[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: To evaluate the effects of inorganic mercury (InHg) and methylmercury (MeHg) on bone metabolism in a marine teleost, the activity of tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase (TRAP) and alkaline phosphatase (ALP) as indicators of such activity in osteoclasts and osteoblasts, respectively, were examined in scales of nibbler fish (Girella punctata). We found several lines of scales with nearly the same TRAP and ALP activity levels. Using these scales, we evaluated the influence of InHg and MeHg. TRAP activity in the scales treated with InHg (10(-5) and 10(-4) M) and MeHg (10(-6) to 10(-4) M) during 6 hrs of incubation decreased significantly. In contrast, ALP activity decreased after exposure to InHg (10(-5) and 10(-4) M) and MeHg (10(-6) to 10(-4) M) for 18 and 36 hrs, although its activity did not change after 6 hrs of incubation. As in enzyme activity 6 hrs after incubation, mRNA expression of TRAP (osteoclastic marker) decreased significantly with InHg and MeHg treatment, while that of collagen (osteoblastic marker) did not change significantly. At 6 hrs after incubation, the mRNA expression of metallothionein, which is a metal-binding protein in osteoblasts, was significantly increased following treatment with InHg or MeHg, suggesting that it may be involved in the protection of osteoblasts against mercury exposure up to 6 hrs after incubation. To our knowledge, this is the first report of the effects of mercury on osteoclasts and osteoblasts using marine teleost scale as a model system of bone.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Atmospheric particles were collected in several cities in Japan (Sapporo, Sagamihara, Kanazawa, and Kitakyushu), Korea (Busan), and China (Beijing) using a high-volume air sampler equipped with a quartz fiber filter. The summer and winter samples were analyzed using gas chromatography-high-resolution mass spectrometry for Dechlorane Plus (DP). Decabromodiphenyl ether (BDE-209) was also analyzed for the samples from Kanazawa and Beijing. DP was detected in all samples. The mean total DP (ΣDP) concentration was highest (6.7 pg/m(3)) and lowest (0.87 pg/m(3)) in the winter samples from Sagamihara and Busan, respectively. The seasonal variation of DP concentrations varied by sampling site in this study. BDE-209 was detected in all the analyzed samples except for one of the Kanazawa winter samples. BDE-209 concentration was considerably higher in Beijing than in Kanazawa. Significant correlations were found between the concentrations of ΣDP and BDE-209 in the winter samples from Kanazawa and in both summer and winter samples from Beijing. This similarity in the atmospheric behavior of DP and BDE-209, especially in winter, is assumed to reflect a common end usage and release mechanism.
Environmental Science and Pollution Research 04/2014; · 2.76 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: We recently demonstrated that prostaglandin E, (PG,) increases osteoclastic activity and induces bone
resorptionin both in vitro and in vivo experiments using goldfish. In the fish reproductive period, the
plasma calcium 〔Ca)level in female teleosts increases remarkably to make vitellogenin,which is a major
component of egg protein and a Ca-binding protein. In this period, however, there is no reported relationship
between PGE, and Ca metabolism in fish. To clarify the Ca metabolism in fish reproduction, we examined
plasma PGE2 and Ca levels and measured tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase (TRAP〕activitiesas an
indicator of osteoclastic activity in goldfish. Plasma PGE, levels in the reproductive stage significantly
increased as compared with those in non-reproductive stages. Also, both plasma Ca and TRAP increased in
the reproductive stage. Significant positive correlations were recognized between plasma Ca and the gonad
somatic index (r=0.81, pく0.001〕， plasmaCa and plasma PGE2 levels （γ＝0.635,pく0.05),and plasma Ca and plasma TRAP activities （γ＝0.584, pく0.05)from the analysis using samples of both reproductive and nonreproductive stages. Taking these data into consideration, we suggested that PGE2 acts on osteoclasts and increases plasma Ca as a result of osteoclastic bone resorption, and we concluded that PGE2 is an important hormone in Ca metabolism during fish reproduction.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon quinones (PAHQs) are components in airborne particulate matter (PM) and generate reactive oxygen species (ROS) in a redox cycling process. 9,10-Phenanthrenequinone (9,10-PQ) is a PAHQ found in diesel exhaust particulates and PM. When inhaled, it produces much more ROS than other PAHQs. We hypothesized that urinary metabolites of 9,10-PQ could serve as biomarkers of PAHQ exposure. Here, we describe methods for pretreating urine samples and analyzing 9,10-PQ metabolites by liquid chromatography with tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS). In urine from rats intraperitoneally injected with 9,10-PQ, the monoglucuronide of 9,10-dihydroxyphenanthrene (9,10-PQHG) was found to be a major metabolite of 9,10-PQ. 9,10-PQHG was also identified in the urine of a nonoccupationally exposed human by its retention time and MS/MS spectra. Furthermore, the urine contained hardly any free (unmetabolized) 9,10-PQ, but treating it with hydrolytic enzymes released 9,10-PQ from conjugated metabolites such as 9,10-PQHG. The concentrations of 9,10-PQHG in urine samples from nonoccupationally exposed subjects who lived in a suburban area were 2.04-19.08 nmol/mol creatinine. This study is the first to demonstrate the presence of 9,10-PQHG in human urine. Determination of urinary 9,10-PQHG should be useful for determining 9,10-PQ exposure.
