[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: To investigate prevalence, type and time of onset of extraintestinal manifestations (EIMs) in a series of Italian inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) patients.
Data of 811 IBD consecutive patients, first referred to our Centre from 2000 to 2011, were retrospectively evaluated.
Eight hundred and eleven IBD patients (437 M, 374 F) were studied: 595 ulcerative colitis (UC) (73.4%) and 216 Crohn's disease (CD) (26.6%). Among these, 329 (40.6%) showed EIMs: 210 UC (35.3%) and 119 CD (55.1%) (P < 0.0001). Considering the time of the diagnosis of IBD, 37 EIMs (11.2%) were developed before, 229 (69.6%) after and 63 (19.2%) were simultaneous. The type of EIM were as follows: 240 musculoskeletal (29.6%), in 72 CD patients and in 168 UC (P < 0.0001); 47 mucocutaneous (5.8%), in 26 CD and in 21 UC (P = 0.0049); 26 ocular (3.2%), in 16 CD and in 10 UC (CD 7.4% vs UC 1.7%, P = 0.0093); 6 hepatobiliary (0.8%); 10 endocrinological (1.2%). In particular, with regards to the involvement of the musculoskeletal system, arthritis Type 1 was found in 41 CD (19%) and in 61 UC (10.2%) (P = 0.0012) and Type 2 in 25 CD (11.6%) and in 100 UC (16.8%) (P = 0.0012).
Mucocutaneous manifestations, arthritis Type 1 and uveitis were significantly more frequent in CD than UC. The complications of the musculoskeletal system were the mostly observed ones, often with symptoms more severe than intestinal ones, confirming the need for close cooperation with rheumatologists.
World journal of gastroenterology : WJG. 12/2014; 20(46):17463-7.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Periampullary diverticula (PAD) are found in 9-32% of patients who undergo endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography (ERCP). PAD are acquired lesions which are rare in patients <40 years, but increasing with age. Several endoscopic studies have revealed an association between PAD and common bile duct (CBD) stones. The presence of a papilla located in the diverticula is also frequent (6.8-54.9%) and represents a restrictive factor for successful cannulation.
La Clinica terapeutica. 07/2014; 165(4):e291-e294.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Pancreas divisum (PD) is a common anatomical variant of the pancreatic duct system. Only a little percentage of patients with this altered anatomy develop symptoms: acute recurrent pancreatitis (ARP), chronic pancreatitis (CP) and pancreatic-type pain alone. These have been supposed to arise from an obstruction to outflow of the pancreatic dorsal duct due to a stenosis of the minor papilla. Endoscopic sphincterotomy of the minor papilla (MiES) can be considered an effective treatment for patients with PD and ARP supported by stenosis or obstruction of the minor papilla. On the other hand, the access through the minor papilla is essential for therapeutic pancreatic endoscopy in patients with PD and CP, but the effectiveness of MiES in these patients is extremely controversial.
La Clinica terapeutica. 07/2014; 165(4):e312-e316.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Approximately one third of patients with ulcerative colitis (UC) require surgery.
Aim of this study was to assess the quality of life (QoL) of UC patients who have undergone surgery with ileorectal anastomosis (IRA) or ileal pouch-anal anastomosis (IPAA) compared to UC patients not operated.
Fifty consecutive UC patients for each group observed between 1988-2010 were included. To all patients was administered a self completed questionnaire with four different scores: intestinal symptoms (IS), systemic symptoms (SS), emotional function (EF), social function (SF) and an overall QoL score.
Overall QoL score and three dimensions (SS, EF, SF) resulted not significantly different in the three groups, except for IS that resulted worst in the IRA-Group. According to the activity of disease it appeared that UC and IRA patients with mild activity had an overall QoL score similar to patients with complicated IPAA. A higher statistically different score of overall QoL was observed in patients with UC and IRA with moderate/severe disease.
Results of the study demonstrate that overall QoL score is poorer in patients with UC and IRA with mild activity and in patients with complicated IPAA and is worst in patients with UC and IRA with moderate/severe activity.
European review for medical and pharmacological sciences 03/2014; 18(5):693-8. · 0.99 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Azathioprine (AZA) and 6-mercaptopurine (6-MP), purine analogues, are the immunosuppressant drugs most frequently used for inducing and maintaining remission in inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). The occurrence of adverse effects is a major drawback in the use of these drugs, and short- and long-term toxicity represent a major limitation to their use.
