Andrew Grey

University of Auckland, Окленд, Auckland, New Zealand

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Publications (233)1697.24 Total impact

  • Mark J Bolland, Andrew Grey, Ian R Reid
    Annals of internal medicine 05/2015; 162(10):736-737. DOI:10.7326/L15-5094 · 16.10 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The belief that one is especially sensitive to the actions and side effects of medicines can influence treatment adherence and side-effect reporting. In this study, we investigated the prevalence of perceived medication sensitivity in the general population and its relationship to symptom complaints, information seeking about medications, use of medical care and demographic factors. A nationally representative sample of 1000 New Zealand residents completed the Perceived Sensitivity to Medicines scale and symptoms experienced during the previous 7 days. Demographic data and medical visits, medication use and information seeking about medicines were also collected. Over 20% of the general population reported being very sensitive to the effects of medication (20.2%) and that small amounts of medicines can upset their body (25.3%). Participants who reported high levels of perceived sensitivity to medicines reported significantly more symptoms (M = 9.54, SE = 0.47) than people with low (M = 5.04, SE = 0.49) or moderate (M = 5.91, SE = 0.24) levels, ps < .001. This relationship was strongest in participants who were currently taking prescription medication. Those with high perceived sensitivity also reported being more likely to seek information about medicines, and had significantly more general practitioner visits. Perceived sensitivity to medicines is common in the population and associated with important clinical variables including information seeking, GP visits and symptom reporting. Identifying patients with higher perceived sensitivity to medicines may improve patient care by providing the basis for targeted and personalised interventions to reduce side effects and improve adherence to medications. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
    Pharmacoepidemiology and Drug Safety 04/2015; DOI:10.1002/pds.3751 · 3.17 Impact Factor
  • JAMA Internal Medicine 03/2015; 175(5). DOI:10.1001/jamainternmed.2015.0153 · 13.25 Impact Factor
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    Mark J Bolland, Andrew Grey
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    ABSTRACT: Overlapping meta-analyses on the same topic are now very common, and discordant results often occur. To explore why discordant results arise, we examined a common topic for overlapping meta-analyses- vitamin D supplements and fracture. We identified 24 meta-analyses of vitamin D (with or without calcium) and fracture in a PubMed search in October 2013, and analysed a sample of 7 meta-analyses in the highest ranking general medicine journals. We used the AMSTAR tool to assess the quality of the meta-analyses, and compared their methodologies, analytic techniques and results. Applying the AMSTAR tool suggested the meta-analyses were generally of high quality. Despite this, there were important differences in trial selection, data extraction, and analytical methods that were only apparent after detailed assessment. 25 trials were included in at least one meta-analysis. Four meta-analyses included all eligible trials according to the stated inclusion and exclusion criteria, but the other 3 meta-analyses "missed" between 3 and 8 trials, and 2 meta-analyses included apparently ineligible trials. The relative risks used for individual trials differed between meta-analyses for total fracture in 10 of 15 trials, and for hip fracture in 6 of 12 trials, because of different outcome definitions and analytic approaches. The majority of differences (11/16) led to more favourable estimates of vitamin D efficacy compared to estimates derived from unadjusted intention-to-treat analyses using all randomised participants. The conclusions of the meta-analyses were discordant, ranging from strong statements that vitamin D prevents fractures to equally strong statements that vitamin D without calcium does not prevent fractures. Substantial differences in trial selection, outcome definition and analytic methods between overlapping meta-analyses led to discordant estimates of the efficacy of vitamin D for fracture prevention. Strategies for conducting and reporting overlapping meta-analyses are required, to improve their accuracy and transparency.
