[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND: Benznidazole (Bz)-chemotherapy is recommended to prevent Chagas disease progression, despite its limited efficacy during chronic disease. However, the host mechanisms underlying these benefits still remain to be elucidated. METHODS: In this study, we have used short-term whole blood cultures to describe the cytokine profile of Bz-treated Indeterminate Chagas disease patients-(INDt) as compared to untreated patients-(IND). RESULTS: Our findings showed that IND presented increased levels of IL-10+neutrophils, IL-12+ and IL-10+monocytes and IFN-gamma +NK-cells. Moreover, IND showed slight increase of IL- 4+CD4+T-cells and enhanced levels of IL-10+CD8+T-cells and B-cells. Additional analysis of cytokine Low and High producers also highlighted the presence of High cytokine producers within IND, including IL-10 from CD4+ T-cells and IFN-gamma from CD8+ T-cells, as compared to NI. The Bz-treatment lead to an overall cytokine down-regulation in the innate and adaptive compartments, including low levels of IL-12+ and IL-10+neutrophils and monocytes, IFN-gamma +NK-cells, IL-12+, TNF-alpha +, IFN-gamma + and IL-5+CD4+T-cells and IL-10+B-cells, along with basal levels of cytokine-expressing CD8+T-cells in INDt as compared to IND. The in vitro antigen stimulation shifted the cytokine profile toward a type 1-modulated profile, with increased levels of IL-12+ and IL-10+ monocytes, IFN-gamma + and IL-4+NK-cells along with TNF- alpha + and IFN-gamma +CD8+T-cells. Analysis of Low and High cytokine producers, upon in vitro antigen stimulation, further confirm these data. CONCLUSION: Together, our findings showed that the Bz treatment of Indeterminate Chagas' disease patients shifts the cytokine patterns of peripheral blood monocytes, NK-cells and CD8+ Tcells towards a long-lasting Type-1-modulated profile that could be important to the maintenance of a non-deleterious immunological microenvironment.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The distinct ability of phagocytes to present antigens, produce cytokines and provide co-stimulatory signals may contribute to the severity of the outcome of Chagas disease. In this paper, we evaluate the phenotypic features of phagocytes along with the cytokine signature of circulating T-cells from Chagas disease patients with indeterminate (IND) and cardiac (CARD) clinical forms of the disease. Our data demonstrated that neutrophils from IND patients displayed an impaired ability to produce cytokines. A lower Trypanosoma cruzi phagocytic index and higher nitric oxide levels were characteristics of monocytes from IND. The impaired phagocytic capacity did not reflect on the levels of anti-T. cruzi IgG, but was detectable in the downregulation of Fc-γR, TLR and CR1 molecules. The monocyte-derived cytokine signature demonstrated that a down-regulated synthesis of IL-12 and a modulatory state were evidenced by a positive correlation between IL-12 and IL-10 with a lower synthesis of TNF-α. The down-regulation of MHC-II and CD86 in monocytes supports the occurrence of particularities in the APC-activation-arm in IND, and may be involved in the T-cell pro-inflammatory pattern counterbalanced by a potent IL-10 response. Our findings support the hypothesis that differential phenotypic features of monocytes from IND may be committed to the induction of a distinct immune response related to low morbidity in chronic Chagas disease.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: T-cells play an important role controlling immunity against pathogens and therefore influence the outcome of human diseases. Although most T-lymphocytes co-express either CD4 or CD8, a smaller T-cell subset found the in the human peripheral blood that expresses the αβ or γδ T-cell-receptor (TCR) lacks the CD4 and CD8 co-receptors. These double negative (DN) T-cells have been shown to display important immunological functions in human diseases. To better understand the role of DN T-cells in human Mycobacterium tuberculosis, we have characterized their frequency, activation and cytokine profile in a well-defined group of tuberculosis patients, categorized as severe and non-severe based on their clinical status. Our data showed that whereas high frequency of αβ DN T-cells observed in M. tuberculosis-infected patients are associated with disease severity, decreased proportion of γδ DN T-cells are found in patients with severe tuberculosis. Together with activation of CD4(+) and CD8(+) T-cells, higher frequencies of both αβ and γδ DN T-cells from tuberculosis patients also express the chronic activation marker HLA-DR. However, the expression of CD69, an early activation marker, is selectively observed in DN T-cells. Interestingly, while αβ and γδ DN T-cells from patients with non-severe tuberculosis display a pro-inflammatory cytokine profile, characterized by enhanced IFN-γ, the γδ DN T-cells from patients with severe disease express a modulatory profile exemplified by enhanced interleukin-10 production. Overall, our findings suggest that αβ and γδ DN T-cell present disparate immunoregulatory potentials and seems to contribute to the development/maintenance of distinct clinical aspects of TB, as part of the complex immunological network triggered by the TB infection.
