[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND: The use of cells derived from hiPSCs as cellular therapy for myocardial injury has yet to be examined in a large-animal model. METHODS AND RESULTS: Immuno-suppressed Yorkshire pigs were assigned to one of three groups; MI: distal LAD ligation and reperfusion (n=13), CELL: MI with 4x10(6) hiPSC-VCs administered via a fibrin patch (n=14), Normal (n=15). At 4 weeks, LV structural and functional abnormalities were less pronounced in CELL hearts than in MI hearts (p<0.05), and these improvements were accompanied by declines in scar size (10.4±1.6% vs. 8.3±1.1%; MI vs CELL, p<0.05). CELL was associated with significant increase of vascular density and blood flow (0.83±0.11 and 1.05±0.13 ml/min per g, MI vs. CELL, p<0.05) in the peri-scar border zone (BZ), which was accompanied by improvements in systolic thickening fractions (IZ: -10±7% vs. 5±5%; BZ: 7±4% vs. 23±6%; p<0.05). hiPSC-VC transplantation stimulated c-kit+ cell recruitment to BZ and the rate of bromodeoxyuridine incorporation in both c-kit+ cells and cardiomyocytes (p<0.05). Using a magnetic resonance spectroscopic saturation transfer technique, we found that the rate of ATP hydrolysis in BZ of MI hearts was severely reduced, the severity of this reduction was linearly related to the severity of the elevations of wall stresses (r=0.82, p<0.05). This decline in BZ ATP utilization was markedly attenuated in the CELL group. CONCLUSIONS: hiPSC-VC transplantation mobilized endogenous progenitor cells into the BZ, attenuated regional wall stress, stimulated neovascularization, and improved BZ perfusion, which in turn resulted in marked increases of BZ contractile function and ATP turnover rate.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Induced pluripotent stem (iPS) cells, are a type of pluripotent stem cell derived from adult somatic cells. They have been reprogrammed through inducing genes and factors to be pluripotent. iPS cells are similar to embryonic stem (ES) cells in many aspects. This review summarizes the recent progresses in iPS cell reprogramming and iPS cell based therapy, and describe patient specific iPS cells as a disease model at length in the light of the literature. This review also analyzes and discusses the problems and considerations of iPS cell therapy in the clinical perspective for the treatment of disease.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The mechanism by which endogenous progenitor cells contribute to functional and beneficial effects in stem cell therapy remains unknown.
Utilizing a novel (31)P magnetic resonance spectroscopy-2-dimensional chemical shift imaging method, this study examined the heterogeneity and bioenergetic consequences of postinfarction left ventricular (LV) remodeling and the mechanisms of endogenous progenitor cell contribution to the cellular therapy.
Human embryonic stem cell-derived vascular cells (hESC-VCs) that stably express green fluorescent protein and firefly luciferase (GFP(+)/Luc(+)) were used for the transplantation. hESC-VCs may release various cytokines to promote angiogenesis, prosurvival, and antiapoptotic effects. Both in vitro and in vivo experiments demonstrated that hESC-VCs effectively inhibit myocyte apoptosis. In the mouse model, a fibrin patch-based cell delivery resulted in a significantly better cell engraftment rate that was accompanied by a better ejection fraction. In the swine model of ischemia-reperfusion, the patch-enhanced delivery of hESC-VCs resulted in alleviation of abnormalities including border zone myocardial perfusion, contractile dysfunction, and LV wall stress. These results were also accompanied by a pronounced recruitment of endogenous c-kit(+) cells to the injury site. These improvements were directly associated with a remarkable improvement in myocardial energetics, as measured by a novel in vivo (31)P magnetic resonance spectroscopy-2-dimensional chemical shift imaging technology.
The findings of this study demonstrate that a severely abnormal heterogeneity of myocardial bioenergetics in hearts with postinfarction LV remodeling can be alleviated by the hESC-VCs therapy. These findings suggest an important therapeutic target of peri-scar border zone and a promising therapeutic potential for using hESC-VCs together with the fibrin patch-based delivery system.
