Sotiria C Apostolopoulou

Konstantopoulio Hospital, Athínai, Attica, Greece

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Publications (29)69.41 Total impact

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    ABSTRACT: Mechanical and biological prostheses are valid options when aortic valve replacement is necessary. The Ross procedure is also an alternative solution, especially for young patients. We describe the case of a young patient with congenital aortic stenosis and bicuspid aortic valve who presented with dyspnea on exertion. An open commissurotomy was performed, and within 8 months the patient developed recurrent symptoms of severe aortic stenosis. He underwent redo sternotomy and a Ross-Konno procedure with an uneventful recovery.
    Heart Surgery Forum 08/2012; 15(4):E182-4. · 0.63 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The objective was to investigate paediatric doses in coronary angiography (CA) and percutaneous transluminal coronary angioplasty (PTCA) in the largest cardiac hospital in Greece. Forty procedures were carried out by two board-certified senior interventional cardiologists. Data collected were: patient weight, height, age, fluoroscopy time (FT), total number of images (N) and kerma-area product (KAP). Median (range) age was 7.5 y (17 d to 17 y). Median FT, N and KAP were 4 min, 655, 2.1 Gy cm2 for CA and 12.1 min, 1296, 14.7 Gy cm2 for PTCA (corresponding adult diagnostic reference levels (DRLs) are: 6.5 min, 700, 45 Gy cm2 for CA and 15.5 min, 1000 and 85 Gy cm2 for PTCA). The highest percentage of cine dose was in newborns (0-1 y) (CA: 92% and PTCA: 100%). As age increased, cine dose percentage decreased, whereas total radiation dose increased. Median paediatric FT and N recorded reached or even exceeded adult DRL and should be optimised. Paediatric DRL should be set.
    Radiation Protection Dosimetry 02/2009; 132(4):390-4. · 0.91 Impact Factor
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    Spyros Rammos, Sotiria C Apostolopoulou, Maria G Kiaffas
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    ABSTRACT: AbstrAct We report our experience with the use of AMPLATZER® Vascular Plug for the clo-sure of coronary artery fistulas. Three patients (age: 3, 12, 14 years) were diagnosed with coronary fistulas (pulmonary-to-systemic blood flow ratio: 1.5 to 3). Two of the fistulas originated each, from the proximal right and left coronary artery and had maximal diameter and 10 mm respectively; their narrowest diameter (6 mm) was proximal to their entrance into the right atrium creating a form of a saccular aneu-rysm. The third fistula (maximal diameter: 16 mm) originated from the circumflex artery and entered the right atrium with unobstructed flow (narrowest diameter: 8 mm). Interventional closure was considered optimal and the decision was made to use devices sized twice the size of the narrowest diameter of the fistulas (12, 12 and 16 mm respectively). An arterio-venous loop was established through the fistula by snaring an exchange guide-wire. All plugs were implanted from the femoral vein with the use of a seven or eight French guide catheter, reaching the narrowest segment of the fistula and leading to complete closure of the two fistulas, immediately after the procedure. The fistula arising from the circumflex artery that received the largest plug continued to have residual flow up to 12 months after the procedure, when follow-up echocardiography revealed its complete occlusion. We present and consider the use of the AMPLATZER ® Vascular Plug as a safe and effective method for the transcath-eter closure of large-sized coronary fistulas. The plug potentially offers an alternative method to coil occlusion techniques as well as open heart surgery.