PLoS ONE 01/2012; 7(12):e50923. · 3.73 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: One of the challenges on immunodiagnostic of Chagas disease in endemic areas has been the search for more practical and safe antigenic preparation that provides tests with higher sensitivity and specificity, with low cross-reactivity. A new approach using fixed Trypanosoma cruzi epimastigotes to detect IgG reactivity was investigated previously. In order to continue this investigation, this study aimed at optimizing the flow cytometry-based method to the diagnosis of Chagas disease patients after specific chemotherapy. To achieve our goal, serum samples from 93 subjects - 52 adults chronically infected by T. cruzi, and 41 uninfected controls were tested by flow cytometry. Secondly, serum samples from patients Treated Cured and Treated Uncured from Chagas disease were also tested to evaluate the potential of the method on assessing cure. After establishing the ideal serum dilution and cut off, 121 serum samples from patients with other endemic infections were tested to check cross-reactivity. The results showed that parasite staining with Evan's blue dye eliminated debris, allowing trustworthy analysis of anti-fixed epimastigote IgG reactivity. The applicability of the method to diagnose Chagas disease was confirmed by the high sensitivity (98.1%) and specificity (100%) found. This method also contributed for post-therapeutic assessment of cure, identifying 94.1% of Treated Uncured and 83.3% of Treated Cured patients. Cross-reactivity was observed in a very low number (6.7%). On the whole, these data highly recommend the use of anti-fixed T. cruzi epimastigote IgG reactivity by flow cytometry to the diagnosis and cure monitoring of Chagas disease in endemic areas.
Journal of immunological methods 06/2011; 369(1-2):22-32. · 2.35 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Treatment success of chronically infected Chagas disease patients is laborious and a positive prognosis often is made only after repetitive serological and/or parasitological examinations with continuous negative results. Recently, we have developed a non-conventional flow-cytometric method in order to detect immunoglobulin G antibodies against live trypomastigote forms of Trypanosoma cruzi and showed its usefulness in the prognosis of treatment success. In the present study, we investigated the performance of flow-cytometric anti-live trypomastigote IgG antibodies (FC-ALTA) and flow-cytometric anti-fixed epimastigote IgG antibodies (FC-AFEA), as well as conventional serological methods, for early monitoring of benznidazole treated Chagas disease patients, e.g. 5years after treatment. The analysis of individual FC-ALTA reactivity along the titration curve before and after treatment, we were able to show, that between 4% and 13% of treated patients under evaluation presented with reduced serological reactivity and segregated from the other patient groups. Similar results were obtained with semi-quantitative, conventional indirect hemagglutination or indirect immunofluorescence. Our data therefore suggest that the combined use of conventional and non-conventional serological methods could provide more suitable cure criteria in early post-therapeutic prognosis of Chagas disease.