Chemical Research in Toxicology 01/2014; 27(1):76-85. · 3.67 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Fumonisin A-series (FAs) in a reference material of corn sample that was naturally contaminated with fumonisins was characterized using high-resolution liquid chromatography-Orbitrap mass spectrometry (LC-Orbitap MS). Peaks for fumonisin B1 (FB1), fumonisin B2 (FB2), and fumonisin B3 (FB3), in addition to three peaks corresponding to unknown compounds I, II, and III, were detected in the chromatogram for the corn sample. Fragment ion analysis for FB1, FB2, and FB3 showed that while the ions formed at m/z values of 200-800 were similar to those formed by the cleavage of the tricarballylic acids and the hydroxyl groups, the fragmentation patterns at m/z values of 50-200 varied depending on the hydroxyl group locations in the compounds. Fragment ion analysis of compounds I-III revealed structural similarities to FBs, only differing by an additional C2H2O in the unknown compounds. Using these results and by comparing the product ion mass spectra of compound I with fumonisin A1 (FA1) synthesized from FB1 standards, compounds I-III were hypothesized to be N-acetyl analogs of FBs: fumonisins A1 (FA1), A2 (FA2), and A3 (FA3). The method for determining concentrations was validated with FA1, FB1, FB2, and FB3 standards and applied to analyze the reference material. The FB1, FB2, and FB3 analytical levels were within acceptance limits and the amount of FA1 in the material was ~15% of FB1 amount at 4.2 mg/kg.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: This study estimates atmospheric concentrations of chlorinated polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (ClPAHs) and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in East Asia using a Gas Chromatograph with High Resolution Mass Spectrometer (GC-HRMS). ClPAHs are ubiquitously generated from PAHs through substitution, and some ClPAHs show higher aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR)-mediated activities than their parent PAHs. Atmospheric particles were collected using a high-volume air sampler equipped with a quartz-fiber filter. We determined the ClPAH concentrations of atmospheric particles collected in Japan (Sapporo, Sagamihara, Kanazawa, and Kitakyushu), Korea (Busan), and China (Beijing). The concentrations of ClPAHs were highest in the winter Beijing sample, where the total mean concentration was approximately 15–70 times higher than in the winter samples from Japan and Korea. The concentrations of Σ19ClPAHs and Σ9PAHs were significantly correlated in the Kanazawa and the Busan samples. This indicates that within those cities ClPAHs and PAHs share the same origin, implying direct chlorination of parent PAHs. Toxic equivalent concentrations (TEQs) of the total ClPAHs and PAHs were lowest in Kanazawa in the summer, reaching 1.18 and 2610 fg-TEQ m−3 respectively, and highest in Beijing in the winter, reaching 627 and 4 240 000 fg-TEQ m−3 respectively.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Airborne particulates were collected at a background site (Wajima Air Monitoring Station; WAMS) on the Noto Peninsula, Japan from January 2006 to December 2007. 1-, 2-nitropyrenes (1-, 2-NPs) and 2-nitrofluoranthene (2-NFR), in the particulates were determined with a sensitive HPLC method with chemiluminescence detection. The average concentrations were higher in winter than in summer. A meteorological analysis indicated that the air samples collected in winter were transported mainly from Northeast China over the Japan Sea. Both the concentration ratios of 2-NFR to 1-NP and 1-NP to pyrene were similar to those in Shenyang in Northeast China which located along the air transportation route to WAMS, but not in Kanazawa which near WAMS. These results strongly suggest that most of the atmospheric 1-, 2-NPs and 2-NFR at WAMS in winter were long range transported from Northeast China.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: This study estimated daily exposure to Dechlorane Plus (DP) and polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDE) via inhalation and diet. Samples of atmospheric particles and food (obtained by market basket method) from Osaka, Japan were analyzed for DP (syn-, anti-) and PBDE using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. DP was detected in both atmospheric particles and food samples. Among the atmospheric particles, DP was detected in all samples. ΣDP concentration was 7.1-15.4pgm(-3) and anti-DP was the dominant residue among DP isomers. PBDE was also detected in all the atmospheric particles. ΣPBDE concentration was 9.9-23.3pgm(-3). In the market basket study, DP was detected in Groups Ш (sugar and confectionary), V (legumes and their products), X (fish, shellfish, and their products), and XI (meat and eggs) at concentrations of 3.3, 2.8, 1.9, and 1.5pgg(-1) wet wt, respectively. PBDE was detected in Groups Ш, IV (oils and fats), V, X, XI, and XШ (seasonings and other processed foods) at concentrations of 153, 79.1, 74.6, 308, 94.8, and 186pgg(-1) wet wt, respectively. The daily intake of ΣDP (750pgday(-1)) via inhalation and diet was approximately one percent of that for ΣPBDE (62ngday(-1)).
