N Yoshimura

Kyoto Prefectural University of Medicine, Kioto, Kyōto, Japan

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Publications (186)264.84 Total impact

  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Background Mizoribine (MZR) has been developed as an immunosuppressive agent in Japan, but has a less potent immunosuppressive effect up to 3 mg/kg/d. We previously reported that high-dose MZR, at 6 mg/kg/d, would be effective and safe for ABO-incompatible(ABO-i) living donor kidney transplantation (LDKT) patients when combined with cyclosporine (CsA) or tacrolimus(FK), anti-CD20 and anti-CD25 monoclonal antibodies, and corticosteroid without splenectomy in a 1-year study. Therefore, we observed these patients for 3 years. Methods From 2007 to 2010, we encountered 24 cases of ABO-i LDKT using anti-CD20 and anti-CD25 monoclonal antibodies without splenectomy. The pretransplantation immunosuppressive regimen consisted of two doses of anti-CD20 antibody, mycophenolate mofetil (MMF, 25 mg/kg/d), prednisolone, calcineurin inhibitor (CNI; CsA 7 mg/kg or (FK 0.2 mg/kg) and two doses of anti-CD25 antibody. Antibody removal by plasmapheresis was performed before LDKT up to several times according to the antibody titer. The post-transplantation regimen consisted of high-dose MZR (6 mg/kg/d) instead of MMF (MZR group, N = 12) . Results The 3-year graft survival rates for the MZR and MMF groups were 91.7% and 100%, respectively. Serum creatinine levels for the MZR and MMF groups were 1.44 mg/dL and 1.31 mg/dL at 1 year, 1.55 mg/dL and 1.41 mg/dL at 2 years, and 1.51 mg/dL and 1.48 mg/dL at 3 years, respectively (not significant [NS]). The MZR group did not show a higher rate of elevated serum uric acid values. The percentage of patients who were administered anti-uric medication was 42.5% (5/12) in the MZR group and 50% (6/12) in the MMF group (P = NS) at the third year. Severe infection, such as cytomegalovirus, herpes zoster, was not observed at the second and third years in both groups. Conclusion A high-dose MZR regimen including CNI (CsA or FK), steroid, and anti-CD20 and anti-CD25 antibodies without splenectomy was effective and safe in ABO-i renal transplantation.
    Transplantation Proceedings 01/2014; 46(2):391–394. · 0.95 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: In Japan, diabetic nephropathy accounted for 16,225 (43.7%) of the 38,473 patients who began hemodialysis in 2010 and the number increases year by year. In 1991, we started a kidney transplantation program for patients with diabetic nephropathy in our institution, and the ratio of patients who underwent kidney transplantation for diabetic nephropathy traces the course of increase. Among the 516 patients who underwent primary kidney transplantation in our institution from January 1991 to February 2013, we divided them into 2 groups. One group was the diabetes mellitus (DM) group, which included patients with primary disease of diabetic nephropathy, and the other group was the non-DM group. The DM group included 50 patients, and in our institution the ratio traces the course to increase. There was no significant difference for the 1-year and 5-year patient survival rates and graft survival rates between the DM group and the non-DM group. Moreover, the rate of acute rejection in the 2 groups was not significantly different. Furthermore, when we investigated the causes of death in the 2 groups, there was no significant difference with the mortality of cases due to heart vascular disease in the DM group and the non-DM group. Also, no case in which the graft lost function due to recurrence of diabetic nephropathy was observed. Although the early outcome of kidney transplantation for diabetic nephropathy in our institution did not have inferiority in comparison with kidney transplantation for the other primary disease, we think that careful diabetic control after kidney transplantation is required for long-term outcome.