Circulation Research 06/2012; 111(4):455-68. · 11.86 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The three-dimensional cardiac electrical imaging (3DCEI) technique was previously developed to estimate the initiation site(s) of cardiac activation and activation sequence from the noninvasively measured body surface potential maps (BSPMs). The aim of this study was to develop and evaluate the capability of 3DCEI in mapping the transmural distribution of extracellular potentials and localizing initiation sites of ventricular activation in an in vivo animal model. A control swine model (n = 10) was employed in this study. The heart-torso volume conductor model and the excitable heart model were constructed based on each animal's preoperative MR images and a priori known physiological knowledge. Body surface potential mapping and intracavitary noncontact mapping (NCM) were simultaneously conducted during acute ventricular pacing. The 3DCEI analysis was then applied on the recorded BSPMs. The estimated initiation sites were compared to the precise pacing sites; as a subset of the mapped transmural potentials by 3DCEI, the electrograms on the left ventricular endocardium were compared to the corresponding output of the NCM system. Over the 16 LV and 48 RV pacing studies, the averaged localization error was 6.1±2.3 mm, and the averaged correlation coefficient between the estimated endocardial electrograms by 3DCEI and from the NCM system was 0.62±0.09. The results demonstrate that the 3DCEI approach can well localize the sites of initiation of ectopic beats and can obtain physiologically reasonable transmural potentials in an in vivo setting during focal ectopic beats. This study suggests the feasibility of tomographic mapping of 3D ventricular electrograms from the body surface recordings.
IEEE transactions on medical imaging. 06/2012; 31(9):1777-85.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: In rodents, infarct size after ischemia/reperfusion exhibits a circadian dependence on the time of coronary occlusion. It is not known if a similar circadian dependence of infarct size occurs in humans.
To determine if humans exhibit a circadian dependence of infarct size in the setting of ST elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI).
A retrospective analysis of 1031 patients with STEMI referred for primary percutaneous coronary intervention with known ischemic times between 1 and 6 hours identified 165 patients with occluded arteries on presentation without evidence of preinfarction angina or collateral blood flow. Both ischemic duration and angiographic area at risk were not dependent on time of infarct onset. We observed that the extent of infarct size measured by creatine kinase release was significantly associated with time of day onset of infarction (P<0.0001). The greatest myocardial injury occurred at 1:00 am onset of ischemia and 5:00 am onset of reperfusion, with the peak creatine kinase measured at the peak of the curve being 82% higher than that recorded at the trough. Similarly, left ventricular ejection fraction measured within 2 days of infarction was also dependent on time of onset of STEMI with the absolute left ventricular ejection fraction at peak >7% higher than at trough (43% vs 51%; P<0.03). These findings were supported by a subgroup of patients (n = 45) who underwent cardiac MRI measurements of infarct size and area-at-risk measurements.
The results of this study demonstrate for the first time in humans that myocardial infarct size and left ventricular function after STEMI have a circadian dependence on the time of day onset of ischemia.