Ecotoxicology and Environmental Safety 11/2013; · 2.20 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: We analyzed the source-receptor relationships for particulate polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) concentrations in northeastern Asia using an aerosol chemical transport model. The model successfully simulated the observed concentrations. In Beijing (China) benzo[a]pyren (BaP) concentrations are due to emissions from its own domain. In Noto, Oki and Tsushima (Japan), transboundary transport from northern China (>40°N, 40-60%) and central China (30-40°N, 10-40%) largely influences BaP concentrations from winter to spring, whereas the relative contribution from central China is dominant (90%) in Hedo. In the summer, the contribution from Japanese domestic sources increases (40-80%) at the 4 sites. Contributions from Japan and Russia are additional source of BaP over the northwestern Pacific Ocean in summer. The contribution rates for the concentrations from each domain are different among PAH species depending on their particulate phase oxidation rates. Reaction with O3 on particulate surfaces may be an important component of the PAH oxidation processes.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: A convenient HPLC method for the quantitative determination of EDTA in foods was developed. EDTA in food samples was easily extracted with water by ultrasonication. After converting to Fe(III) complex in the presence of Fe(III) ions, EDTA was separated on a reversed-phase C30 column and detected with ultraviolet detection (260nm). Citrate and malate, which are present in many foods, also formed Fe(III) complexes but they did not interfere the chromatographic detection of EDTA. The method allowed determination of EDTA in foods at concentrations as low as 0.01mmol/kg. Good recoveries (95.2-101%) were obtained by the standard addition method on four samples with high repeatability (RSD, 0.8-3.4%). The method was successfully applied to the analysis of EDTA in carbonated drinks, jellies, canned beans, canned corn and food supplements.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: 1,3-Dialkylimidazolium-based ionic liquids were chemically synthesized and bonded on the surface of magnetic nanoparticles (MNPs) with easy one-step reaction. The obtained six kinds of ionic liquid modified MNPs were characterized with transmission electron microscopy, thermogravimetric analysis, magnetization, and FTIR, which owned the high adsorption capacity due to the nanometer size and high-density modification with ionic liquids. Functionality of MNPs with ionic liquids greatly influenced the solubility of the MNPs with organic solvents depending on the alkyl chain length and the anions of the ionic liquids. Moreover, the obtained MNPs showed the specific extraction efficiency to organic pollutant, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, while superparamagnetic property of the MNPs facilitated the convenient separation of MNPs from the bulks water samples.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Zebrafish scales consist of bone-forming osteoblasts, bone-resorbing osteoclasts, and calcified bone matrix. To elucidate the underlying molecular mechanism of the effects induced by dynamic and static acceleration, we investigated the scale osteoblast- and osteoclast-specific marker gene expression involving osteoblast-osteoclast communication molecules. Osteoblasts express RANKL, which binds to the osteoclast surface receptor, RANK, and stimulates bone resorption. OPG, on the other hand, is secreted by osteoblast as a decoy receptor for RANKL, prevents RANKL from binding to RANK and thus prevents bone resorption. Therefore, the RANK-RANKL-OPG pathway contributes to the regulation of osteoclastogenesis by osteoblasts. Semaphorin 4D, in contrast, is expressed on osteoclasts, and binding to its receptor Plexin-B1 on osteoblasts results in suppression of bone formation. In the present study, we found that both dynamic and static acceleration at 3.0 × g decreased RANKL/OPG ratio and increased osteoblast-specific functional mRNA such as alkaline phosphatase, while static acceleration increased and dynamic acceleration decreased osteoclast-specific mRNA such as cathepsin K. Static acceleration increased semaphorin 4D mRNA expression, while dynamic acceleration had no effect. The results of the present study indicated that osteoclasts have predominant control over bone metabolism via semaphorin 4D expression induced by static acceleration at 3.0 × g.