    01/2009;
  • The Journal of heart and lung transplantation: the official publication of the International Society for Heart Transplantation 01/2008; 26(12):1345-6. · 3.54 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Transcatheter closure of ventricular septal defects with the Amplatzer Membranous VSD Occluder has yielded promising initial results, but disturbances of conduction, including complete heart block, have been reported. We report our experience with the Amplatzer occluder in 35 patients with a median age 4.5 years, the defects being sized angiographically at 4.4 plus or minus 1.1 millimetres, with a range from 3 to 8 millimetres, and the size of the occluder varying from 4 to 12 millimetres. Over a median follow-up of 2.5 years, the rate of complete closure was 87% and 91%, at 1 and 2 years respectively, while 2 patients required surgical closure of the defect subsequent to the insertion of the device. Persistent regurgitation across the tricuspid valve related to the occluder was observed in 3 patients, and in 6 patients across the aortic valve. Abnormalities of conduction related to the procedure were noted in 7 patients, one-fifth of the cohort. The disturbances were transient in 1 patient, but permanent in 6, in one of the latter progressing after 6 months from left bundle branch block to intermittent Mobitz II second-degree atrioventricular block in association with expansion of the occluder. We conclude that transcatheter closure of perimembranous ventricular septal defects with the Amplatzer occluder is effective with limited complications, but the incidence of immediate and progressive disturbances of conduction related to the proximity of conduction tissues to the rims of the occluder stress the importance of larger and longer studies to assess the safety of this procedure.
    Cardiology in the Young 11/2007; 17(5):499-504. · 0.95 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: We report our initial experience in using the Amplatzer vascular plug for closure of coronary arterial fistulas. The self-expanding, cylindrical, device is made from Nitinol wire mesh, and is available from 4 to 16 millimetres in diameter. We have now used the device to close fistulas in 3 patients, aged from 3 to 14 years, who presented with ratios of pulmonary-to-systemic flow from 1.5 to 3. In 2 patients, fistulas arising from the proximal right and left coronary arteries, with maximal diameters of 9 and 10 millimetres, respectively, had their narrowest diameter, of 6 millimetres, proximal to the entrance into the right atrium via a saccular aneurysm. The third fistula, with a maximal diameter of 16 millimetres, and with its origin from the circumflex coronary artery, entered the right atrium with nearly unrestricted flow, its narrowest diameter being 8 millimetres. For interventional closure, we chose plugs twice the diameter of the narrowest segment of the fistula, thus using 2 devices of 12 millimetres and one of 16 millimetres diameter. An arteriovenous loop was established through the fistula by snaring an exchange guide wire. Using a 7 or 8 French guide catheter inserted through the femoral vein, all plugs were placed at the narrowest segment of the fistula, leading to immediate complete closure of 2 fistulas. The third patient, with a fistula of the circumflex coronary artery, who received the largest plug initially had residual flow, but the fistula was found to be completely occluded at 12 months follow-up examination. We have demonstrated, therefore, safe and effective usage of the new vascular plug for transcatheter closure of moderate- to large-sized coronary arterial fistulas. The plug offers an alternative to cardiac surgery, or occlusion using coils.
    Cardiology in the Young 07/2007; 17(3):283-7. · 0.95 Impact Factor
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    S C Apostolopoulou, A Manginas, D V Cokkinos, S Rammos
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    ABSTRACT: To evaluate the long-term clinical and exercise effect of chronic oral administration of the non-selective endothelin receptor antagonist bosentan in patients with pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH) related to congenital heart disease (CHD). Extension of a preceding prospective non-randomised open clinical study on bosentan treatment in PAH related to CHD. A tertiary referral centre for cardiology. 19 of the original 21 patients of mean (standard deviation (SD)) age 22 (3) years (13 with Eisenmenger syndrome) in World Health Organization (WHO) class II-IV and having a mean (SD) oxygen saturation of 87 (2) %. Patients received bosentan treatment for 2.4 (0.1) years and underwent clinical and exercise evaluation at baseline, 16 weeks and 2 years of treatment, with haemodynamic assessment at baseline and 16 weeks. All patients remained stable with sustained subjective clinical and WHO class improvement (p<0.01) at 16 weeks and 2 years of treatment without significant side effects or changes in oxygen saturation. After the initial 16-week improvement (p<0.05) in peak oxygen consumption and exercise duration at treadmill test, and walking distance and Borg dyspnoea index at 6-min walk test, all exercise parameters appeared to return to their baseline values at 2 years of follow-up. Long-term bosentan treatment in patients with PAH related to CHD is safe and induces clinical stability and improvement, but the objective exercise values appear to slowly return to baseline. Larger studies on long-term endothelin receptor antagonism including quality of life assessment are needed to evaluate the therapeutic role of bosentan in this population.
