine was introduced into China in 1965. From 1995 to 2004, average annual measles incidence decreased to 5.6 cases per 100,000 population following the establishment of a national two-dose regimen. Molecular characterization of wild-type measles viruses demonstrated that genotype H1 was endemic and widely distributed throughout the country in China during 1995-2004. A total of 124,865 cases and 55 deaths were reported from the National Notifiable Diseases Reporting System (NNDRS) in 2005, which represented a 69.05% increase compared with 2004. Over 16,000 serum samples obtained from 914 measles outbreaks and the measles IgM positive rate was 81%. 213 wild-type measles viruses were isolated from 18 of 31 provinces in China during 2005, and all of the isolates belonged to genotype H1. The ranges of the nucleotide sequence and predicted amino acid sequence homologies of the 213 genotype H1 strains were 93.4%-100% and 90.0%-100%, respectively. H1-associated cases and outbreaks caused the measles resurgence in China in 2005. H1 genotype has the most inner variation within genotype, it could be divided into 2 clusters, and cluster 1 viruses were predominant in China throughout 2005.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: An outbreak of acute respiratory tract infection occurred in Shanxi Province, China, from March to April 2006. Of the 254 patients affected by this outbreak, 247 patients were students of a senior high school; 1 of these patients died during the outbreak. Serological tests and blood culture revealed no evidence of bacterial infection. The results of direct reverse transcription-PCR or PCR performed with clinical specimens collected from the patients, including the sole patient who died, were positive for human adenoviruses (HAdVs) but negative for influenza virus, measles virus, rubella virus, mumps virus, parainfluenza virus, respiratory syncytial virus, and human enteroviruses. These findings were confirmed by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay for HAdV immunoglobulin A, the conventional neutralization test, and viral isolation and identification. Sequencing of the entire hexon gene revealed that HdAV type 11a (HAdV-11a) belonging to the B2 species of HAdV was the etiological agent responsible for the outbreak. However, both the analysis of the phylogenetic relationship and the similarity plot indicated that the sequence of the 3' end of the hexon gene outside the hypervariable regions the HAdV-11a strain isolated in this outbreak may be a recombinant with the sequence of the HAdV-14 strain of species B2. Although isolates of HAdV species B2 seldom cause respiratory infections, they may pose a new global challenge with regard to acute respiratory diseases; this possibility cannot be overlooked and should be carefully considered. Hence, the need to establish and improve both epidemiological and virological surveillance of HAdV infections in China should be emphasized.
Journal of clinical microbiology 01/2009; 47(3):697-703. · 4.16 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Genetic characterization of wild-type measles virus was studied using nucleotide sequencing of the C-terminal region of the N protein gene and phylogenetic analysis on 59 isolates from 16 provinces of China in 2004. The results showed that all of the isolates belonged to genotype H1. 51 isolates were belonged to cluster 1 and 8 isolates were cluster 2 and Viruses from both clusters were distributed throughout China without distinct geographic pattern. The nucleotide sequence and predicted amino acid homologies of the 59 H1 strains were 96.5%-100% and 95.7%-100%, respectively. The report showed that the transmission pattern of genotype H1 viruses in China in 2004 was consistent with ongoing endemic transmission of multiple lineages of a single, endemic genotype. Multiple transmission pathways leaded to multiple lineages within endemic genotype.