Journal of immunological methods 05/2011; 370(1-2):24-34. · 2.35 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: CD25(High) CD4+ regulatory T cells (Treg cells) have been described as key players in immune regulation, preventing infection-induced immune pathology and limiting collateral tissue damage caused by vigorous anti-parasite immune response. In this review, we summarize data obtained by the investigation of Treg cells in different clinical forms of Chagas' disease. Ex vivo immunophenotyping of whole blood, as well as after stimulation with Trypanosoma cruzi antigens, demonstrated that individuals in the indeterminate (IND) clinical form of the disease have a higher frequency of Treg cells, suggesting that an expansion of those cells could be beneficial, possibly by limiting strong cytotoxic activity and tissue damage. Additional analysis demonstrated an activated status of Treg cells based on low expression of CD62L and high expression of CD40L, CD69, and CD54 by cells from all chagasic patients after T. cruzi antigenic stimulation. Moreover, there was an increase in the frequency of the population of Foxp3+ CD25(High)CD4+ cells that was also IL-10+ in the IND group, whereas in the cardiac (CARD) group, there was an increase in the percentage of Foxp3+ CD25(High) CD4+ cells that expressed CTLA-4. These data suggest that IL-10 produced by Treg cells is effective in controlling disease development in IND patients. However, in CARD patients, the same regulatory mechanism, mediated by IL-10 and CTLA-4 expression is unlikely to be sufficient to control the progression of the disease. These data suggest that Treg cells may play an important role in controlling the immune response in Chagas' disease and the balance between regulatory and effector T cells may be important for the progression and development of the disease. Additional detailed analysis of the mechanisms on how these cells are activated and exert their function will certainly give insights for the rational design of procedure to achieve the appropriate balance between protection and pathology during parasite infections.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: There is a general consensus that during chronic Trypanosoma cruzi infection, the host immune system induces complex processes to ensure the control of parasite growth while preserving the potential to mount and maintain a life-long controlled humoral and cellular immune response against the invading pathogen. This review summarises evidence in an attempt to elucidate 'what must be understood' to further clarify the role of innate immunity in the development/maintenance of clinical Chagas disease and the impact of etiological treatment on host immunity, highlighting the contributions of the innate immunity and regulatory T (Treg) cells. Recently, increasing focus on innate immunity suggest that chronic T. cruzi infection may cause morbidity when innate effector functions, or the down-regulation of adaptive regulatory mechanisms are lacking. In this context, stable asymptomatic host-parasite interactions seem to be influenced by the effector/regulatory balance with the participation of macrophages, natural killer (NK) and CD8+ T cells in parallel with the establishment of regulatory mechanisms mediated by NKT and Treg cells. Moreover, a balanced innate immune activation state, apart from Treg cells, may play a role in controlling the adverse events triggered by the massive antigen release induced by trypanosomicidal agents during Chagas disease etiological treatment.
Memórias do Instituto Oswaldo Cruz 07/2009; 104 Suppl 1:246-51. · 1.36 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Herein we have employed an alternative strategy to assess the cytokine patterns of circulating leukocytes and correlate dominant cytokine profiles with indeterminate-IND and cardiac-CARD clinical forms of Chagas disease. We have first calculated median percentages of cytokine-positive leukocytes of our study sample to establish, for each cytokine-positive cell population, the cut-off edge that would segregate 'low' and 'high' cytokine producers to build colour diagrams and draw a panoramic cytokine chart. Using this approach we demonstrated that most IND individuals presented a dominant regulatory cytokine profile, whereas CARD individuals displayed a dominant inflammatory cytokine pattern. In addition, radar chart analysis confirmed the dichotomic cytokine balance between IND and CARD groups and further allowed the identification of the relative contribution of each cell population for the global cytokine pattern. Data analysis demonstrated that CD4+ T cells were the major cell population defining the regulatory profile in IND, whereas monocytes and CD4+ T cells determined the inflammatory cytokine pattern in CARD individuals. Interestingly, in vitro stimulation with trypomastigote Trypanosoma cruzi antigen was able to invert the cytokine balances in IND and CARD groups. Upon antigenic stimulation, changes in the frequencies of IL-10-producing CD4+ T cells and monocytes drove IND individuals towards an inflammatory pattern and CARD towards a regulatory cytokine profile. A similar inversion could be found after in vivo treatment of IND and CARD individuals with benzonidazole. Altogether, these findings shed some light into the complex cytokine network underlying the immunopathogenesis of Chagas disease and provide putative immunological biomarkers of disease severity and therapeutic response.
Scandinavian Journal of Immunology 10/2008; 68(5):516-25. · 2.20 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: To assess different methodologies to better define an early post-therapeutic cure criterion after benznidazole treatment in BALB/c mice following mixed infection with dual Trypanosoma cruzi genotypes.