    Heart (British Cardiac Society) 04/2007; 93(3):350-4. · 5.01 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Reliable, non-invasive evaluation of right ventricular function, especially in congenital heart disease, is challenging. The aim of this study was to evaluate Doppler tissue imaging (DTI) parameters of lateral tricuspid annular motion, mean rate of pressure rise during RV contraction (mean dP/dt) and indexed right ventricular (RV) stroke volume (RVSVi) as RV function indices in repaired tetralogy of Fallot (TOF). DTI evaluation was performed in 25 repaired-TOF patients, aged 11+/-6, at rest and during dobutamine infusion and 20 controls at rest. TOF patients had lower (P<0.05) peak systolic velocity (Sa) (11.4+/-4 vs. 13.7+/-3.1 cm/s), early diastolic velocity (Ea) (11+/-3.1 vs. 16.3+/-3.5 cm/s) and Sa/time from onset of QRS to Sa (Sa/Q-Sa) (68.8+/-26.4 vs. 92.3+/-29.4 cm/s2) versus controls. Dobutamine increased (P<0.01) Sa (11.4+/-2.8-17.7+/-4.7 cm/s), Ea (11+/-3.1-15.6+/-3.9 cm/s), late diastolic velocity (Aa) (8.4+/-2-14.8+/-5 cm/s), Sa/Q-Sa (68.8+/-26.4-17 6.8+/-84.5 cm/s2), mean dP/dt (180+/-74-537+/-37 2 mmHg/s), and RVSVi (7.8+/-3.9-11.9+/-5.6 L/min/m2). RVSVi increase correlated (P<0.01) with that in Sa (r=0.6), Ea (r=0.5), Sa/Q-Sa (r=0.71), and mean dP/dt (r=0.57) while mean dP/dt increase correlated strongly with Sa/Q-Sa increase (r=0.88). DTI evaluation of tricuspid annular motion during dobutamine infusion in repaired TOF correlates with dP/dt and RV stroke volume and may help in assessing RV function and reserve.
    The International Journal of Cardiovascular Imaging 03/2007; 23(1):25-31. · 2.65 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Radiofrequency catheter ablation (RCA) of supraventricular tachycardia (SVT) in children is highly successful but requires exposure to radiation. Nonfluoroscopic mapping systems may significantly reduce fluoroscopy time. Forty consecutive pediatric patients who underwent RCA for accessory pathways (AP) or AV nodal reentrant tachycardia (AVNRT) with use of a nonfluoroscopic navigation system (Ensite NavX) (group A) were compared retrospectively to 40 consecutive patients with similar diagnoses who underwent RCA with fluoroscopic guidance only (group B). Group A (mean age 12.1+/-2.9 years, mean weight 47+/-13.9 kg) consisted of 11 patients (27.7%) with AVNRT and 29 (72.5%) with AP. Group B (mean age 10.9+/-3.1 years, mean weight 47.1+/-17.1 kg) consisted of 7 patients (17.5%) with AVNRT and 33 (82.5%) with AP. There were no significant differences in AP location, patients with congenital heart disease, and number of radiofrequency lesions. Fluoroscopy time was significantly shorter in group A than in group B (10.4+/-6.1, range 3.1-28.8 minutes, vs 24.9+/-16.0, range 4.4-82.0 minutes, P<0.0001). Procedure duration was also significantly shorter in group A than in group B (170+/-68.5, range 90-420 minutes, vs 218+/-69.3, range 90-360 minutes, P<0.0001). Initial success was 95% in group A and 100% in group B. Tachycardia recurrences occurred in two patients in group A (5%) and six patients in group B (15%). Final success, including repeat ablations for recurrences or failures, was 100% in both groups. The use of a nonfluoroscopic system for catheter navigation significantly reduced fluoroscopy exposure and total procedure duration of RCA of common SVT substrates in children.