    Transplantation Proceedings 01/2014; 46(2):464–466. · 0.95 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Background Due to the shortage of deceased donor kidneys, we have expanded the indications for living-donor kidney transplantation (LKT) including ABO-incompatible (ABO-i) donors in Japan. In this study, the utility of protocol biopsies was discussed in ABO-i LKT. Methods Protocol biopsies have been performed on kidney graft 1 hour, 3 weeks, and 1 year after LKT in our institution. The relationship between biopsies and clinical courses was considered retrospectively in 38 cases of ABO-i LKT. The immunosuppressive regimen consisted of anti-CD20 antibody, mycophenolate mofetil, prednisolone, calcineurin inhibitor (cyclosporine or tacrolimus), and anti-CD25 antibody. Anti-ABO blood type antibody removal by plasmapheresis was performed before LKT up to 32 times. The post-transplantation regimen consisted of mycophenolate mofetil or mizoribine as an antimetabolite. Results Episode biopsies have been performed in 6 cases within 3 weeks post-transplantation. Each pathological diagnosis was as follows: antibody-mediated rejection (AMR; 5 cases) and calcineurin inhibitor (CNI) nephrotoxicity (1 case). Subclinical chronic active AMR was found at 1 year post-transplantation follow-up biopsies in 4 of the 6 cases. Episode biopsies have been done in the other 6 cases from 1 month to 1 year post-transplantation. Each pathological diagnosis was as follows: acute T-cell–mediated rejection (TMR; 1 case), vesicoureteral reflux (VUR; 3 cases), CNI nephrotoxicity (2 cases), and VUR + CNI nephrotoxicity (1 case). AMR was also not found at 1 year post-transplantation follow-up biopsies in them. In all cases episode biopsies were performed based on pathological diagnosis and had no graft dysfunction after that. Conclusions Pathological study revealed that acute AMR was found early (ie, within 3 weeks) following transplantation. Although appropriate treatment made AMR go into remission once, chronic active AMR was often found at 1-year follow-up biopsies.
    Transplantation Proceedings 01/2014; 46(2):385–387. · 0.95 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND: Mizoribine (MZR) at 3 mg/kg/d shows less potent immunosuppressive effects, but high-dose MZR (6 mg/kg/d) was effective and safe in a 2-year study in conjunction with a regimen of cyclosporine (CsA), basiliximab, and corticosteroids. METHODS: We compared 40 living-related kidney recipients administered MZR (6 mg/kg/d), CsA (7 mg/kg/d), prednisolone (maintenance dose 10 mg/d), and basiliximab (20 mg/body) with control group (n = 38) treated with CsA, mycophenolate mofetil (MMF; 25 mg/kg/d), basiliximab, and corticosteroids. RESULTS: The 4-year graft survival rates for the MZR vs MMF groups were 92.5% vs 94.7%, respectively, with serum creatinine levels of 1.66 ± 1.0 mg/dL vs 1.41 ± 0.42 mg/dL at 3 years, and 1.72 ± 1.16 mg/dL vs 1.56 ± 1.26 mg/dL at 4 years. There was no significant difference in serum creatinine levels between the 2 groups. The MZR group demonstrated a significantly higher rate of elevated serum uric acid values (29.7%). The numbers of patients treated with allopurinol at 4 years were 11/37 (29.7%) for MZR vs 2/36 (5.6%) for the MMF subjects (P < .05). Mean serum uric acid levels of the MZR vs MMF group at 4 years were 7.1 ± 1.9 mg/dL vs 7.0 ± 1.6 mg/dL, respectively (NS). There was no significant difference between the 2 groups regarding bone marrow suppression or liver dysfunction. Severe cytomegalovirus infection was not observed at 3 and 4 years in either group. There were no severe gastrointestinal symptoms among the MZR or the MMF group at 3 or 4 years. CONCLUSIONS: The combination of high-dose MZR with CsA, basiliximab, and corticosteroids displayed excellent results over a 4-year follow-up.
    Transplantation Proceedings 05/2013; 45(4):1472-1475. · 0.95 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Tumor vascular invasion is one of the worst factors of metastasis and/or recurrence in hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) patients after living donor liver transplantation (LDLT), leading to poor outcomes. We investigated the relevance between preoperative parameters and histological vascular invasion among HCC patients who underwent LDLT. We enrolled 27 HCC patients who underwent LDLT from September 2003 to February 2011 in our hospital. Their primary diseases were hepatitis C (n=16) hepatitis B (n=9), primary biliary cirrhosis (n=1), and cryptogenic liver cirrhosis (n=1). The 2 groups were positive (N=7) versus negative (N=20) histological vascular invasion. We compared the greatest size and numbers of tumors from preoperative enhanced computerized axial tomography (CAT) scans, preoperative serum levels of alpha-fetoprotein (AFP) and protein induced by vitamin K absence or antagonist-II (PIVKA-II), as well as preoperative anticancer therapy. The preoperative greatest average diameter and numbers of tumor were 2.99 cm and 2.43, respectively, among positive patients, and 1.93 cm and 1.3, respectively, among patients with negative vascular invasion. The mean values of AFP and PIVKA-II were 3568.7 ng/mL and 2511.7 mAU/mL, respectively, among positive patients, and 812.8 ng/mL and 134.8 mAU/mL, respectively, among patients with negative vascular invasion. Five positive and 11 negative patients received preoperative anticancer therapy. Even if the tumor was within Milan criteria, namely, maximum size 3 cm and number of tumors 3, preoperative treatment may be a preoperative predictive factor for positive histological vascular invasion.
