[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Systemic hypertension is known to affect both left and right ventricular (RV) function. Little is known about the effect of the renin-angiotensin system (RAS) inhibition on global RV function in patients with essential hypertension.
Forty patients (17 male, mean age 47 ± 10 years) with mild hypertension free of cardiovascular disease were assessed by echocardiography at baseline and after nine months of antihypertensive treatment with RAS inhibitors. Tissue Doppler imaging derived myocardial performance index (MPI) of the left and right ventricle was used as an index of global ventricular function.
Both left ventricular (LV) and RV MPI were increased at baseline and were reduced after treatment (LV MPI reduced from 0.42 ± 0.06 to 0.39 ± 0.05, p < 0.001 and RV MPI was reduced from 0.34 ± 0.06 to 0.32 ± 0.05, p < 0.005). There was a positive correlation between mitral and tricuspid E/A ratio both at baseline and at month nine after treatment (r = 0.661, p < 0.001 and r = 0.503, p < 0.005 respectively). LV mass index and interventricular septum thickness were decreased after treatment. No correlation was found between MPI improvement and blood pressure reduction.
RAS inhibition in patients with mild hypertension results in an improvement of RV global function which is unrelated to the reduction in blood pressure.
Journal of Renin-Angiotensin-Aldosterone System 03/2011; 12(3):358-64. · 2.29 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Coronary ostial stenosis is a rare but potentially serious sequela after aortic valve replacement. It occurs in the left main or right coronary artery after 1% to 5% of aortic valve replacement procedures. The clinical symptoms are usually severe and may appear from 1 to 6 months postoperatively. Although the typical treatment is coronary artery bypass grafting, patients have been successfully treated by means of percutaneous coronary intervention.Herein, we present the cases of 2 patients in whom coronary ostial stenosis developed after aortic valve replacement. In the 1st case, a 72-year-old man underwent aortic valve replacement and bypass grafting of the saphenous vein to the left anterior descending coronary artery. Six months later, he experienced a non-ST-segment-elevation myocardial infarction. Coronary angiography revealed a critical stenosis of the right coronary artery ostium. In the 2nd case, a 78-year-old woman underwent aortic valve replacement and grafting of the saphenous vein to an occluded right coronary artery. Four months later, she experienced unstable angina. Coronary angiography showed a critical left main coronary artery ostial stenosis and occlusion of the right coronary artery venous graft. In each patient, we performed percutaneous coronary intervention and deployed a drug-eluting stent. Both patients were asymptomatic on 6-to 12-month follow-up. We attribute the coronary ostial stenosis to the selective ostial administration of cardioplegic solution during surgery. We conclude that retrograde administration of cardioplegic solution through the coronary sinus may reduce the incidence of postoperative coronary ostial stenosis, and that stenting may be an efficient treatment option.
Texas Heart Institute journal / from the Texas Heart Institute of St. Luke's Episcopal Hospital, Texas Children's Hospital 01/2010; 37(4):465-8. · 0.67 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: It was hypothesised that, apart from right ventricular (RV) dysfunction, patients with idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF) also exhibit left ventricular (LV) impairment, which may affect disease progression and prognosis. The aim of the present study was to evaluate LV performance in a cohort of IPF patients using conventional and tissue Doppler ECG. IPF patients exhibiting mild-to-moderate pulmonary arterial hypertension (mean age 65+/-9 yrs; n = 22) and healthy individuals (mean age 61+/-6 yrs; n = 22) were studied. Conventional and tissue Doppler ECG were used for the evaluation of RV and LV systolic and diastolic function. In addition to the expected impairment in RV function, all patients showed a characteristic reversal of LV diastolic filling to late diastole compared with controls (early diastolic peak filling velocity (E)/late diastolic peak filling velocity 0.7+/-0.2 versus 1.5+/-0.1, respectively). Patients with IPF also exhibited lower peak myocardial velocities in early diastole (E(m); 5.7+/-1.1 versus 10.3+/-1.6 cm x s(-1), respectively), higher in late diastole (A(m); 8.9+/-1.3 versus 5.5+/-0.8 cm x s(-1), respectively), lower E(m)/A(m) ratio (0.6+/-0.1 versus 1.9+/-0.5, respectively) and higher E/E(m) ratio (10.8+/-3 versus 6+/-0.6, respectively), all indicative of LV diastolic dysfunction. Moreover, LV propagation velocity was significantly lower in IPF patients (46+/-13 versus 83+/-21 cm x s(-1), respectively). Physicians should be aware that patients with idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis exhibit early impairment of left ventricular diastolic function.