    Pacing and Clinical Electrophysiology 10/2006; 29(9):971-8. · 1.75 Impact Factor
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    S C Apostolopoulou, A Manginas, D V Cokkinos, S Rammos
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    ABSTRACT: To evaluate the clinical, exercise, and haemodynamic effects of chronic oral administration of the non-selective endothelin receptor antagonist bosentan on patients with pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH) related to congenital heart disease (CHD). Prospective non-randomised open clinical study. Cardiology tertiary referral centre. 21 patients with a mean (SEM) age of 22 (3) years with chronic PAH related to CHD (15 with Eisenmenger's syndrome). Patients were in World Health Organization (WHO) class II to IV with oxygen saturation 87 (2)%. Patients underwent clinical, exercise, and haemodynamic evaluations at baseline and after 16 weeks of treatment. Bosentan improved (p < 0.01) WHO class, peak oxygen consumption from 16.8 (1.4) to 18.3 (1.4) ml/kg/min, exercise duration from 9.0 (0.8) to 10.7 (0.6) minutes during the treadmill test, walking distance from 416 (23) to 459 (22) m, and Borg dyspnoea index from 2.8 (0.2) to 2.0 (0.1) during the six minute walk test. Bosentan treatment improved (p < 0.05) mean pulmonary artery pressure from 87 (4) to 81 (4) mm Hg, pulmonary blood flow index from 3.2 (0.4) to 3.7 (0.5) l/min/m2, pulmonary to systemic blood flow ratio from 1.2 (0.2) to 1.4 (0.2), and pulmonary vascular resistance index from 2232 (283) to 1768 (248) dyn.s.cm(-5). Two patients died, presumably of arrhythmic causes, who were in WHO class IV at baseline and who had improved during treatment. Bosentan induces short and mid term clinical, exercise, and haemodynamic improvements in patients with PAH related to CHD. Larger studies with long term endothelin receptor antagonism are needed to assess the safety and possible treatment role of bosentan in this population.
    Heart (British Cardiac Society) 11/2005; 91(11):1447-52. · 5.01 Impact Factor
  • Sotiria C Apostolopoulou, John Papagiannis, Spyridon Rammos
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    ABSTRACT: We present a 14-year-old pre-transplant boy with elevated pulmonary pressure and plastic bronchitis after Fontan operation despite stent fenestration, who improved with long-term oral administration of the endothelin antagonist, bosentan. Bosentan improved the patient's symptoms and aortic saturation, World Health Organization class, maximal and sub-maximal exercise capacity, Borg dyspnea index, invasively measured mean pulmonary pressure, pulmonary blood flow and pulmonary vascular resistance. This is the first literature report examining the effect of endothelin antagonism in failing Fontan circulation and showing clinical, exercise and hemodynamic improvement with bosentan in a pre-transplant Fontan patient with high pulmonary pressure and plastic bronchitis.