    Transplantation Proceedings 03/2012; 44(2):409-11. · 0.95 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Mizoribine (MZR) has been developed as an immunosuppressive agent in Japan, but it shows less potent immunosuppressive effects at doses up to 3 mg/kg/d. In this study, we investigated whether high-dose MZR (6 mg/kg/d) was effective for ABO-incompatible (ABO-i) living donor kidney transplantation (LKT) using treatment with anti-CD25 and anti-CD20 monoclonal antibodies without splenectomy. Since 2007, we encountered 24 cases of ABO-i LKT using anti-CD20 and anti-CD25 monoclonal antibody without splenectomy. The pretransplant immunosuppressive regimen consisted of two doses of anti-CD20 antibody, mycophenolate mofetil (MMF), prednisolone, a calcineurin inhibitor (cyclosporine [7 mg/kg] or tacrolimus [0.2 mg/kg] and two doses of anti-CD25 antibody. Antibody removal by plasmapheresis was performed before LKT up to several times according to the antibody titer. The posttransplant regimen consisted of high-dose mizoribine (6 mg/kg/d) instead of MMF (MZR group, n = 12). The 1-year graft survival rates for the MZR and MMF groups were both 100%. The rejection rate in the MZR group (eight %) was not significantly higher than that in the MMF group (seventeen %) Serum creatinine level was not significantly different between the two groups. In the MZR group 6 (50%) patients developed CMV antigenemia-positivity versus 11 (92%) in the MMF group (P < .05). The number of patients who developed CMV disease was 0 in the MZR group and 1 (8%) in the MMF group. The number of patients treated with ganciclovir was 0% and 8%, respectively (not significant). We obtain good clinical results with high-dose MZR in ABO-i LKT using anti-CD20 and anti-CD25 antibody treatment without splenectomy.
    Transplantation Proceedings 01/2012; 44(1):140-3. · 0.95 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: We performed a multicenter study in Japan to assess the efficacy and safety of immunosuppressive therapy with high-dose mizoribine (MZR; 6 mg/kg) combined with basiliximab (Bas), cyclosporine (CyA), and a corticosteroid in 90 patients. MZR was adjusted to maintain a target trough level of 1 to 2 μg/mL. CyA was started at 7 mg/kg to maintain blood levels in the target therapeutic range of 200 ng/mL (trough [C0]), 1200 ng/mL (2-hour post-dose [C2]), and 6000 ng·h/mL (area under the curve(0-9)). Bas (20 mg/body weight) was administered on the day of transplantation and on postoperative day 4. Rejection was diagnosed by episode and protocol biopsies. Cytomegalovirus (CMV) antigenemia (direct immunological staining of leukocytes using peroxidase-labeled monoclonal antibody [C7-HRP]) levels were measured every 2 weeks for 6 months. At 12 months, all patients and grafts were surviving except for one death from infection: the 1-year patient and graft survival rate was 98.9%. The acute rejection rate was 21.1%. The mean serum creatinine level at 1 year was 1.51 ± 0.61 mg/dL. The incidence of CMV disease was 0% with 28.9%, CMV antigenemia and 5.6%, ganoyclovir treatment. The incidence of BK virus disease was 2.2%. The mean serum uric acid level was 7.15 ± 1.79 mg/dL at 1 month and 7.06 ± 1.78 mg/dL at 3 months. We observed that a high-dose MZR regimen in combination with CyA, Bas, and corticosteroid was safe and effective to reduce the frequency of CMV and BK virus-related events in renal transplant recipients.