European Respiratory Journal 05/2008; 31(4):701-6. · 6.36 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The aim of the study was to evaluate left ventricular diastolic function and its relation to aortic wall stiffness in patients with type 1 diabetes mellitus without coronary artery disease or hypertension.
Sixty-six patients with type 1 diabetes mellitus were examined by echocardiography and divided into two groups according to the diastolic filling pattern determined by mitral annulus tissue Doppler velocities. Group A patients (n = 21) presented diastolic dysfunction with a peak early diastolic mitral annular velocity (Em)/peak late diastolic mitral annular velocity (Am) ratio <1 whereas in group B patients (n = 45) the Em/Am ratio was >1. Coronary artery disease was excluded based on normal thallium scintigraphy. Aortic stiffness index was calculated from aortic diameters measured by echocardiography, using accepted criteria.
Aortic stiffness index differed significantly among the two groups. Significant correlations were found between parameters of left ventricular diastolic function (Em/Am, isovolumic relaxation time, deceleration time) and aortic stiffness index. Multiple stepwise linear regression analysis revealed aortic stiffness index (beta = -0.39, p = 0.001) and isovolumic relaxation time (beta = -0.46, p < 0.001) as the main predictors of Em/Am ratio.
Aortic stiffness is increased in type 1 diabetic patients with left ventricular diastolic dysfunction. This impairment in aortic elastic properties seems to be related to parameters of diastolic function.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Left ventricular diastolic dysfunction represents the earliest preclinical manifestation of diabetic cardiomyopathy. Right ventricular function has not been studied in depth yet in diabetic patients, although the right ventricle has an important contribution to the overall cardiac function. This study was designed to assess diastolic and systolic ventricular function in both ventricles, in patients with type 1 diabetes, free from coronary artery disease and hypertension.
We studied 66 type 1 diabetic patients and 66 age- and sex-matched normal subjects by conventional and tissue Doppler echocardiography. A possible correlation was examined for age, diabetes duration and echocardiographic measurements of left ventricular and right ventricular functions with univariate analysis.
Type 1 diabetic patients were found to have impaired diastolic function in both ventricles with either conventional or tissue Doppler echocardiography. On the contrary, systolic function in both ventricles was preserved in our diabetic population. The measured indexes showed an expected correlation with age and diabetes duration except from systolic velocity in tricuspid annulus determined by color tissue Doppler. Moreover, significant correlations were found among parameters of left and right ventricular function.
Patients with type 1 diabetes mellitus have impaired diastolic function, and particularly relaxation, in both ventricles before the development of myocardial systolic dysfunction. These alterations in myocardial function may be attributed to ventricular interdependence as well as to the uniform effect of diabetes to cardiac function.
International journal of cardiology 02/2007; 114(2):218-23. · 7.08 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Diabetes mellitus (DM) is associated with macrovascular disease and impaired aortic function. We hypothesized that the change in aortic elastic properties could be investigated with colour tissue Doppler imaging (CTDI) in Type 1 diabetic patients and that these findings could be related to the aortic stiffness index.
We examined by echocardiography 66 patients with Type 1 DM (mean age 35 +/- 10 years, mean duration of disease 20 +/- 9 years) without a history of arterial hypertension or coronary artery disease (negative thallium-201 stress test) and 66 age- and sex-matched normal subjects. Arterial pressure was measured before echocardiography was performed. Internal aortic systolic and diastolic diameters by M-mode echocardiography and aortic systolic upper wall tissue velocity (Sao, cm/s) by CTDI were measured 3 cm above the aortic valve. Aortic distensibility and aortic stiffness index were calculated using accepted formulae.
Aortic stiffness, distensibility and Sao velocity differed significantly between the studied groups. In the diabetic group, duration of diabetes correlated with aortic stiffness (r = 0.53, P < 0.001), distensibility (r = -0.61, P < 0.001) and Sao velocity (r = -0.48, P < 0.001). There was a negative correlation between aortic stiffness and Sao velocity (r = -0.49, P < 0.001). Multiple stepwise linear regression analysis in the diabetic group revealed that aortic S velocity (beta = 0.30, P = 0.005) and duration of diabetes (beta = -0.49, P = 0.001) were the main predictors of aortic distensibility (overall R(2) = 0.48).
Aortic elastic properties can be directly assessed by measuring the movements in the upper aortic wall. Reduced aortic S velocity is associated with increased aortic stiffness in Type 1 diabetic patients.