Circulation Research 11/2011; 110(1):105-10. · 11.86 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: It is unknown how to use human embryonic stem cell (hESC) to effectively treat hearts with postinfarction left ventricular (LV) remodeling. Using a porcine model of postinfarction LV remodeling, this study examined the functional improvement of enhanced delivery of combined transplantation of hESC-derived endothelial cells (ECs) and hESC-derived smooth muscle cells (SMCs) with a fibrin three-dimensional (3D) porous scaffold biomatrix. To facilitate tracking the transplanted cells, the hESCs were genetically modified to stably express green fluorescent protein and luciferase (GFP/Luc). Myocardial infarction (MI) was created by ligating the first diagonal coronary artery for 60 minutes followed by reperfusion. Two million each of GFP/Luc hESC-derived ECs and SMCs were seeded in the 3D porous biomatrix patch and applied to the region of ischemia/reperfusion for cell group (MI+P+C, n = 6), whereas biomatrix without cell (MI+P, n = 5), or saline only (MI, n = 5) were applied to control group hearts with same coronary artery ligation. Functional outcome (1 and 4 weeks follow-up) of stem cell transplantation was assessed by cardiac magnetic resonance imaging. The transplantation of hESC-derived vascular cells resulted in significant LV functional improvement. Significant engraftment of hESC-derived cells was confirmed by both in vivo and ex vivo bioluminescent imaging. The mechanism underlying the functional beneficial effects of cardiac progenitor transplantation is attributed to the increased neovascularization. These findings demonstrate a promising therapeutic potential of using these hESC-derived vascular cell types and the mode of patch delivery.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: We previously reported that the myocardial energetic state, as defined by the ratio of phosphocreatine to ATP (PCr/ATP), was preserved at baseline (BL) in a swine model of chronic myocardial ischemia with mild reduction of myocardial blood flow (MBF) 10 wk after the placement of an external constrictor on the left anterior descending coronary artery. It remains to be seen whether this stable energetic state is maintained at a longer-term follow-up. Hibernating myocardium (HB) was created in minipigs (n = 7) by the placement of an external constrictor (1.25 mm internal diameter) on the left anterior descending coronary artery. Function was assessed with MRI at regular intervals until 6 mo. At 6 mo, myocardial energetic in the HB was assessed by (31)P-magnetic resonance spectrometry and myocardial oxygenation was examined from the deoxymyoglobin signal using (1)H-magnetic resonance spectrometry during BL, coronary vasodilation with adenosine, and high cardiac workload with dopamine and dobutamine (DpDb). MBF was measured with radiolabeled microspheres. At BL, systolic thickening fraction was significantly lower in the HB compared with remote region (34.4 ± 9.4 vs. 50.1 ± 10.7, P = 0.006). This was associated with a decreased MBF in the HB compared with the remote region (0.73 ± 0.08 vs. 0.97 ± 0.07 ml · min(-1) · g, P = 0.03). The HB PCr/ATP at BL was normal. DpDb resulted in a significant increase in rate pressure product, which caused a twofold increase in MBF in the HB and a threefold increase in the remote region. The systolic thickening fraction increased with DpDb, which was significantly higher in the remote region than HB (P < 0.05). The high cardiac workload was associated with a significant reduction in the HB PCr/ATP (P < 0.02), but this response was similar to normal myocardium. Thus HB has stable BL myocardial energetic despite the reduction MBF and regional left ventricular function. More importantly, HB has a reduced contractile reserve but has a similar energetic response to high cardiac workload like normal myocardium.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The study examined the long-term outcome of cardiac stem cell transplantation in hearts with postinfarction left ventricular (LV) remodeling. Myocardial infarction (MI) was created by ligating the first and second diagonal branches of the left anterior descending coronary artery in miniature swine. Intramyocardial injections of 50 million LacZ-labeled bone marrow-derived multipotent progenitor cells (MPC) were performed in the periscar region (Cell, n = 7) immediately after MI, whereas, in control animals (Cont, n = 7), saline was injected. Functional outcome was assessed monthly for 4 mo with MRI and (31)P-magnetic resonance spectroscopy. Engraftment was studied on histology, and gene chip (Affymetrix) array analysis was used to study differential expression of genes in the two groups. MPC treatment resulted in improvement of ejection fraction as early as 10 days after MI (Cell, 43.4 +/- 5.1% vs. Cont, 32.2 +/- 5.5%; P < 0.05). This improvement was seen each month and persisted to 4 mo (Cell, 51.2 +/- 4.8% vs. Cont, 35.7 +/- 5.0%; P < 0.05). PCr-to-ATP ratio (PCr/ATP) improved with MPC transplantation, which was most pronounced at high cardiac work states (subendocardial PCr/ATP was 1.70 +/- 0.10 vs. 1.34 +/- 0.14, P < 0.05). There was no significant difference in scar size (scar/LV area * 100) at 10 days postinfarction. However, at 4 mo, there was a significant decrease in scar size in the Cell group (Cell, 4.6 +/- 1.0% vs. Cont, 8.6 +/- 2.4%; P < 0.05). No significant engraftment of MPC was observed. MPC transplantation was associated with a downregulation of mitochondrial oxidative enzymes and increased levels of myocyte enhancer factor 2a and zinc finger protein 91. In conclusion, MPC transplantation leads to long-term functional and bioenergetic improvement in a porcine model of postinfarction LV remodeling, despite no significant engraftment of stem cells in the heart. MPC transplantation reduces regional wall stresses and infarct size and mitigates the adverse effects of LV remodeling, as seen by a reduction in LV hypertrophy and LV dilatation, and is associated with differential expression of genes relating to metabolism and apoptosis.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: To measure carotid plaque components using MRI and estimate reliability in the population-based Atherosclerosis Risk in Communities (ARIC) study.