    Transplantation Proceedings 01/2012; 44(1):147-9. · 0.95 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Due to the shortage of deceased donors, we have expanded the indications for living-donor kidney transplantation (LKT) to include ABO-incompatible (ABO-i) individuals. However, which patients with high-titer anti-blood-group antibody can be transplanted successfully is unclear. Since 2009 we have performed 2 high-titer ABO-i spousal LKT using anti-CD20 and anti-CD25 monoclonal antibody without splenectomy. In both cases, anti-type A antibody was 2048-fold before antibody removal. The immunosuppressive regimen consisted of 2 doses of anti-CD20 antibody (200 mg/body, day -14 to day -7), mycophenolate mofetil (1000 mg), prednisolone (10 mg starting from day -14), calcineurin inhibitor (cyclosporine [7 mg/kg] or tacrolimus [0.2 mg/kg] starting from day -7), and 2 doses of anti-CD25 antibody (20 mg/body, days 0 and 4). Antibody removal by plasmapheresis was performed up to 4 times before LKT according to the antibody titer. The posttransplantation regimen consisted of mycophenolate mofetil or mizoribine as antimetabolite. A protocol biopsy was performed at 1 month and 1 year after LKT. The 60- and 62-year-old men had renal graft transplantation performed in the right hemipelvis without complication. After LKT, urinary output and serum creatinine decrease were within acceptable ranges without evidence of an acute rejection episode for 12 and 7 months, respectively. Patient and graft survival rates were 100%. A protocol biopsy at 1 month after LKT showed additional treatment to be unnecessary. Serious viral infection was not seen, even in the 1 patient who temporarily experienced positive changes in cytomegalovirus antigenemia. We obtained good clinical results among 2 high-titer ABO-i LKT using anti-CD20 and anti-CD25 antibodies without splenectomy, in conjunction with a calcineurin inhibitor plus mycophenolate mofetil or mizoribine.
    Transplantation Proceedings 01/2011; 43(6):2379-82. · 0.95 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: In Japan, amyloidosis is a rare cause of renal failure and of renal transplantation. We treated a patient who underwent a renal transplantation because of chronic renal failure caused by secondary amyloidosis with a good result. The patient was a 50-year-old woman who was diagnosed with secondary amyloidosis and an amyloid kidney. She underwent living donor renal transplantation after about 7 years of hemodialysis. During the 3-year posttransplantation period, she maintained good allograft function with a serum creatinine level about 1.2 mg/dL. Because of amyloidosis is a systemic disease, amyloid kidney patients often experience fatal complications, so the indications for renal transplantation in amyloid patients are still controversial. But if the patient's general condition is good, renal transplantation can be an effective therapy for patients with kidney failure caused by amyloidosis.
    Transplantation Proceedings 01/2011; 43(6):2418-20. · 0.95 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: A 60-year-old male patient with an unknown cause for cirrhosis and a hepatoma underwent an ABO incompatible living donor liver transplantation (LDLT) from his son. The transplanted graft was his son's right lobe. For ABO incompatible transplantation, splenectomy was performed for desensitization. A catheter was inserted into the recipient's right hepatic artery for subsequent local immunosuppression. On the 15th postoperative day, a fusiform 15 × 10 mm aneurysm was observed in the graft right hepatic artery using ultrasonography and hepatic arteriography. At that time, the patient was also diagnosed to have an intraperitoneal abscess at the bottom of his left diaphragm. Administering antibiotics, we tried to embolize the aneurysm because of fear of rupture, but this manever failed because it was difficult to insert the wire in to the aneurysm to produce a stenosis around its proximal neck. However, because the aneurysm was not detectable on the 37th postoperative day, it was assumed to have embolized spontaneously. This relatively rare case revealed a hepatic artery aneurysm that spontaneously regressed after ABO incompatible LDLT.