The present study investigated the prevalence, type and time of onset of AZA-related adverse events, in a cohort of IBD patients in a single referral Centre.
The records of consecutive IBD outpatients, referred to our Institution between 1987-2009, were retrospectively evaluated.
We reviewed 2014 patients, in whom AZA was prescribed in 302 of them, 139 (46%) with ulcerative colitis (UC) and 163 (54%) with Crohn's disease (CD). Side-effects were complained by 98 (32.4%) out of 302 patients, 50 UC and 48 CD, (36% UC vs 29.4% CD, p = 0.26). In 20 (20.4%) patients, 11 UC and 9 CD, side-effects recovered after dosage reduction whilst in 78 (79.6%), 39 UC and 39 CD, the treatment was discontinued (dose-dependent side-effects in 42 patients and dose-independent in 36). Overall, side-effects were observed after a mean period of 14.5±7.8 months (range 0.5-123) of AZA treatment. The majority (76%) of the dose-dependent adverse events were reported between 12-18 months after the beginning of treatment.
The prevalence of side effects leading to withdrawal of AZA treatment, in our series of Italian patients, was higher respect to data reported in the literature (25.8%).
European review for medical and pharmacological sciences 01/2014; 18(2):165-70. · 0.99 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Pouchitis is not a rare complication that develops after an ileal-pouch anastomosis, performed after colectomy in patients refractory to treatment or with complicated ulcerative colitis. This condition may become chronic and unresponsive to medical therapies, including corticosteroids, antibiotics and probiotics. The advent of biological therapies (tumor necrosis factor-α inhibitors) has changed the course of these complications. In particular, in these cases, infliximab (IFX) may represent a safe and effective therapy in order to avoid the subsequent operation for a permanent ileostomy. This article reviews the therapeutic effects of one of the most widely used anti-tumor necrosis factor-α molecules, IFX, for the treatment of complicated pouchitis (refractory to conventional treatment and/or fistulizing).
World journal of clinical cases : WJCC. 09/2013; 1(6):191-196.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Ulcerative colitis and Crohn's disease are the two forms of inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). The advent of biological drugs has significantly changed the management of these conditions. Skin manifestations are not uncommon in IBD. Among the reactive lesions (immune-mediated extraintestinal manifestations), erythema nodosum (EN) and pyoderma gangrenosum (PG) are the two major cutaneous ills associated with IBD, while psoriasis is the dermatological comorbidity disease observed more often. In particular, in the last few years, anti-tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α agents have been successfully used to treat psoriasis, especially these kinds of lesions that may occur during the treatment with biological therapies. The entity of the paradoxical manifestations has been relatively under reported as most lesions are limited and a causal relationship with the treatment is often poorly understood. The reason for this apparent side-effect of the therapy still remains unclear. Although side effects may occur, their clinical benefits are undoubted. This article reviews the therapeutic effects of the two most widely used anti-TNF-α molecules, infliximab (a fusion protein dimer of the human TNF-α receptor) and adalimumab (a fully human monoclonal antibody to TNF-α), for the treatment of the major cutaneous manifestations associated with IBD (EN, PG and psoriasis).
World journal of clinical cases : WJCC. 05/2013; 1(2):74-78.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: To evaluate the efficacy and safety of endoscopic balloon dilation (EBD) performed for common bile duct (CBD) stones.
From a computer database, we retrospectively analyzed the data relating to EBD performed in patients at the gastrointestinal unit of the Sandro Pertini Hospital of Rome (small center with low case volume) who underwent endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography (ERCP) for CBD from January 1, 2010 to February 29, 2012. All patients had a proven diagnosis of CBD stones studied with echography, RMN-cholangiography and, when necessary, with computed tomography of the abdomen (for example, in cases with pace-makers). Prophylactic therapies, with gabexate mesilate 24 h before the procedure and with an antibiotic (ceftriaxone 2 g) 1 h before, were administered in all patients. The duodenum was intubated with a side-viewing endoscope under deep sedation with intravenous midazolam and propofol. The patients were placed in the supine position in almost all cases. EBD of the ampulla was performed under endoscopic and fluoroscopic guidance with a balloon through the scope (Hercules, wireguided balloon(®), Cook Ireland Ltd. and CRE(®), Microvasive, Boston Scientific Co., Natick, MA, United States).