According to the classical cure criteria, animals were classified as treated not cured (TNC = 76.4%), treated cured (TC = 12.5%) and dissociated (DIS = 11.1%) using parasitological [fresh blood examination (FBE), blood culture (BC) and blood PCR] and serological methods [conventional serology (CS-ELISA) and non-conventional serology (NCS-FC-ALTA)]. Tissues were also evaluated by PCR.
FBE was able to detect patent parasitaemia in only 18.1% of TNC and therapeutic failure was detected in 79.1% and 97.2% of TNC by BC and blood PCR, respectively. CS-ELISA should not be used before 3 months after treatment since it may lead to false-negative results. At 3 months after treatment with benznidazole, NCS-FC-ALTA was more efficient for categorizing the groups of treated mice. In the TNC group, although a decreased frequency of PCR-positive tissue was observed in several host tissues, increased positivity was also observed, despite the T. cruzi genotype combination. All TC animals presented at least two positive tissue-PCR results.
Our results confirm that NSC-FC-ALTA and blood PCR are the most suitable methods to early detect therapeutic failure in acute murine T. cruzi infection. Additionally, our data show that BC positivity is highly dependent upon the T. cruzi genotype combination. Moreover, our findings demonstrated that PCR tests performed on tissues from animals considered cured after benznidazole treatment still detected T. cruzi DNA, most probably indicating residual infection.
Journal of Antimicrobial Chemotherapy 07/2008; 61(6):1319-27. · 5.34 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Pro-inflammatory immune response is usually associated with Chagas disease pathogenesis, but is also relevant to treatment effectiveness. Cross-sectional studies have suggested that this activated state may persist for years after therapeutic intervention. However, short-term longitudinal investigation has suggested that the Benznidazole treatment (Bz-treatment) leads to decreased immunological activation. In order to elucidate this issue, we performed a longitudinal study to evaluate the immunological status following Bz-treatment during early indeterminate Chagas disease. Our results demonstrated that Bz-treatment led to higher activation status of circulating monocytes but was negatively associated with the number of IL-12(+)CD14(+) cells. Moreover, Bz-treatment triggered a high frequency of circulating CD3(-)CD16(+)CD56(-) NK cells, in addition to elevated activation status associated with a type 1-modulated cytokine pattern. Bz-treatment induced substantial T and B-cell activation status associated with an overall IL-10 modulated type 1 cytokine profile. In summary, these findings provide new information regarding immune activation status following the etiological treatment of Chagas disease. These results suggest that in addition to the increased number of activated leukocytes in the peripheral blood, Bz-treatment may also involve a qualitative change in their functional capacity that drives their activation state toward a modulated cytokine profile. These changes may account for the benefits of etiological treatment of Chagas disease.
Microbes and Infection 03/2008; 10(2):103-13. · 2.92 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Immunological alterations associated with aging (immunosenescence) do not represent a simple unidirectional decline in all functions but develop as a complex remodeling of the immune system, involving multiple reorganization and developmentally regulated changes. In general, most data available about aging were obtained at particular age intervals and most of them come from Caucasian individuals from either Europe or the United States. Here, we report the frequencies of major lymphocyte subsets in healthy Brazilian individuals from 2 distinct geographic regions (Southeast and South) at several age intervals spanning a lifetime period (0-86 years). Overall, we demonstrated that changes in the frequencies of cells related to both innate and adaptive immunity clearly occur with aging in these individuals. These changes were not progressive and equally steady for all cell populations tested but instead showed an oscillatory or rhythmic behavior that was distinctive of each population at different age intervals. We also observed that abrupt changes in the frequencies of immune cells may occur in healthy individuals over 75 years old, suggesting there is an impaired flexibility of the immune system at late stages of life to sustain homeostasis via immune mechanisms. We presented reference ranges for healthy Brazilian individuals at all ages. The knowledge of these parameters in further detail will allow interventions to optimize immune function in advanced age and to improve the quality of life in the elderly.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: An acute case of Chagas disease was studied in 1944, with clinical and laboratory follow-up until 2007, in Bambuí, Minas Gerais, Brazil. A five-year-old girl living in a rural hut that was highly infested with Triatoma infestans presented a febrile clinical condition compatible with the acute form of trypanosomiasis. She presented a positive thick blood smear, but never again showed serological and/or parasitological evidence of Trypanosoma cruzi infection, on several occasions. This patient never received any specific treatment and, to this day, she remains completely asymptomatic, with normal findings from clinical, electrocardiographic, X-ray and echocardiographic examinations.