Contrast-enhanced high-resolution (0.51 x 0.58 x 2 mm(3)) MRI images were acquired through internal (ICA) and common carotid arteries (CCA) of 2066 ARIC participants at four sites. Sixty-one exams were repeated and 164 pairs had repeated interpretations. Plaque component thicknesses, areas and volumes over eight slices (1.6-cm segment) were measured. Intraplaque hemorrhage was recorded. Reliability was evaluated by intraclass correlations and kappa statistics.
There were 1769 successful MRI exams (mean age 71 years; 57% females; 81% white; 19% African-Americans). Repeat scan reliability was highest for CCA lumen area (0.94) and maximum wall thickness (0.89), ICA lumen area (0.89) and maximum wall thickness (0.77) and total wall volume (0.79), and lowest for small structures-core volume (0.30) and mean cap thickness (0.38). Overall reliability was primarily related to reader variability rather than scan acquisition. K's for presence of core, calcification and hemorrhage were fair to good. White men had the thickest plaques (average maximum ICA wall thickness = 2.3 mm) and the most cores (34%).
The most important limiting factor for MRI measurements of plaque components is reader variability. Measurement error depends largely on the analyzed structure's size.
Journal of Magnetic Resonance Imaging 02/2010; 31(2):406-15. · 2.57 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Using a swine model of postinfarction left ventricle (LV) remodeling, we investigated marrow-derived, multipotent progenitor cell (MPC) transplantation into hearts with acute myocardial infarction (AMI) via a novel transarterial catheter.
The left anterior descending coronary artery was balloon-occluded after percutaneous transluminal angiography to generate AMI (60-minute no-flow ischemia). The transarterial catheter was then placed in the same coronary artery, and either 50x10(6) MPCs (cell group, n=6) or saline (control, n=6) was injected into the border zone (BZ) myocardium. LV function was assessed by magnetic resonance imaging before AMI and at 1 and 4 weeks after AMI, whereas myocardial energy metabolism was assessed by (31)P-magnetic resonance spectroscopy at week 4. One week after AMI, the ejection fraction was significantly reduced in both groups from a baseline of approximately 50% to 31.3+/-3.9% (cell group) and 33.3+/-3.1% (control). However, at week 4, the cell group had a significant recovery in ejection fraction. The functional improvements were accompanied by a significant improvement in myocardial bioenergetics. Histologic data demonstrated a 0.55% cell engraftment rate 4 weeks after MPC transplantation. Only 2% of engrafted cells were costaining positive for cardiogenic markers. Vascular density in the BZ was increased in the cell group. Conditioned medium from cultured MPCs contained high levels of vascular endothelial growth factor, which was increased in response to hypoxia. MPCs cocultured with cardiomyocytes inhibited changes in cardiomyocyte mitochondrial membrane potential and cytochrome c release induced by tumor necrosis factor-alpha.