Comparative biochemistry and physiology. Part A, Molecular & integrative physiology 04/2013; · 2.20 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Cigarette smoking is a major established environmental risk factor for rheumatoid arthritis (RA), and synoviocyte-derived proinflammatory cytokines are implicated in the pathogenesis of RA. We have reported that aryl hydrocarbon or cigarette smoke condensate (CSC) is able to upregulate the production of proinflammatory cytokines from an RA patient-derived synovial fibroblast cell line MH7A. In this study, we compared the effect of CSC on induction of interleukin-1β (IL-1β) from RA or osteoarthritis (OA) patient-derived synovial fibroblasts, and studied the mechanism of the effect of CSC. CSC induced IL-1β mRNA from RA patient-derived synoviocytes and MH7A, but not from OA patient-derived synoviocytes. CSC induced the mRNA and both precursor and mature forms of IL-1β, and caspase-1 activity in MH7A. The mechanism of CSC-induced IL-1β mRNA expression was investigated in MH7A. Reporter gene analyses and promoter pull-down assay indicated that 3 novel NF-κB sites at -3771 to -3762 bp, -3105 to -3096 bp, and -2787 to -2778 bp in the promoter region of the IL-1β gene, especially the far distal NF-κB site and NF-κB activation, are critical for the gene activation by CSC. CSC-induced NF-κB activation, IL-1β promoter activity, IL-1β mRNA upregulation, and CYP1A1 mRNA induction were all inhibited by an aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR) antagonist α-naphthoflavone. These results indicate that CSC induced IL-1β production from RA patient-derived synoviocytes, but not OA patient-derived synoviocytes, through AhR-dependent NF-κB activation and novel NF-κB sites.
Journal of interferon & cytokine research: the official journal of the International Society for Interferon and Cytokine Research 03/2013; · 1.63 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Fish scales are a form of calcified tissue similar to that found in human bone. In medaka scales, we detected both osteoblasts and osteoclasts and subsequently developed a new scale assay system. Using this system, we analyzed the osteoblastic and osteoclastic responses under 2-, 3-, and 4-gravity (G) loading by both centrifugation and vibration. After loading for 10 min, the scales from centrifugal and vibration loading were incubated for 6 and 24 hrs, respectively, after which the osteoblastic and osteoclastic activities were measured. Osteoblastic activity significantly increased under 2- to 4-G loading by both centrifugation and vibration. In contrast, we found that osteoclastic activity significantly decreased under 2- and 3-G loading in response to both centrifugation and vibration. Under 4-G loading, osteoclastic activity also decreased on centrifugation, but significantly increased under 4-G loading by vibration, concomitant with markedly increased osteoblastic activity. Expression of the receptor activator of the NF-κB ligand (RANKL), an activation factor of osteoclasts expressed in osteoblasts, increased significantly under 4-G loading by vibration but was unchanged by centrifugal loading. A protein sequence similar to osteoprotegerin (OPG), which is known as an osteoclastogenesis inhibitory factor, was found in medaka using our sequence analysis. The ratio of RANKL/OPG-like mRNAs in the vibration-loaded scales was significantly higher than that in the control scales, although there was no difference between centrifugal loaded scales and the control scales. Accordingly, medaka scales provide a useful model by which to analyze bone metabolism in response to physical strain.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The content of α-hydroxy acids and their enantiomers can be used to distinguish authentic and adulterated fruit juices. Here, we investigated the use of ligand exchange capillary electrophoresis (CE) with two kinds of central metal ion in a background electrolyte for the simultaneous determination of enantiomers of DL-malic, DL-tartaric and DL-isocitric acids and citric acid. Ligand exchange CE with 100 mM D-quinic acid as a chiral selector ligand and 10 mM Cu(II) ion as a central metal ion could enantioseparate DL-tartaric acid but not DL-malic acid or DL-isocitric acid. Addition of 1.8 mM Sc(III) ion to the background electrolyte with 10 mM Cu(II) ion to create a dual central metal ion system permitted the simultaneous determination of these α-hydroxy acid enantiomers and citric acid. The proposed ligand exchange CE was thus well suited for detecting adulteration of fruit juices.