    PLoS ONE 12/2014; 9(12):e115934. DOI:10.1371/journal.pone.0115934 · 3.53 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Objective: This study investigated the impact of the social modeling of side effects following placebo medication ingestion on the nocebo and placebo effect. It also investigated whether medication branding (brand or generic labeling) moderated social modeling effects. Method: Eighty-two university students took part in the study which was purportedly investigating the impact of fast-acting beta-blocker medications (actually placebos) on preexamination anxiety. After taking the medication, participants were randomized to either witness a female confederate report experiencing side effects or no side effects after taking the same medication. Differences in symptom reporting, blood pressure, heart rate, and anxiety were assessed between the social modeling of side effects and no modeling groups. Results: Seeing a female confederate report side effects reduced the placebo effect in systolic (p = .009) and diastolic blood pressure (p = .033). Seeing a female confederate report side effects also increased both total reported symptoms (mean [SE] 7.35 [.54] vs. 5.16 [0.53] p = .005) and symptoms attributed to the medication (5.27 [0.60] vs. 3.04 [0.59] p = .01), although the effect on symptoms was only seen in female participants. Females who saw the confederate report side effects reported approximately twice the number of symptoms as those in the no modeling group. Social modeling did not affect heart rate or anxiety. Medication branding did not influence placebo or nocebo outcomes. Conclusions: The social modeling of symptoms can substantially reduce or eliminate the placebo effect. Viewing a female confederate display symptoms after taking the same medication increases symptom reporting in females. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2014 APA, all rights reserved).
    Health Psychology 12/2014; DOI:10.1037/hea0000199 · 3.95 Impact Factor
  • Andrew Grey
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    ABSTRACT: Type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) is a common chronic disease that may be associated with an increased risk of fracture. Evidence that thiazolidinediones (TZDs) increase fracture risk in women with T2DM has focused attention on the skeletal effects of treatments for diabetes. Only scant, low-quality evidence is available for non-TZD diabetes medications and bone health, but it suggests that there are no clinically important effects.
    Current Osteoporosis Reports 11/2014; 13(1). DOI:10.1007/s11914-014-0250-z
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    Vicky Tai, Andrew Grey, Mark J Bolland
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    ABSTRACT: Background The role of observational studies in informing clinical practice is debated, and high profile examples of discrepancies between the results of observational studies and randomised controlled trials (RCTs) have intensified that debate. We systematically reviewed findings from the Nurses’ Health Study (NHS), one of the longest and largest observational studies, to assess the number and strength of the associations reported and to determine if they have been confirmed in RCTs. Methods We reviewed NHS publication abstracts from 1978–2012, extracted information on associations tested, and graded the strength of the reported effect sizes. We searched PubMed for RCTs or systematic reviews for 3 health outcomes commonly reported in NHS publications: breast cancer, ischaemic heart disease (IHD) and osteoporosis. NHS results were compared with RCT results and deemed concordant when the difference in effect sizes between studies was ≤0.15. Findings 2007 associations between health outcomes and independent variables were reported in 1053 abstracts. 58.0% (1165/2007) were statistically significant, and 22.2% (445/2007) were neutral (no association). Among the statistically significant results that reported a numeric odds ratio (OR) or relative risk (RR), 70.5% (706/1002) reported a weak association (OR/RR 0.5–2.0), 24.5% (246/1002) a moderate association (OR/RR 0.25–0.5 or 2.0–4.0) and 5.0% (50/1002) a strong association (OR/RR ≤0.25 or ≥4.0). 19 associations reported in NHS publications for breast cancer, IHD and osteoporosis have been tested in RCTs, and the concordance between NHS and RCT results was low (≤25%). Conclusions NHS publications contain a large number of analyses, the majority of which reported statistically significant but weak associations. Few of these associations have been tested in RCTs, and where they have, the agreement between NHS results and RCTs is poor.
    PLoS ONE 10/2014; 9(10):e110403. DOI:10.1371/journal.pone.0110403 · 3.53 Impact Factor
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    Mark J Bolland, Andrew Grey
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    ABSTRACT: Recently, the European Medicines Agency reported that strontium ranelate increases myocardial infarction risk in postmenopausal women, 8.5 years after it was registered for use in osteoporosis. Unreported serious adverse events in clinical trials for other pharmaceuticals have been described in recent years. We assessed reporting of adverse events and fracture efficacy of strontium.