    Transplantation Proceedings 01/2011; 43(6):2424-7. · 0.95 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Renal transplant recipients are thought to have an increased risk of hyperuricaemia (HU); therefore, the effects of plasma uric acid (UA) on the pharmacokinetics (PK) of cyclosporine A (CyA), an immunosuppressant, in renal transplant recipients and experimental animals were investigated. An open-label, non-randomized, retrospective study was performed in renal transplant recipients. Data from 76 subjects who received a renal transplantation with CyA medication were included. We compared the PK of CyA of recipients showing a high UA level with the other recipients. In addition, PK studies were performed using hyperuricaemic-model rats (HU rats) prepared by subcutaneous injection of the uricase inhibitor, potassium oxonate and intraperitoneal injection of UA. The area under the blood concentration vs. time curve (AUC) up to 9 h, the blood level at 2 h after dose and peak level in high UA recipients (UA > 7.0 mg/dL) was significantly lower (about 10-16%) than that in the other recipients, although there were no differences in dose, and the trough blood level. On the contrary, there were no differences in PK parameters after intravenous administration of CyA between HU and control rats; however, AUC, peak level and bioavailability in HU rats (2.01 ± 0.56 μg h/mL, 0.47 ± 0.26 μg/mL and 0.186 ± 0.05, respectively) after oral administration were significantly lower than in the control animals (6.13 ± 0.97 μg h/mL, 0.82 ± 0.17 μg/mL and 0.458 ± 0.07 μg/mL, respectively). In addition, the absorptions of CyA and midazolam, an ideal probe for CYP3A, from the intestinal loop in HU rats were significantly less (about 50% and 37%, respectively) than in the controls. The absorption of CyA was affected by plasma UA in transplant recipients and experimental rats. The contribution of intestinal metabolism by CYP3A to decreasing CyA absorption in HU rats was significant. These results suggest that transplant recipients with high UA may have poor absorption of CyA.
    Journal of Clinical Pharmacy and Therapeutics 06/2010; 35(3):323-32. · 2.10 Impact Factor
  • Transplantation 01/2010; 90. · 3.78 Impact Factor
  • Transplantation 01/2010; 90. · 3.78 Impact Factor
  • Transplantation 01/2010; 90. · 3.78 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Marginally appropriate donors may be considered to extend the donor criteria for renal transplantation because of the donor shortage. We have reported a successful outcome after kidney transplantation from a living-related donor diagnosed with membranous nephropathy. A 38-year-old man began continuous ambulatory peritoneal dialysis (CAPD) at the age of 37. His 63-year-old father showed mild proteinuria, diagnosed as membranous nephropathy by needle biopsy. However, the father had normal renal function on preoperative examination, except for mild proteinuria. After adequate informed consent, we transplanted a kidney from the father who was diagnosed with membranous nephropathy into his son using a cyclosporine (CsA)-based immunosuppressive regimen. The postoperative course was good in both the recipient and the donor without rejection or infection. At 57 months after transplantation, the serum creatinine level was 1.7 mg/dL in the recipient and 1.2 mg/dL in the donor. An allograft needle biopsy at 39 months after transplantation showed mild spike formation with partial thickening of the glomerular basement membrane (GBM). Electron microscopy showed decreased electron-dense deposits and electron-lucent washout lesions with thickening of the GBM. This was diagnosed as stage IV membranous nephropathy, resulting from clearance of immune complexes and histological repair of the GBM. For the present donor, graft donation did not affect his residual renal function. Preexisting membranous nephropathy itself may show remission after transplantation into the recipient to achieve successful results, however, long-term careful observation of both the donor and recipient is required.
    Transplantation Proceedings 01/2009; 41(1):446-9. · 0.95 Impact Factor
  • NDT Plus 01/2009; 2(5):398-400.
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    ABSTRACT: Biliary complications are one of the most important problems in liver transplantation. Regardless of various improvements of surgical technique, liver transplantation is associated with significant biliary problems. In this article, we have described a biliary anastomosis method with a continuous suture (CS) technique in the posterior wall and interrupted suture (IS) technique for the anterior wall. We performed this biliary reconstruction in 28 adult patients between September 2003 and August 2007. Prior to that time our procedure was a CS anastomosis for both the anterior and posterior walls. A 5-Fr catheter is inserted into the biliary system. The current biliary complication was 3 cases (13.0%) of stenosis at the anastomosis, which is lower than that for a CS anastomosis. This anastomosis reduced biliary complications and is simple.