Revista da Sociedade Brasileira de Medicina Tropical 01/2008; 41(5):505-6. · 0.93 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The aim of this work was to investigate the impact of dual infections with stocks of Trypanosoma cruzi major genotypes on benznidazole (BZ) treatment efficacy. For this purpose, T. cruzi stocks representative of the genetic T. cruzi lineages, displaying different susceptibilities to BZ, belonging to the major T. cruzi genotypes broadly dispersed in North and South America and important in Chagas' disease epidemiology were used. Therapeutic efficacy was observed in 27.8% of the animals treated. Following BZ susceptibility classification, significant differences were observed in dual infections on the major genotype level, demonstrating that combinations of genotypes 19+39 and genotypes 19+32 led to a shift in the expected BZ susceptibility profile toward the resistance pattern. Analysis on the T. cruzi stock level demonstrated that 9 out of 24 dual infections shifted the expected BZ susceptibility profile compared with the respective single infections, including shifts toward lower and higher BZ susceptibilities. Microsatellite identification was able to identify a mixture of T. cruzi stocks in 7.7% of the T. cruzi isolates from infected and untreated mice (6.9%) and infected and treated but not cured mice (9.0%), revealing in some mixtures of BZ-susceptible and -resistant stocks that the T. cruzi stock identified after BZ treatment was previously susceptible in single infections. Considering the clonal structure and evolution of T. cruzi, an unexpected result was the identification of parasite subpopulations with distinct microsatellite alleles in relation to the original stocks observed in 12.2% of the isolates. Taken together, the data suggest that mixed infections, already verified in nature, may have an important impact on the efficacy of chemotherapy.
Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy 10/2007; 51(9):3282-9. · 4.57 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: We have recently developed a flow cytometric approach to detect anti-live trypomastigote and anti-fixed epimastigote IgG antibodies (FC-ALTA and FC-AFEA) in sera from individuals infected by Trypanosoma cruzi. Here, we present the first evaluation of the applicability of FC-AFEA-IgG as a diagnostic tool for Chagas disease. Performance analysis demonstrated that FC-AFEA-IgG has a sensitivity of 82% and a specificity of 100%. The assessment for prognosis performed by FC-ALTA-IgG1 and FC-AFEA-IgG, after classification of chagasic patients as belonging to indeterminate (IND), cardiac (CARD) or digestive (DIG) clinical forms, showed that most of IND have higher amounts of IgG than individuals' carrying CARD or DIG Chagas disease. FC-AFEA-IgG was also evaluated as a method to monitor chemotherapy efficacy in individuals classified into three distinct categories: not treated (NT), treated but not cured (TNC), and treated and cured (TC). Performance analysis demonstrated that FC-AFEA-IgG has an extraordinary capacity as a serological criterion to assess cure after therapeutic intervention in Chagas disease. These results represent a great advance in the application of serological techniques for clinical investigations on Chagas disease, and they clearly define new directions and perspectives. We intend to continue this field research focusing our attention on the influence of the degree of clinical damage on the FC-ALTA-IgG1 and FC-AFEA-IgG reactivity.