    BMJ Open 10/2014; 4(10):e005787. DOI:10.1136/bmjopen-2014-005787 · 2.06 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Bone density has been followed up for 20 months following completion of a trial which compared calcium 1,200 mg/day with placebo, in normal older men. Following cessation of calcium supplements, there is a small residual benefit in total body bone density, but not at the hip or spine. Calcium supplements, or supplements of calcium-rich foods, have a positive effect on bone mineral density (BMD). However, it is uncertain whether there are any residual benefits of calcium on BMD following cessation of supplementation. In a previously published study, 323 healthy men were randomized to receive elemental calcium 600 mg/day (n = 108), calcium 1,200 mg/day (n = 108), or placebo (n = 107) over 2 years. Consenting men from the placebo and calcium 1,200 mg/day groups (85 and 87, respectively) were followed over the next 1-2 years (mean 20 months), off trial medication. In the core trial, BMD increased at all sites by 1.0-1.5 % at 2 years in the group receiving calcium 1,200 mg/day, compared to the group receiving placebo. In post-trial follow-up, the calcium group has some residual benefit at the total body (0.41 % above placebo; P = 0.04) but there was no significant between-group differences at other sites. Following cessation of calcium supplements in healthy men, there is a small residual benefit in total body BMD, but not at the hip or spine. This is unlikely to confer a clinically significant dividend in terms of ongoing fracture prevention.
    Osteoporosis International 09/2014; 26(1). DOI:10.1007/s00198-014-2896-x · 4.17 Impact Factor
  • BMJ Clinical Research 09/2014; 349:g5523. DOI:10.1136/bmj.g5523 · 14.09 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The cardiovascular safety of calcium supplements has been revisited with a further meta-analysis,(1) which concludes that calcium supplementation does not increase coronary heart disease in women, without providing data for men. Their conclusion is at odds with that of our meta-analyses, which reported that calcium increased the risk of myocardial infarction (MI) and possibly stroke in men and women together.(2,3)There are important differences between approaches to the meta-analyses. In the current paper and previously, the authors suggest that including men and self-reported events may have explained the increased risk of MI from calcium. © 2014 American Society for Bone and Mineral Research
    Journal of bone and mineral research: the official journal of the American Society for Bone and Mineral Research 09/2014; 30(2). DOI:10.1002/jbmr.2357 · 6.59 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Summary Small studies have previously suggested that sarcoidosis may be associated with low bone mineral density. In this observational study of 64 patients with sarcoidosis, bone mineral density was within the normal range at baseline, and there was no evidence of accelerated bone loss over 1-2 years. Introduction Several small studies have suggested that sarcoidosis may be associated with low bone mineral density (BMD). Methods We undertook a cross-sectional study of BMD in 64 patients with sarcoidosis. Of these, 27 with 25-hydroxyvitamin D Results The mean age of participants was 58 years, 68 % were female, and 8 % were currently using oral glucocorticoids. At baseline, BMD for the entire cohort was greater than the expected values for the population at the lumbar spine (mean Z-score 0.7, P P P = 0.14) and total hip (0.2, P = 0.14). BMD did not change at any of these four sites (P > 0.19) over 2 years in the longitudinal study. In the intervention study, vitamin D supplements had no effect on BMD, and therefore we pooled the data from all participants. BMD did not change over 1 year at the spine, total hip, or femoral neck (P > 0.3), but decreased by 0.7 % (95 % confidence interval 0.3-1.1) at the total body (P = 0.019). Conclusions BMD was normal at baseline, and there was no consistent evidence of accelerated bone loss over 1-2 years, regardless of baseline vitamin D status. Patients with sarcoidosis not using oral glucocorticoids do not need routine monitoring of BMD.