Thus, a paracrine effect may contribute significantly to the observed therapeutic effects of MPC transplantation.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The helical arrangement of cardiac myofibers is responsible for equalizing myofiber strain and maximizing the ejection fraction in a normal heart. In one form of chronic heart failure (CHF) known as dilated cardiomyopathy (DCM), the heart dilates, wall stress is increased, and ventricular pump function is reduced. We investigated whether myofiber orientation is altered in DCM by quantifying fiber orientation in excised human hearts using diffusion tensor MRI. Normal hearts (n=4) and failing hearts (n=4) were imaged in the plane of the cardiac short-axis at the base and mid-ventricular levels. There was a shift in the distribution of fiber inclination angles in the CHF hearts to a more oblique orientation at both the base and mid-ventricular levels. These preliminary results provide information about remodeling of the myocardial architecture in heart failure.
Proceedings of the 2009 IEEE International Symposium on Biomedical Imaging: From Nano to Macro, Boston, MA, USA, June 28 - July 1, 2009; 01/2009
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: This study utilized porcine models of postinfarction left ventricular (LV) remodeling [myocardial infarction (MI); n = 8] and concentric LV hypertrophy secondary to aortic banding (AoB; n = 8) to examine the relationships between regional myocardial contractile function (tagged MRI), wall stress (MRI and LV pressure), and bioenergetics ((31)P-magnetic resonance spectroscopy). Physiological assessments were conducted at a 4-wk time point after MI or AoB surgery. Comparisons were made with size-matched normal animals (normal; n = 8). Both MI and AoB instigated significant LV hypertrophy. Ejection fraction was not significantly altered in the AoB group, but significantly decreased in the MI group (P < 0.01 vs. normal and AoB). Systolic and diastolic wall stresses were approximately two times greater than normal in the infarct region and border zone. Wall stress in the AoB group was not significantly different from that in normal hearts. The infarct border zone demonstrated profound bioenergetic abnormalities, especially in the subendocardium, where the ratio of PCr/ATP decreased from 1.98 +/- 0.16 (normal) to 1.06 +/- 0.30 (MI; P < 0.01). The systolic radial thickening fraction and the circumferential shortening fraction in the anterior wall were severely reduced (MI, P < 0.01 vs. normal). The radial thickening fraction and circumferential shortening fraction in the AoB group were not significantly different from normal. The severely elevated wall stress in the infarct border zone was associated with a significant increase in chemical energy demand and abnormal myocardial energy metabolism. Such severe metabolic perturbations cannot support normal cardiac function, which may explain the observed regional contractile abnormalities in the infarct border zone.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Skeletal myoblast transplantation has been proposed as a therapy for ischemic cardiomyopathy owing to its possible role in myogenesis. The relative safety and efficacy based on location within scar is not known. We hypothesized that skeletal myoblasts transplanted into peripheral scar (compared with central scar) would more effectively attenuate negative left ventricular (LV) remodeling but at the risk of arrhythmia.
New Zealand White rabbits (n = 34) underwent mid-left anterior descending artery (LAD) ligation to produce a transmural LV infarction. One month after LAD ligation, skeletal myoblasts were injected either in the scar center (n = 13) or scar periphery (n = 10) and compared with saline injection (n = 11). Holter monitoring and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) was performed pre-injection; Holter monitoring was continued until 2 weeks after injection, with follow-up MRI at 1 month.
The centrally treated animals demonstrated increased LV end-systolic volume, end-diastolic volume, and mass that correlated with the number of injected cells. There was a trend toward attenuation of negative LV remodeling in peripherally treated animals compared with vehicle. Significant late ectopy was seen in several centrally injected animals, with no late ectopy seen in peripherally injected animals.
We noted untoward effects with respect to negative LV remodeling after central injection, suggesting that transplanted cell location with respect to scar may be a key factor in the safety and efficacy of skeletal myoblast cardiac transplantation. Administration of skeletal myoblasts into peripheral scar appears safe, with a trend toward improved function in comparison with sham injection.