Diabetic Medicine 12/2006; 23(11):1201-6. · 3.24 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Hypertrophic cardiomyopathy (HC) may transition to a phase characterized by systolic impairment resembling dilated cardiomyopathy. This study retrospectively assessed the incidence of left ventricular (LV) systolic impairment at initial clinical evaluation in 248 consecutive patients with HC (mean age 53 +/- 16 years). HC with systolic impairment was diagnosed if the LV ejection fraction was <50%, calculated by echocardiography. Twenty patients (8%) had HC with LV systolic impairment at initial evaluation. Patients with systolic impairment had a greater incidence of family histories of sudden cardiac death (SCD) than patients with preserved systolic function (25% vs 5.3%, p = 0.006) and more severe functional limitations (New York Heart Association class >or=III, p <0.001). All-cause mortality and cardiovascular mortality did not differ between the 2 groups. The incidence of SCD was 1.7% in patients with normal LV ejection fractions, and no SCD was observed in patients with systolic impairment. The latter group had more frequent major cardiac events (SCD, ventricular fibrillation, aborted cardiac arrest, and first implantable cardioverter-defibrillator discharge; p = 0.03). During follow-up, 2 patients progressed to HC with systolic impairment (annual incidence 0.85%). In conclusion, systolic impairment is not exceptional in patients with HC at initial evaluation and is associated with functional deterioration and major cardiac events.
The American Journal of Cardiology 12/2006; 98(9):1269-72. · 3.21 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: To evaluate both left ventricular (LV) and right ventricular (RV) diastolic performance adaptation to variable atrioventricular interval (AVI), in patients with DDD pacing for complete heart block and to investigate a possible interaction between LV and RV in this specific cohort of patients.
We studied 22 consecutive patients (mean age 65.2 +/- 14.3 years) who underwent DDD pacemaker implantation following admission for complete heart block. One day following implantation, patients were paced at 3 different pacing modes, under the same programmed heart rate and a different AVI (100, 150 and 200 ms respectively). Standard Doppler echocardiography of mitral and tricuspid valve inflow was performed to evaluate LV and RV diastolic function, during each pacing mode.
Left ventricular and RV diastolic performance adaptation to variable AVI modifications was similar, showing a progressive increase of late diastolic filling velocities and a subsequent decrease of E/A wave ratios following AVI prolongation. A short AVI of 100 or 150 ms was associated with improved LV and RV diastolic filling dynamics.
In elderly patients with complete heart block and unimpaired systolic function undergoing DDD pacemaker implantation, both ventricles share a similar pattern of diastolic function adaptation to AVI modifications and that might be the reflection of ventricular interaction under this specific pacing mode.
Anadolu kardiyoloji dergisi: AKD = the Anatolian journal of cardiology 10/2006; 6(3):243-7. · 0.72 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The present study evaluated the prognostic significance of Doppler-demonstrated left ventricular (LV) restrictive filling pattern (RFP) in patients with thalassaemia major (TM), which carries an adverse cardiovascular prognosis.
The study group comprised 45 asymptomatic transfusion-dependent patients with TM and normal LV systolic function. All patients were chelated with desferrioxamine. They were regularly evaluated by clinical and Doppler-echocardiographic studies throughout the 15-year follow-up period. The patients were categorized into 2 groups according to baseline data: those with LVRFP and those with LV non-RFP. The incidence of cardiac death in both groups was analyzed. The impact of chelation therapy on the ventricular filling pattern and survival was also examined. Nineteen patients (42.2%) had LVRFP and 26 (57.8%) had LV non-RFP. During follow-up 11 patients died from cardiac causes; 8 of them (72.8%) initially had LVRFP and 3 (27.2%) had LV non-RFP. LVRFP was significantly associated with mortality (p=0.018). Poor compliance with chelation therapy was significantly associated with LVRFP (p=0.007) and cardiac mortality (p=0.003).
LVRFP is an important predictor of cardiac mortality in patients with TM. Poor compliance with chelation therapy was significantly associated with both a RFP (p=0.007) and cardiac mortality (p=0.003).
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Functional mitral valve regurgitation attenuation after cardiac resynchronization therapy (CRT) in patients with severe heart failure has been attributed to both the increased rate of left ventricular systolic pressure increase and to papillary muscle (PM) recoordinated contraction. We hypothesized that an increase in systolic deformation of the PMs or the adjacent myocardial wall may in part account for this effect, by preventing their outward displacement during systole.
We studied by echocardiography 22 patients with moderate/severe functional mitral valve regurgitation and a mean ejection fraction of 18 +/- 4% at baseline and after implantation of a CRT system.
CRT induced a significant reduction of the effective regurgitant orifice area (0.18 +/- 0.11 vs 0.35 +/- 0.17 mm2, P < .001). Strain improved in both PMs and their adjacent walls, although this improvement was significant only in anterolateral PM (-16 +/- 4.7 vs -11 +/- 4.3%, P = .02) and posteromedial PM adjacent wall (-16 +/- 10 vs -8 +/- 4.6%, P = .01).