A total of 14 patients (9 female, 5 male; mean age of 73 years; range 57-82 years) were enrolled in the study, in whom a total of 15 EBDs were performed. All patients underwent minor endoscopic sphincterotomy (ES) prior to the EBD. The size of balloon insufflation depended on stone size and CBD dilation and this was performed until it reached 16 mm in diameter. EBD was performed under endoscopic and fluoroscopic guidance. The balloon was gradually filled with diluted contrast agent and was maintained inflated in position for 45 to 60 s before deflation and removal. The need for precutting the major papilla was 21.4%. In one patient (an 81-year-old), EBD was performed in a Billroth II. Periampullary diverticula were found only in a 74-year-old female. The adverse event related to the procedures (ERCP + ES) was only an intra procedural bleeding (6.6%) that occurred after ES and was treated immediately with adrenaline sclerotherapy. No postoperative complications were reported.
With the current endoscopic techniques, very few patients with choledocholithiasis require surgery. EBD is an efficacious and safe procedure.
World journal of clinical cases : WJCC. 04/2013; 1(1):19-24.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Schwannoma is a tumor originating from the Schwann cells. Gastrointestinal schwannomas are uncommon stromal tumors of the intestinal tract and, in particular, rectal schwannomas are extremely rare. In fact, it is well established that schwannomas appear more frequently in the stomach and in the small intestine, while location in the colon or in the rectum is uncommon. Reading the literature, only few cases of rectal schwannoma have been reported. Their diagnosis is confirmed by the immunohistochemical panel (S-100 protein). When these tumors are located in the colon and in the rectum, radical excision with wide margins is mandatory, due to their tendency to recur locally or become malignant, if left untreated. In the present study, we describe a case of a rectal schwannoma occured in a 72-year-old man, presented as a small polypoid lesion, which was successfully removed in toto by hot-biopsy, during the same endoscopy, due to the dimensons. No recurrence of the lesion was observed after 6 mo of follow-up.
World journal of clinical cases : WJCC. 04/2013; 1(1):49-51.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: One of the most frequent complications of endoscopic sphincterotomy (ES) is bleeding. When post-ES bleeding does not respond to the use of typical endoscopic therapy, the only alternative is angiography or surgery. A 82-year-old female was admitted for jaundice. A RMN-cholangiography revealed multiple stones in the common bile duct (CBD). She underwent endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography (ERCP). The papilla major was located between two large periampullary diverticula. During the ES, a severe bleeding was observed from the upper part of the biliary cut. Several methods of hemostasis (injection of adrenaline, thermal methods and balloon tamponate) were performed without efficacy. A partially covered metallic stent was placed across the biliary orifice, in order to compress mechanically the bleeding site achiving the hemostasis. Clin Ter 2013; 164(1):e27-29. doi: 10.7417/CT.2013.1517.
La Clinica terapeutica 01/2013; 164(1):e27-9. · 0.33 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Argon plasma coagulation (APC) is a non-contact thermal method of hemostasis that has generated much attention in recent years. This endoscopic procedure is used primarily to control bleeding from lesions in the gastrointestinal tract, and also sometimes to debulk tumours in the case of patients for whom surgery is not recommended. APC involves the use of a jet of ionized argon gas (plasma) that is directed through a probe passed through the endoscope. The probe is placed at some distance from the lesion, and tissue damage is limited to superficial layers. The depth of coagulation is usually only a few millimetres. Theoretical advantages of APC include facility application, speedy treatment of multiple lesions in the case of angiodysplasias or wide areas (the base of resected polyps or tumor bleeding), safety due to reduced depth of penetration, and lower cost compared to laser. Clin Ter 2012; 163(6):e435-440.
La Clinica terapeutica 11/2012; 163(6):e435-e440. · 0.33 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The gastrointestinal tract, particularly the stomach, is the most common site of mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue lymphoma (MALToma). Many studies describe primary MALT lymphoma arising from the gastric mucosa, especially in association with Helicobacter pylori infection. On the contrary, primary MALT duodenal lymphoma is a very rare neoplasm. We report a case of a patient with gastrointestinal bleeding in whom primary gastric and duodenal MALT lymphoma were occurred simultaneously. Clin Ter 2012; 163(4):e165-167.