Journal of Immunological Methods 02/2007; 318(1-2):102-12. · 2.23 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Trypanosoma cruzi-infected children was treated with benznidazole (Bz) during the early-indeterminate disease (E-IND) and the cytokine pattern of innate and adaptive immune compartments were evaluated prior to the treatment and 1 year after it. At first, we observed that the ex vivo cytokine profile of circulating leukocytes from E-IND (n = 6) resembled the one observed for healthy schoolchildren (n = 7). Additionally, in vitro stimulation with T. cruzi antigens drove the E-IND cytokine pattern toward a mixed immune profile with higher levels of IFN-gamma+, TNF-alpha+ and IL-4+ NK cells, increased numbers of IFN-gamma+, TNF-alpha+ and IL-10+ CD4+ T cells in addition to enhanced frequency of TNF-alpha+/IL-4+ CD19+ lymphocytes. Interestingly, upon T. cruzi antigen in vitro stimulation, E-IND CD8+ lymphocytes displayed a selective enhancement of IFN-gamma expression, accounting for a global type 1-modulated cytokine microenvironment. A shift toward a type 1-modulated profile was also the hallmark of Bz-treated children (E-IND(T)). In this context, despite the mixed overall ex vivo cytokine profile observed for NK and CD8+ T cells, increased ability of these leukocytes to produce IFN-gamma in response to T. cruzi antigens was reported. Most noteworthy was the IL-10 production evidenced at T lymphocytes, mainly CD4+ cells, as well as B lymphocytes, both ex vivo and upon antigen stimulation. Together, these findings gave evidence that NK cells and CD8+ T lymphocytes are the major sources of IFN-gamma, a pivotal cytokine for successful therapeutic response in human Chagas' disease. Moreover, our data have also brought additional information, pointing out IL-10 production by CD4+ cells and B lymphocytes, as the putative key element for parasite clearance in the absence of deleterious tissue damage.
Scandinavian Journal of Immunology 12/2006; 64(5):554-63. · 2.20 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The immunological response during early human Trypanosoma cruzi infection is not completely understood, despite its role in driving the development of distinct clinical manifestations of chronic infection. Herein we report the results of a descriptive flow cytometric immunophenotyping investigation of major and minor peripheral blood leucocyte subpopulations in T. cruzi-infected children, characterizing the early stages of the indeterminate clinical form of Chagas' disease. Our results indicated significant alterations by comparison with uninfected children, including increased values of pre-natural killer (NK)-cells (CD3- CD16+ CD56-), and higher values of proinflammatory monocytes (CD14+ CD16+ HLA-DR++). The higher values of activated B lymphocytes (CD19+ CD23+) contrasted with impaired T cell activation, indicated by lower values of CD4+ CD38+ and CD4+ HLA-DR+ lymphocytes, a lower frequency of CD8+ CD38+ and CD8+ HLA-DR+ cells; a decreased frequency of CD4+ CD25HIGH regulatory T cells was also observed. These findings reinforce the hypothesis that simultaneous activation of innate and adaptive immunity mechanisms in addition to suppression of adaptive cellular immune response occur during early events of Chagas' disease. Comparative cross-sectional analysis of these immunophenotypes with those exhibited by patients with late chronic indeterminate and cardiac forms of disease suggested that a shift toward high values of macrophage-like cells extended to basal levels of proinflammatory monocytes as well as high values of mature NK cells, NKT and regulatory T cells, may account for limited tissue damage during chronic infection favouring the establishment/maintenance of a lifelong indeterminate clinical form of the disease. On the other hand, development of an adaptive cell-mediated inflammatory immunoprofile characterized by high levels of activated CD8+ cells and basal levels of mature NK cells, NKT and CD4+ CD25HIGH cells might lead to late chronic pathologies associated with chagasic heart disease.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Several studies have demonstrated that different clinical manifestations of human Chagas' disease are associated with distinct and complex host-parasite relationships directly involving the immune system. In this context, it has been proposed that tissue damage might be more severe in the absence of regulatory mechanisms that involve both innate and adaptive immune responses. Herein, we describe a descriptive phenotypic profile focusing on the frequency of major regulatory T cells [CD4+CD25high and natural killer T (NKT) lymphocytes] in different clinical forms of Chagas' disease. Ex vivo immunophenotyping of whole blood demonstrated that the indeterminate clinical form displays a higher frequency of both CD4+CD25high and NKT regulatory cells (CD3+CD16-CD56+), associated with increased levels of circulating cytotoxic NK cells (CD3-CD16+CD56+ and CD3-CD16+CD56dim NK cells). By contrast, the increased percentage of activated CD8+HLA-DR+ T-cell subset was exclusively associated with severe clinical forms of Chagas' disease. We hypothesize that regulatory T cells may be able to control the deleterious cytotoxic activity in the indeterminate clinical form by inhibiting the activation of CD8+HLA-DR+ T cells. The lack of regulated populations in cardiac and digestive clinical forms could account for impaired immune response that culminates in strong cytotoxic activity and tissue damage.
Scandinavian Journal of Immunology 10/2005; 62(3):297-308. · 2.20 Impact Factor