CRT acutely reduces the severity of functional mitral valve regurgitation in patients with heart failure and this effect may be in part attributed to improved strain of PM or adjacent wall.
Journal of the American Society of Echocardiography: official publication of the American Society of Echocardiography 09/2006; 19(9):1150-7. · 2.98 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: We sought to investigate the accuracy of dobutamine stress echocardiography to predict the degree and timing of recovery in resting function and contractile reserve (CR) after revascularization of the hibernating myocardium.
In all, 24 patients with ischemic cardiomyopathy (ejection fraction < 40%) underwent dobutamine stress echocardiography 1 week before and 6 weeks, 3 months, and 6 months after coronary artery bypass grafting.
Recovery rates at 6 weeks, 3 months, and 6 months postoperation were 21%, 33%, and 45% (P < .01) for resting function and 55%, 65%, and 74% (P < .01) for CR. Positive and negative predictive values for recovery of resting function and CR at 6 months postrevascularization were 66% vs 97% (P < .001) and 78% vs 48% (P < .001), respectively. Positive and negative predictive values were both high for recovery of CR at 6 weeks postrevascularization (89% and 78%).
Dobutamine stress echocardiography can predict early recovery in CR postrevascularization with an excellent accuracy but may underestimate the degree of late recovery in CR.
Journal of the American Society of Echocardiography: official publication of the American Society of Echocardiography 04/2006; 19(3):300-6. · 2.98 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Plasma fibrinogen, C-reactive protein (CRP), and interleukin-6 (IL-6) levels in patients with acute myocardial infarction (AMI) receiving thrombolysis have been related to prognosis. The aim of this study was to investigate the time course of plasma fibrinogen, CRP, and IL-6 levels during the in-hospital phase in patients with AMI receiving thrombolysis, and their relationship to in-hospital and prognosis after 12-months follow-up. In 40 patients presenting with AMI within 6 hours of symptom onset and treated with thrombolysis, plasma fibrinogen, CRP, and IL-6 levels were measured on admission and after 6, 12, 24, 48, and 72 hours; 7 days; and 6 months. Patients with other diseases that can alter fibrinogen, CRP, or IL-6 levels were excluded. Patients had a clinical follow-up at 6 and 12 months, and the following cardiac events were recorded: cardiac death, recurrent angina, recurrent AMI, and heart failure. Plasma fibrinogen concentrations decreased significantly (p <0.01 vs admission levels) at 12 hours (425 +/-94 vs 322 +/-132 mg/dL), started to increase at 24 hours, reached peak value at 72 hours (602 +/-209 mg/dL), remained elevated at 7 days, and were back to admission levels at 6 months (375 +/-79 mg/dL). CRP levels increased significantly at 12 hours (0.73 +/-0.43 vs 0.23 +/-0.11 mg/dL, p <0.01), reached peak value at 72 hours (7.66 +/-3.28 mg/dL), decreased significantly on day 7 (2.32 +/-1.17 mg/dL), and at 6 months were within normal limits (0.49 +/-0.29 mg/dL). IL-6 levels increased significantly at 6 hours (14.03 +/-8.13 vs 6.37 +/-3.88 pg/mL, p <0.05), reached peak value at 24 hours (59.49 +/-23.57 pg/mL), started to decrease at 48 hours, and at 6 months were within normal limits (2.25 +/-1.24 pg/mL). During the in-hospital phase 33 patients had an uneventful course and 7 patients had complications (3 post-AMI angina; 4 heart failure). During the 12-month follow-up period 28 patients had an uneventful course, and 12 patients had complications (1 cardiac death, 5 recurrent angina, 2 recurrent AMI, and 4 heart failure). Regarding the in-hospital prognosis, fibrinogen, CRP, and IL-6 levels were significantly higher (p <0.05) in patients with complications from 48 to 72 hours, from 12 hours until day 7, and from 6 hours until day 7, respectively. During the 12-month follow-up period fibrinogen, CRP, and IL-6 levels were significantly higher in patients with complications (at 48, 24, and 24 hours, respectively) only in the subgroup of patients who had complications within the first 6 months following AMI. Multivariate analysis showed that CRP at 48 hours was the most important factor related to in-hospital prognosis (p = 0.02), and ejection fraction followed by CRP at 24 hours (p = 0.02) to 6-month prognosis (p = 0.018). Fibrinogen, CRP, and IL-6 levels alter in patients with AMI receiving thrombolysis, and are related both to in-hospital and to 6-month follow-up prognosis.