La Clinica terapeutica 07/2012; 163(4):e165-7. · 0.33 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Leptospirosis is a spirochetal zoonosis with a worldwide distribution affecting both animals and humans. These are infected only occasionally by direct contact with infected animals or through contaminated water and soil. Generally, this disease is commonly found in tropical regions. Infected patients usually present with non-specific features. In fact, the clinical manifestations of leptospirosis are variable, ranging from occult infection to Weil's disease with fatal complications. Often the disease remains underdiagnosed due to the broad spectrum of signs and symptoms. Here we are reporting a case of a woman with an ictero-haemorraghic leptospirosis complicated by acute renal failure and pulmonary involvement that received intensive care unit support including intubation and ventilation and promptly resolved with appropriate therapy. Clin Ter 2012; 163(3):e129-131.
La Clinica terapeutica 05/2012; 163(3):e129-31. · 0.33 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: A 46-year-old man was referred to our Unit for hematemesis. The medical history of the patient revealed an HCV-related cirrhosis, a human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection and recent and persistent episodes of emesis. An urgent gastroscopy disclosed evidence of active bleeding from varices of the lower third of the esophagus and a concomitant laceration of the esophageal wall due to the emesis. These two conditions have been endoscopically diagnosed and successfully treated by sclerotherapy and endoscopic clipping.
European review for medical and pharmacological sciences 05/2012; 16(5):704-6. · 0.99 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Colorectal post anastomotic benign strictures are not uncommon. The purpose of this study was to investigate the results of endoscopic balloon dilatation of anastomotic strictures.
The study was on a retrospective survey. Records of 14 consecutive patients with anastomotic strictures (5 F, 9 M; median age 64 years; range: 50-87 years), attending our GI Unit from February 1st 2008 to December 31st 2009, were analyzed. All patients had been operated for colon carcinoma. All of them were treated with balloon dilatation.
All the patients presented symptoms of obstruction. The total number of dilatation sessions was 37 and the median number of sessions by patient was 1,5 (range: 1-7). After the procedures, all patients had an improvement of symptoms. No complications were observed.
Our experience underlines that endoscopic ballon dilatation, in patients with post anastomotic benign strictures, is a safe technique with a low rate of complications.
La Clinica terapeutica 01/2011; 162(6):539-42. · 0.33 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Magnetic resonance cholangio-pancreatography (MRCP) is a valuable method for the evaluation of biliary and pancreatic diseases and a valuable alternative to endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography (ERCP). It is noninvasive and does not require the use of contrast material or ionizing radiation. Since its introduction in 1991, this technique has significantly improved in spatial resolution, now allowing the accurate assessment of the major bilio-pancreatic diseases.
MRCP is commonly performed with heavily T2-weighted sequences in order to highlight static fluids, as those contained in dilated pancreatic and biliary ducts. Newest MR equipments allow to perform MRCP within 10-15 minutes, due to the availability of ultra-fast sequences. Currently, MRCP is widely performed as a primary imaging modality for the assessment of obstructive jaundice and other benign or malignant bilio-pancreatic ducts abnormalities. The primary MRCP application is the evaluation of biliary obstructions due to choledocholithiasis, iatrogenic strictures, cholangiocarcinoma or pancreatic carcinoma. Other MRCP applications include the assessment of the exocrine pancreatic function, following secretin stimulation. Whenever needed, the MRCP may be completed with a conventional contrast-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) of the upper abdomen and functional studies as well, thus providing an all-in-one mophological and functional study of the pancreas and biliary system. More recent applications include the possibility of 3D reconstructions and the use of hepato-biliary contrast agents, that provide a higher definition of the biliary tree, both in pathologic and normal conditions. The introduction of 3Tesla magnets could provide higher anatomic detail.
In the next years the role of MRCP will further expand, due to the availability of faster sequences, 3D imaging and functional studies.