    The Journal of Heart and Lung Transplantation 09/2005; 24(8):1174-6. · 5.11 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Definition of normative data of the great arteries from neonatal to adult ages may aid in assessment of the growth of cardiovascular structures, thus guiding the timing and type of intervention in patients with congenital cardiac disease. We calculated the cross-sectional areas of the arterial roots at the basal attachment of the valvar leaflets, the sinuses, and standardized distal sites using cineangiograms of 59 normal children and adolescents with mean age of 5.4 plus or minus 4.7 years and a range from 0.1 to 16 years, the children having a mean weight of 21.2 plus or minus 15.7 kilograms, with a range from 2.2 to 68 kilograms, and mean height of 108 plus or minus 35 centimetres, with a range from 43 to 184 centimetres. Values at each site were calculated averaging end-diastolic and end-systolic measurements, and indexed to body surface area. Results are expressed as the mean plus or minus the standard deviation. The diameter of the aortic root at the basal attachment of the leaflets was 249 plus or minus 26, the midpoint of the sinuses 379 plus or minus 59, the sinutubular junction 290 plus or minus 58, the isthmus 158 plus or minus 36, the postisthmic region 152 plus or minus 33, and the descending aorta at the level of diaphragm 130 plus or minus 18 millimetres squared per metre squared. The pulmonary root measured at the basal attachment of the leaflets was 253 plus or minus 28, the midpoint of the sinuses 352 plus or minus 58, the sinutubular junction 293 plus or minus 58, the right pulmonary artery 176 plus or minus 25, the left pulmonary artery 153 plus or minus 20, and sum of right and left pulmonary arteries 330 plus or minus 37 millimetres squared per metre squared. All indexes were consistent over a wide range for body surface areas. Definition of normative data of the great vessels may aid in the evaluation of congenital or acquired abnormalities, serving as guidelines for intervention during medical or surgical management and follow-up.
    Cardiology in the Young 05/2005; 15(2):119-24. · 0.95 Impact Factor
  • CardioVascular and Interventional Radiology 11/2004; 27(6):675-77. · 2.14 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Apart from closure of atrial septal defects, there is little information concerning the use of the CardioSEAL family of occluders in congenitally malformed hearts. We review here our initial experience using the CardioSEAL and STARFlex occluders in 12 patients aged 17.3 +/- 11.2 years, with a range from 4 to 34 years. Of the patients, 5 had fenestrated extracardiac Fontan procedures, 5 had persistent patency of the arterial duct, 1 had a leak across a Mustard baffle, and the final patient had a huge pulmonary arteriovenous malformation. We implanted successfully 9 CardioSEAL, and 3 STARFlex occluders, with sizes from 17 to 40 mm. In one patient, the occluder embolized to the right pulmonary artery, from where it was retrieved through the catheter. In two patients, there was a trivial residual leak immediately after implantation, but no patient had a residual leak after 6 months of follow-up. We noted improved ventricular dimensions, without any fractures of the arms of the occluders, perforations, or disturbances of flow after 2.4 +/- 0.9 years of follow-up. We have demonstrated, therefore, the versatility of the CardioSEAL and STARFlex occluders, which have been used safely and effectively to close a variety of intra and extracardiac communications other than atrial septal defects.
    Cardiology in the Young 09/2004; 14(4):367-72. · 0.95 Impact Factor
  • Sotiria C Apostolopoulou, Pipina Bonou, Spyridon Rammos
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    ABSTRACT: Congenital coronary artery fistula is a rare anomaly with varying symptomatology that may be addressed with surgical or interventional closure. Recanalization after complete occlusion of a coronary artery fistula has only been reported after surgical but not after interventional closure. We present a case of coronary artery fistula recanalization after angiographically documented complete transcatheter occlusion with Gianturco coils. The fistula was successfully managed by transcatheter implantation of a Nit-Occlud system, originally designed for interventional closure of patent ductus arteriosus.