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: We determined eleven PAHs and four NPAHs in particulates and regulated pollutants (CO, CO(2), HC, NO(x), PM) exhausted from motorcycles to figure out the characteristics of motorcycle exhausts. Fluoranthene and pyrene accounted for more than 50% of the total detected PAHs. Among four detected NPAHs, 6-nitrochrysene and 7-nitrobenz[a]anthracene were the predominant NPAHs and were highly correlated relationship with their parent PAHs (R = 0.93 and 0.97, respectively). The PM and HC emissions tended to be close to the PAH emissions. NO(x) and NPAHs were negatively correlated. Despite their small engine size, motorcycles emitted much more PM and PAHs, showed stronger PAH-related carcinogenicity and indirect-acting mutagenicity, but weaker NPAH-related direct-acting mutagenic potency than automobiles. This is the first study to analyze both PAHs and NPAHs emitted by motorcycles, which could provide useful information to design the emission regulations and standards for motorcycles such as PM.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) are included in various environmental pollutants such as airborne particles and have been reported to induce a variety of toxic effects. On the other hand, PAH derivatives are generated from PAHs both through chemical reaction in the atmosphere and metabolism in the body.PAH derivatives have become known for their specific toxicities such as estrogenic/antiestrogenic activities and oxidative stress, and correlations between the toxicities and structures of PAH derivatives have been shown in recent studies. These studies are indispensable for demonstrating the health effects of PAH derivatives, since they would contribute to the comprehensive toxicity prediction of many kinds of PAH derivatives.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: A new method for the analysis of selected nitropolycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (NPAHs) at ultra-trace levels in water samples is proposed. Particulate NPAHs were collected on a GC glass fiber filter. Soluble NPAHs were collected on a C18 Empore disk. After simple clean-up and concentration of NPAHs in both phases, the NPAHs were analyzed using HPLC equipped with clean-up, reducer, concentration and chemiluminescence detection units. The proposed method showed good linear calibration curves with correlation coefficients (r(2)) ranging from 0.9954 to 0.9998. The limits of detection ranged from 0.013 to 0.15 nmol/L (soluble NPAHs) and from 0.01 to 0.13 nmol/L (particulate NPAHs) for 5 NPAHs [(9-nitroanthracene, 1-nitropyrene, 6-nitrochrysene (6-NC), 7-nitrobenz[a]anthracene and 6-nitrobenzo[a]pyrene] having 3 to 5 rings analyzed, when 1.5 L of water sample was used. The repeatability for soluble NPAHs ranged between 4.2 and 6.8% (n=5), while for particulate NPAHs, it varied between 2.2 and 2.8% (n=5). The proposed method successfully determined the above NPAHs expect 6-NC in river water samples, suggesting that this method is suitable for the ultra-trace analysis of NPAHs in water samples.
Chemical & pharmaceutical bulletin 01/2013; 61(12):1269-74. · 1.70 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: To analyze the effect of polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) 118 on fish bone metabolism, we examined osteoclastic and osteoblastic activities, as well as plasma calcium levels, in the scales of PCB (118)-injected goldfish. In addition, effect of PCB (118) on osteoclasts and osteoblasts was investigated in vitro. Immature goldfish, in which the endogenous effects of sex steroids are negligible, were used. PCB (118) was solubilized in dimethyl sulfoxide at a concentration of 10 ppm. At 1 and 2 days after PCB (118) injection (100 ng/g body weight), both osteoclastic and osteoblastic activities, and plasma calcium levels were measured. In an in vitro study, then, both osteoclastic and osteoblastic activities as well as each marker mRNA expression were examined. At 2 days, scale osteoclastic activity in PCB (118)-injected goldfish increased significantly, while osteoblastic activity did not change significantly. Corresponding to osteoclastic activity, plasma calcium levels increased significantly at 2 days after PCB (118) administration. Osteoclastic activation also occurred in the marker enzyme activities and mRNA expressions in vitro. Thus, we conclude that PCB (118) disrupts bone metabolism in goldfish both in vivo and in vitro experiments.
Environmental Science and Pollution Research 12/2012; · 2.76 Impact Factor