European review for medical and pharmacological sciences 08/2010; 14(8):721-5. · 0.99 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Calprotectin, a major cytosolic protein of neutrophils, is increased in inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) and may be considered a suitable marker of intestinal inflammation. Abdominal MRI is becoming more frequently used for the evaluation of IBD patients. Aim of this study was to investigate the role of MRI in IBD for the assessment of disease activity in comparison with faecal calprotectin levels.
Twenty-four consecutive hospitalized pts (12 F, 12 M, median age: 56; range: 22-77) with a proven diagnosis of CD were studied. At the time of the MRI examination, pts provided a single stool sample for calprotectin measurement. Calprotectin was measured by ELISA (Calprest(R)). Pathological values were considered more than 50 microg/g. All pts underwent MRI, performed at 1.5 T, with HASTE T2w with and without fat-saturation, FLASH T1w fat-saturated sequences pre and post iv injection of 0.1 ml/kg of Gadolinium. Presence, degree and length of wall inflammation were evaluated. The MRI degree of wall inflammation was graded with a 0-3 scoring system (0=absent 1=light 2=moderate 3=severe) by considering findings observed on T1 post Gd and T2 fat-suppressed images, as well as the degree of wall thickness. The length of extension was considered as less than 15 cm, between 15 cm and 30 cm, or more than 30 cm. Spearman's correlation coefficient was used to evaluated differences in calprotectin levels among the groups obtained by MRI findings.
Grade 0 MRI was found in 1 pt with a faecal calprotectin measurement of 206.25 microg/g; Grade 1 MRI was found in 4 pts with a median faecal calprotectin of 100 microg/g (5-325); Grade 2 MRI was found in 10 pts with a median faecal calprotectin of 243.75 microg/g (7.5-606.25); Grade 3 MRI was found in 9 pts with a median faecal calprotectin of 1012.5 microg/g (30-1268.8). A trend of positive correlation was therefore found between MRI scores of activity and calprotectin levels (p less than 0.0001) and between MRI scores of thickening of intestinal involvement and calprotectin levels (p = 0.005). No apparent correlation was observed between faecal calprotectin concentration and length.
Data presenting show that faecal calprotectin levels well correlate with the degree of mucosal inflammation are in agreement with previous studies. Considering the correlation obtained between calprotectin level and MRI findings, we believe that MRI is helpful in assessing and monitoring the degree of disease in Crohn's disease.
La Clinica terapeutica 01/2010; 161(2):e53-6. · 0.33 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Multi Detector Computed Tomography (MDCT) is widely used in the preoperative staging of gastric cancer. MRI has an emerging role in the evaluation of intestinal diseases, although its role in the staging of gastric cancers is still to be defined. The aim of our study was to compare the diagnostic accuracy of MDCT and Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) in the diagnosis and preoperative staging of gastric cancer, in comparison with histopathology.
Twenty-five patients with an endoscopic diagnosis of gastric cancer underwent preoperative contrast-enhanced MDCT and MRI, blind to the results of endoscopy. MDCT (64 slices) was performed after oral administration of 800-1000 mL of tap water and scopolamine injection five minutes before the examination. The scan was performed in the axial plane before and after intravenous injection of iodinate contrast medium. Multiplanar reconstruction images were obtained on coronal and sagittal planes. MRI was performed with a 1.5 T Magnet, using the same patient's preparation, by acquiring T2-weighted HASTE sequences, with or without fat saturation (FS), True FISP (True fast imaging with steady state precession) and T1-weighted VIBE (Volumetric interpolated breath-hold examination) sequences, with and without FS, before and after contrast agent (gadolinium) i.v. injection. Gold standards (GS) were surgical and histopathological findings. Two groups of radiologists, blind each other, analyzed MRI images and MDCT findings, and related to GS results.
Detection rate of gastric lesions and T staging for gastric cancer were similar for MRI and MDCT (92%); MRI imaging was superior than MDCT in staging the T parameter (60% versus 48%); the accuracy of MRI imaging and 64-MDCT did not differ significantly in the evaluation of N staging (68% versus 72%).
Both MRI and MDCT were comparable in staging gastric cancer. MRI was more accurate in evaluation of T stage than MDCT, although both imaging modalities showed low accuracy in detection of early gastric cancer and in differentiation of T2 from T3 stage.
La Clinica terapeutica 01/2010; 161(2):e57-62. · 0.33 Impact Factor