    Osteoporosis International 08/2014; 26(2). DOI:10.1007/s00198-014-2870-7 · 4.17 Impact Factor
  • BMJ Clinical Research 08/2014; 349:g5019. DOI:10.1136/bmj.g5019 · 14.09 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Growth and differentiation of osteoblasts are often studied in cell cultures. In vivo, however, osteoblasts are embedded within a complex three-dimensional (3D) microenvironment, which bears little relation to standard culture flasks. Our study characterizes osteoblast-like cells cultured in 3D collagen gels and compares them with cells in two-dimensional (2D) cultures. Primary rat osteoblasts and MC3T3-E1 cells were seeded within type I collagen gels, and differentiation was determined by mineral staining and gene expression analysis. Cells growing in 3D gels showed positive mineral staining and induction of osteoblast marker genes earlier than cells growing in 2D. A number of genes, including osteocalcin, bone sialoprotein, alkaline phosphatase and dentin matrix protein 1, were already highly upregulated in 3D cultures 24 h after seeding. The early expression of osteoblast genes was dependent on the 3D structure and was not induced in cells growing on collagen-coated dishes in 2D. Comparison of thymidine incorporation between cells in 3D and 2D cultures treated with agents that induce proliferation-transforming growth factor β, platelet-derived growth factor and lactoferrin-showed a much greater response in 3D gels. Cells in 3D cultures were also much more sensitive to inhibition of proliferation by the protein kinase inhibitor imatinib mesylate. The 3D collagen gels better represent the physiological bone environment and offer a number of technical advantages for the study of osteoblasts in vitro. These studies have additional practical implications as 3D collagen gels are considered as a scaffold material in regenerative medicine for the repair of bone defects.
    08/2014; 3:560. DOI:10.1038/bonekey.2014.55
  • Mark J Bolland, Andrew Grey, Ian R Reid
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    ABSTRACT: Context: Overlapping meta-analyses on the same topic are common and often report discordant results. An Endocrine Society (ES) meta-analysis reported that vitamin D with calcium reduced the risk of falls, whereas vitamin D monotherapy had no effect. Despite meta-analysing an overlapping set of trials, we concluded that vitamin D with or without calcium had no effect on falls. Objective: To determine the reasons for the different conclusions from the 2 meta-analyses. Methods: We extracted raw data from the 25 randomised controlled trials included in the ES meta-analysis, calculated the treatment effect for each trial, compared them to the published ES meta-analysis, and determined the reason for any differences. Results: Of the 25 trials, there were differences in 14 results (56%) between the 2 meta-analyses. In the ES meta-analysis, data were used from a subset of falls or participants (4 trials), from trial completers (3 trials), or were imputed from fracture data (1 trial). Other differences resulted from use of adjusted results from original papers (2 trials), differences in incorporating data from multi-arm and factorial studies (3 trials), and inconsistent group numbers reported in original papers (2 trials). In a re-analysis of the ES meta-analysis using unadjusted analyses and all randomised participants, there was a marginal effect of vitamin D with or without calcium on falls (RR 0.95, 95%CI 0.90-1.00), with subgroup analysis showing no effect of vitamin D monotherapy (RR 1.00, 0.92-1.08), or vitamin D with calcium versus placebo/controls (RR 0.95, 0.88-1.02), but a modest effect of vitamin D with calcium versus calcium (RR 0.84, 0.76-0.92). Conclusions: Methodological differences in utilising data from the same trials directly led to substantially different conclusions between meta-analyses about the efficacy of vitamin D supplements on falls. More detailed reporting of meta-analyses is necessary to allow readers to understand discordant results from overlapping meta-analyses.