    Transplantation Proceedings 11/2008; 40(8):2537-8. · 0.95 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Even with substantial progress in the management of patients with glycogen storage disease type Ia (GSD-Ia), hepatic and renal complications may still develop during long-term follow-up. Herein, we report a case of preemptive living donor liver transplantation in a patient with GSD-Ia. PATIENT: The patient was a 5-year-old boy in whom GSD-Ia was diagnosed at age 10 months. Clinical symptoms included frequent hypoglycemic episodes, hyperlipidemia, hyperuricemia, and growth retardation, which were poorly controlled using conventional treatments. At age 5 years, frequent massive nasal bleeds developed, which led to severe anemia. The patient was brought to our institute for living donor liver transplantation (LDLT). Because GSD-Ia usually responds to dietary and medical treatments, we had a long discussion to determine whether preemptive LDLT was indicated. Transplantation was performed using the left lateral liver segment from the patients mother. The weight of his native liver was almost 2 kg. After reperfusion of the graft, the blood glucose concentration rapidly increased, and regular glucose was administered throughout the operation. The posttransplantation course was uneventful. The patient had no episodes of hypoglycemia with a regular diet. Total cholesterol, triglyceride, and uric acid concentrations also reverted to normal without medication. The patient had a few episodes of nasal bleeding after transplantation, which stopped spontaneously. He was discharged from our hospital with normal liver function. CONCLUSION: Patients with GSD-Ia should be considered for preemptive LDLT to improve their quality of life when clinical symptoms do not respond to appropriate treatment.
    Transplantation Proceedings 11/2008; 40(8):2815-7. · 0.95 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Patients surviving more than 10 years on hemodialysis (HD) are at risk of developing serious morbidity from unrelated conditions and from the many complications of long-term dialysis, such as cardiovascular disease, cerebrovascular disease, malignant tumors ectopic vascular calcification, diabetes mellitus, and disuse atrophy of the bladder. Long-term dialysis affects transplant patient outcomes and long-term graft survival. We analyzed 436 patients who underwent kidney transplantations between January 1987 and December 2007 to determine the impact of long-term dialysis on kidney transplant outcomes. The 39 patients who had been treated pretransplantation with dialysis for more than 10 years had an average length of dialysis treatment of 15.8 years (range, 10.0-32.5 years); they were denoted as the long-term hemodialysis group. The remaining 397 recipients showed an average of 3.7 years period of end-stage renal disease (ESRD) (range, 0-9.8, years; short-term hemodialysis group). There were significant differences in patient survival rates between the 2 groups: 93.2% vs 98.6%, at 1 year; 79.3% vs 95.4% at 5 years; and 58.4% vs 93.1% at 10 years (P = .0034). Also, graft survival was significantly different between the 2 groups: 89.2% vs 95.8% at 1 year; 60.4% vs 88.5% at 5 years; and 33.4% vs 80.4% at 10 years (P = .0026). Our results suggest that dialysis treatment for more than 10 years produces negative effects on post-transplantation patient and graft survival.
    Transplantation Proceedings 10/2008; 40(7):2297-8. · 0.95 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: In coping with the shortage of deceased kidney donors, living donor kidney transplantation is mainly performed in Japan. We started our living unrelated spousal kidney transplantation program in 1989. In this analysis, we compared the results of 64 spousal transplantations performed between September 1989 and May 2007 with those of living related and deceased donor grafts. Despite the older age of the recipients and the lower HLA matching, the graft survival rates of spousal transplants were as good as those from living related donors and better than those from deceased donors, (P < .01). The graft survival rate of spousal kidney transplantation is improving with advances in immunosuppression, so spouses are considered important donors in Japan, which lacks deceased donors.
    Transplantation Proceedings 10/2008; 40(7):2118-20. · 0.95 Impact Factor

Publication Stats

1k Citations
264.84 Total Impact Points


  • 1988–2014
    • Kyoto Prefectural University of Medicine
      • • Division of Transplantation and General Surgery
      • • Graduate School of Medical Science
      • • Department of Surgery
      Kioto, Kyōto, Japan
  • 2012
    • Hyogo Prefectural Amagasaki Hospital
      Amagasaki, Hyōgo, Japan
  • 2008
    • Kobe City Medical Center General Hospital
      Kōbe, Hyōgo, Japan
  • 2006
    • Kyoto Prefectural University
      Kioto, Kyōto, Japan
  • 2005
    • Niigata University
      • Division of Urology
      Niahi-niigata, Niigata, Japan
    • Kyushu University
      • Department of Surgery and Oncology
      Fukuoka-shi, Fukuoka-ken, Japan
  • 2001
    • Tokyo Women's Medical University
      • Kidney Center
      Edo, Tōkyō, Japan
  • 1998–1999
    • Kyoto University
      • Graduate School of Pharmaceutical Sciences / Faculty of Pharmaceutical Sciences
      Kyoto, Kyoto-fu, Japan
    • Nara Hospital
      Ikuma, Nara, Japan
  • 1993
    • Fujitsu Ltd.
      Kawasaki Si, Kanagawa, Japan