    The Journal of invasive cardiology 05/2004; 16(4):215-7. · 1.57 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: To evaluate the acute haemodynamic effect of BQ-123, a selective endothelin A receptor antagonist, in severe chronic pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH) of primary or autoimmune origin or related to congenital heart disease. Prospective open clinical study. Cardiology tertiary referral centre. 26 patients with chronic PAH were studied, with mean (SEM) age 29 (3) years (range 4-71 years), mean pulmonary artery pressure 68 (4) mm Hg, and pulmonary vascular resistance index 1694 (170) dyne x s x cm(-5). Patients were divided in three groups according to PAH aetiology: primary or autoimmune PAH (n = 12), and PAH associated with congenital heart defects with (n = 6) or without (n = 8) complete mixing. BQ-123 200 nmol/min was infused for 60 minutes in the right atrium with sequential haemodynamic measurements at 30 minute intervals. BQ-123 improved mean pulmonary artery pressure from 68 (4) to 64 (4) mm Hg (p < 0.05), pulmonary vascular resistance index from 1694 (170) to 1378 (145) dyne x s x cm(-5) (p < 0.001), pulmonary cardiac index from 3.0 (0.2) to 3.4 (0.3) l/min/m2 (p < 0.001), and effective cardiac index from 2.5 (0.2) to 2.7 (0.2) l/min/m2 (p < 0.01). Haemodynamic response was similar in all groups except for systemic cardiac index where a different (p = 0.0001, F = 5.53) response was observed; systemic cardiac index increased from 2.7 (0.2) to 2.9 (0.2) l/min/m2 (p < 0.001) when patients with complete mixing were excluded, in whom systemic cardiac index tended to decrease from 3.4 (1.0) to 3.0 (0.6) l/min/m2 (p = 0.06). Acute endothelin A receptor antagonism induces substantial haemodynamic improvement in severe chronic PAH of primary or autoimmune origin or related to congenital heart disease.
    Heart (British Cardiac Society) 10/2003; 89(10):1221-6. · 5.01 Impact Factor
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    Sotiria C Apostolopoulou, Spyridon Rammos
    Chest 06/2003; 123(5):1772; author reply 1772-3. · 7.13 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: We present a patient with a splenic artery pseudoaneurysm (SAPA) treated with placement of self-expandable stent-grafts. The procedure was complicated by stent-graft migration, but successful management resulted in lasting exclusion of the SAPA, while the patency of the splenic artery was preserved. This is the first report of self-expandable stent-graft treatment of SAPA.
    CardioVascular and Interventional Radiology 02/2003; 26(1):88-91. · 2.14 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this article is to present serial clinical and imaging findings for the "absent" pulmonary artery. Data from six patients with this condition (five unilateral cases and one bilateral case) provide evidence concerning its embryology and illustrate the therapeutic implications of surgical intervention. CONCLUSION: In our series, we found the anatomy of the absent pulmonary artery to be consistent with a distal ductal origin and involution of the proximal sixth aortic arch. The absent pulmonary artery is a distinct embryologic entity that requires early detection and detailed investigation. Early surgical intervention may be justified in selected patients.
    American Journal of Roentgenology 12/2002; 179(5):1253-60. · 2.90 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Pulmonary hypertension (PH) is a rare disease of the pulmonary vasculature with diverse pathogenetic mechanisms. Vasoactive substances such as endothelin A receptor (ET(A)) antagonists and prostanoids have been used to improve haemodynamics and clinical outcome. We compared the hemodynamic response to BQ-123 (an ET(A) receptor antagonist) and prostacyclin or its analogue iloprost in ten patients (four men) with a mean age of 35.9+/-15.6 years. Seven patients had primary PH and three had PH owing to connective tissue disease. Patients underwent haemodynamic evaluation before and after administration of intra-atrial BQ-123 (200 mmol/min for 60 min), intravenous prostacyclin (3 ng x kg(-1) x min(-1) for 4 h) or iloprost as an aerosol (100 microg over 24 h). Response to vasodilator administration was defined as >15% decrease in pulmonary vascular resistance index (PVRI). Of the ten patients, five showed a response to BQ-123 and eight responded to prostanoids. Four patients were responders and one patient was a non-responder to both agents. PVRI decreased by 16.6+/-13.4% with BQ-123, and 24.4+/-15.7% with prostanoids (not statistically significant). The aetiology of PH did not affect the response to either drug. In conclusion, response to ET(A) antagonist or prostanoid administration can be achieved in a large group of patients with severe PH, however few patients respond identically to both agents. These findings are consistent with a multifactorial mechanism involved in this disease.
    Clinical Science 08/2002; 103 Suppl 48:298S-301S. · 4.86 Impact Factor