The Journal of heart and lung transplantation: the official publication of the International Society for Heart Transplantation 02/2008; 27(1):116-23. · 3.54 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: A noninvasive three-dimensional (3D) cardiac electrical imaging (3DCEI) approach, which can estimate the location of the initiation site (IS) of activation and the resultant 3D activation sequence (AS) from body surface potential maps (BSPMs), was validated in an intact large mammalian model (swine) during acute ventricular pacing. Body surface potential mapping and intracavitary noncontact mapping (NCM) were performed simultaneously during pacing from both right ventricular (RV) sites (intramural) and left ventricular (LV) sites (endocardial). Subsequent 3DCEI analyses were performed on the measured BSPMs. In total, 5 RV and 5 LV sites from control and heart failure animals were paced. The averaged localization error of the RV and LV sites were 7.0+/-1.1 mm and 6.6+/-1.9 mm, respectively. The endocardial ASs as a subset of the estimated 3D ASs by 3DCEI were consistent with those reconstructed from the NCM system. The present experimental results demonstrate that the noninvasive 3DCEI approach can localize the initiation site and estimate cardiac activation sequence with good accuracy in an in vivo setting, under control, paced and/or diseased conditions.
Conference proceedings: ... Annual International Conference of the IEEE Engineering in Medicine and Biology Society. IEEE Engineering in Medicine and Biology Society. Conference 02/2008; 2008:4544-7.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Preclinical and clinical studies have demonstrated that stem cell transplantation can improve the left ventricular (LV) contractile performance, yet the underlying mechanisms remain unknown. We examined whether mesenchymal stem cell (MSC) transplantation-induced beneficial effects are secondary to paracrine-associated improvements in LV contractile performance, wall stress, and myocardial bioenergetics in hearts with postinfarction LV remodeling. Myocardial contractile function and bioenergetics were compared 4 wk after acute myocardial infarction in normal pigs (n = 6), untreated pigs with myocardial infarction (MI group; n = 6), and pigs receiving autologous MSC transplantation (MI + MSC group; n = 5). A distal occlusion of the left anterior descending coronary artery instigated significant myocardial hypertrophy. Ejection fraction decreased from 55.3 +/- 3.1% (normal) to 30.4 +/- 2.3% (MI group; P < 0.01) and to 45.4 +/- 3.1% (MI + MSC group; P < 0.01 vs. MI). Hearts in the MI group developed severe contractile dyskinesis in the infarct zone and border zone (BZ). MSC transplantation significantly improved contractile performance from dyskinesis to active contraction (P < 0.01 vs. MI). BZ systolic wall stress was severely increased in MI hearts but significantly improved after MSC transplantation (P < 0.01 vs. MI). The BZ demonstrated profound bioenergetic abnormalities in MI pigs; this was significantly improved after MSC transplantation (P < 0.01 vs. MI). Patchy spared myocytes were found in the infarct zone of hearts receiving MSC transplantation but not in control hearts. These data demonstrate that MSC transplantation into the BZ causes significant improvements in myocardial contractile performance and reduction in wall stress, which ultimately results in significant bioenergetic improvements. Low cell engraftment indicates that MSCs did not provide a structural contribution to the damaged heart and that the observed beneficial effects likely resulted from paracrine repair mechanisms.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The present study examined whether transplantation of adherent bone marrow-derived stem cells, termed pMultistem, induces neovascularization and cardiomyocyte regeneration that stabilizes bioenergetic and contractile function in the infarct zone and border zone (BZ) after coronary artery occlusion.