    Journal of Clinical Endocrinology &amp Metabolism 08/2014; DOI:10.1210/jc.2014-2562 · 6.31 Impact Factor
  • Mark J Bolland, Andrew Grey, Ian R Reid
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    ABSTRACT: Dr Bauer suggests that there is clinical equipoise regarding the use of calcium supplements and that more clinical trials are needed.((1)) We think both these views are questionable. Clinical equipoise implies uncertainty as to whether the benefits of calcium outweigh the risks. © 2014 American Society for Bone and Mineral Research.
    Journal of bone and mineral research: the official journal of the American Society for Bone and Mineral Research 08/2014; 29(8). DOI:10.1002/jbmr.2235 · 6.59 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Low 25-hydroxyvitamin D status has been associated with increased cardiovascular events in epidemiologic studies.OBJECTIVE: We assessed whether vitamin D supplementation reduces cardiac failure, myocardial infarction (MI), and stroke through an analysis of the Randomised Evaluation of Calcium Or vitamin D (RECORD) randomized controlled trial (RCT), a systematic review, and a meta-analysis.DESIGN: Two analyses were undertaken. The first analysis was a trial analysis. The RECORD was a factorial RCT that compared vitamin D3 (800 IU/d), calcium (1000 mg/d), vitamin D plus calcium, and a placebo. Cardiovascular events were collected throughout the trial and 3-y posttrial follow-up. Data were analyzed by using Cox regression. The second analysis was a systematic review. MEDLINE, EMBASE, CENTRAL, conference abstracts, and ongoing trials were searched for RCTs that evaluated vitamin D from 1980 to 2013. RCTs with ≥1 y of follow-up and participants mean or median age ≥60 y were included. Meta-analyses were based on a Bayesian fixed-effects model by using a complementary log-log link function to account for varying lengths of follow-up.RESULTS: In the trial analysis, we showed that, for the 5292 participants in the RECORD trial, HRs (95% CIs) for vitamin D compared with no vitamin D for cardiac failure, MI, and stroke were 0.75 (0.58, 0.97), 0.97 (0.75,1.26), and 1.06 (0.8, 1.32), respectively. Twenty-one studies met the inclusion criteria for the systematic review (n = 13,033). Estimated HRs [credible intervals (CrIs)] for vitamin D compared with the placebo or control for on-study events for cardiac failure, MI, and stroke were 0.82 (0.58, 1.15), 0.96 ( 0.83, 1.10), and 1.07 (0.91, 1.29), respectively.CONCLUSION: Vitamin D supplementation might protect against cardiac failure in older people but does not appear to protect against MI or stroke.
    American Journal of Clinical Nutrition 07/2014; 100(3). DOI:10.3945/ajcn.113.082602 · 6.92 Impact Factor
  • Mark J Bolland, Andrew Grey
    BMJ Clinical Research 07/2014; 349:g4452. DOI:10.1136/bmj.g4452 · 14.09 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Dietary supplement use is increasing despite lack of evidence of benefits, or evidence of harm. Press releases issued by the supplements industry might contribute to this situation by using 'spin' (strategies to hype or denigrate findings) to distort the results of clinical studies. We assessed press releases issued in response to publication of clinical studies on dietary supplements.
    PLoS ONE 07/2014; 9(7):e101533. DOI:10.1371/journal.pone.0101533 · 3.53 Impact Factor
  • 07/2014; 2(7):541. DOI:10.1016/S2213-8587(14)70127-5

Publication Stats

6k Citations
1,697.24 Total Impact Points


  • 1993–2015
    • University of Auckland
      • Department of Medicine
      Окленд, Auckland, New Zealand
  • 2014
    • University of Aberdeen
      • Health Services Research Unit
      Aberdeen, Scotland, United Kingdom
  • 2008
    • University of Western Sydney
      • Centre for Complementary Medicine Research (CompleMED)
      Penrith, New South Wales, Australia
  • 1993–2008
    • Auckland City Hospital
      Окленд, Auckland, New Zealand
  • 1997–1998
    • Yale-New Haven Hospital
      New Haven, Connecticut, United States