Permanent left anterior descending artery occlusion in swine caused left ventricular remodeling with a decrease of ejection fraction from 55+/-5.6% to 30+/-5.4% (magnetic resonance imaging). Four weeks after left anterior descending artery occlusion, BZ myocardium demonstrated profound bioenergetic abnormalities, with a marked decrease in subendocardial phosphocreatine/ATP (31P magnetic resonance spectroscopy; 1.06+/-0.30 in infarcted hearts [n=9] versus 1.90+/-0.15 in normal hearts [n=8; P<0.01]). This abnormality was significantly improved by transplantation of allogeneic pMultistem cells (subendocardial phosphocreatine/ATP to 1.34+/-0.29; n=7; P<0.05). The BZ protein expression of creatine kinase-mt and creatine kinase-m isoforms was significantly reduced in infarcted hearts but recovered significantly in response to cell transplantation. MRI demonstrated that the infarct zone systolic thickening fraction improved significantly from systolic "bulging" in untreated animals with myocardial infarction to active thickening (19.7+/-9.8%, P<0.01), whereas the left ventricular ejection fraction improved to 42.0+/-6.5% (P<0.05 versus myocardial infarction). Only 0.35+/-0.05% donor cells could be detected 4 weeks after left anterior descending artery ligation, independent of cell transplantation with or without immunosuppression with cyclosporine A (with cyclosporine A, n=6; no cyclosporine A, n=7). The fraction of grafted cells that acquired an endothelial or cardiomyocyte phenotype was 3% and approximately 2%, respectively. Patchy spared myocytes in the infarct zone were found only in pMultistem transplanted hearts. Vascular density was significantly higher in both BZ and infarct zone of cell-treated hearts than in untreated myocardial infarction hearts (P<0.05).
Thus, allogeneic pMultistem improved BZ energetics, regional contractile performance, and global left ventricular ejection fraction. These improvements may have resulted from paracrine effects that include increased vascular density in the BZ and spared myocytes in the infarct zone.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Regions of myocardial infarct (MI) are surrounded by a border zone (BZ) of normally perfused but dysfunctional myocardium. Although systolic dysfunction has been attributed to elevated wall stress in this region, there is evidence that intrinsic abnormalities of contractile performance exist in BZ myocardium. This study examined whether decreases of high-energy phosphates (HEP) and mitochondrial F(1)F(0)-ATPase (mtATPase) subunits typical of failing myocardium exist in BZ myocardium of compensated postinfarct remodeled hearts. Eight pigs were studied 6 wk after MI was produced by ligation of the left anterior descending coronary artery (LAD) distal to the second diagonal. Animals developed compensated LV remodeling with a decrease of ejection fraction from 54.6 +/- 5.4% to 31 +/- 2.1% (MRI) 5 wk after LAD occlusion. The remote zone (RZ) myocardium demonstrated modest decreases of ATP and mtATPase components. In contrast, BZ myocardium demonstrated profound abnormalities with ATP levels decreased to 42% of normal, and phosphocreatine-to-ATP ratio ((31)P-magnetic resonance spectroscopy) decreased from 2.06 +/- 0.19 in normal hearts to 1.07 +/- 0.10, with decreases in alpha-, beta-, OSCP, and IF(1) subunits of mtATPase, especially in the subendocardium. The reduction of myocardial creatine kinase isoform protein expression was also more severe in the BZ relative to the RZ myocardium. These abnormalities were independent of a change in mitochondrial content because the mitochondrial citrate synthase protein level was not different between the BZ and RZ. This regional heterogeneity of ATP content and expression of key enzymes in ATP production suggests that energetic insufficiency in the peri-infarct region may contribute to the transition from compensated LV remodeling to congestive heart failure.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: In this article, we propose a semiautomatic method for time-continuous contour detection in all phases of the cardiac cycle in magnetic resonance sequences. The method is based on multidimensional dynamic programming. After shape parameterization, cost hypercubes are filled with image-feature derived cost function values. Using multidimensional dynamic programming, an optimal path is sought through the sequence of hypercubes. Constraints can be imposed by setting limits to the parameter changes between subsequent hypercubes. Quantitative evaluation was performed on 20 subjects. Average border positioning error over all slices, all phases and all studies, was 1.77 +/- 0.57 mm for epicardial and 1.86 +/- 0.59 mm for endocardial contours. The average error in end-diastolic and end-systolic volumes over all studies was small: 4.24 +/- 4.62 mL and -4.36 +/- 4.26 mL, respectively. The average error in ejection fraction was 4.82 +/- 3.01%. The reported results compare favorable to the best-reported results in recent literature, underlining the potential of this method for application in daily clinical practice.