[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: This review focuses on the possibility of improving the outcome of human IVF by studying the follicles where oocytes grow by ultrasound techniques. A comprehensive analysis of bi-dimensional (2D) and three-dimensional (3D) ultrasound (US) assessment of the follicle size and volume is presented.
Published reports from the year 1999 to 2014 analyzing the relationship between oocyte competence, IVF outcome and ultrasound assessment of the follicle size and volume have been critically analyzed.
US assessment of growing follicles has been performed mainly by 2D-US, and while overall very useful, it has been found to be of limited usefulness in predicting oocyte competence, recognize which follicles will release a mature metaphase II oocytes and decide the ideal time to trigger ovulation. In fact, a quite wide follicle size range (16-22 mm) has been reported to be associated with mature oocytes with good competence toward fertilization and embryo development. It has been also shown that smaller follicles sometimes contain mature, fertilizable oocytes. However, embryos derived from smaller follicles have probably a lower implantation potential, while follicles larger than 22 mm often contain post-mature eggs.
The study of follicular size by 2D-US is of limited usefulness in helping in the identification of follicles containing the best oocytes and in choosing the best moment to trigger ovulation. Possibly the value of US in this area will be improved by large prospective studies in which automated 3D-US will be used.
Reproductive Biology and Endocrinology 11/2014; 12(1):107. · 2.41 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Objectives We investigated levels of knowledge of the effects of combined hormonal contraceptives (CHCs) on general/reproductive health and physical/psychosexual wellbeing. Methods A cross-sectional study was conducted in two university hospitals in northern Italy. Healthy current-, past- and never CHC users (n = 545; age 18-44 years) completed a self-administered questionnaire. Results Ninety-three percent of current-, 74% of past-, and 56% of never users believed they were sufficiently informed (χ(2): 67.1; p = 0.001) about the benefits and risks of CHCs. Respondents mentioned: (i) a reduced risk of ovarian (67%) and endometrial (53%) cancer; (ii) an increased risk of thrombosis (82%); (iii) an increased risk of breast cancer (45%); (iv) a decreased fertility (19%) and no influence on risk of sexually transmitted infections (48%); (v) a reduced risk of menstrual abnormalities (77%) and acne (79%); (vi) less dysmenorrhoea (83%) and more headache (56%), weight gain (74%), increased appetite (51%), leg cramps (77%), mood swings (45%), vaginal dryness (47%), and low sex drive (48%). Beliefs about diseases/conditions and symptoms were influenced by CHC use. Conclusions CHC use is linked to good knowledge of risks and benefits. Our data suggest HCPs must be proactive in providing relevant information so that women can choose their contraception with a balanced insight of side effects.
The European Journal of Contraception and Reproductive Health Care. 10/2014;
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Bowel endometriosis affects 3-37% of patients with endometriosis, involving more frequently the rectum and the rectosigmoid junction. Severe endometriosis with bowel involvement is often refractory to standard medical therapy. For these reasons, surgery for bowel treatment is frequently needed. We report the case of a 36-year-old woman with deep endometriosis of the pelvis, triple segmental bowel involvement (recto-sigma, ileum-cecum, transverse colon) and massive endometriotic ascites with secondary Glisson's capsule inflammation, refractory to medical therapy. A laparoscopic triple segmental bowel resection and complete fertility sparing excision of pelvic endometriotic lesions was performed. At 48 months of follow-up, the woman was asymptomatic, with no evidence of recurrence of disease or ascites. Laparoscopic segmental bowel resection, including multiple section, is feasible in selected symptomatic patients with consequent improved quality of life, morbidity rates similar to those achieved by laparotomy and with a less detrimental effect on fertility.
Videosurgery and Other Miniinvasive Techniques / Wideochirurgia i Inne Techniki Malo Inwazyjne 09/2014; 9(3):463-7. · 0.76 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The present case report to demonstrate a laparoscopic approach to treat interstitial cornual pregnancy in emergency. Interstitial ectopic pregnancy develops in the uterine portion of the fallopian tube, account for 2–4% of all ectopic pregnancies and have potential to cause life-threatening haemorrhage at rupture. The mortality rate for a woman diagnosed with such a pregnancy is 2–2.5%. Diagnosis of interstitial pregnancy is made by ultrasound. In this case a 32 year-old woman, Gravida 0 Parity 0 ectopic1 presented to the emergency obstetrical room complaining acute abdominal pain. There was history of 10 weeks pregnancy but no pelvic ultrasound scan was performed before the access. A Transvaginal ultrasound scan immediately performed demonstrated a gestational sac with viable foetus in the right interstitial region. Moreover there was ultrasound evidence of haemoperitoneum. She was transferred to operating room and an emergency laparoscopy surgery was performed. The postoperative course was uneventful and the patient was discharged two days after the surgery. Interstitial pregnancies present a difficult management problem with no absolute standard of care in literature. Laparoscopic technique is under study with favorable results. For our personal point of view a treatment via laparoscopy could be performed both in elective and in emergency cases.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Frovatriptan is a triptan characterized by a high affinity for 5-HT1B/1D receptors and a long half-life contributing to a more sustained and prolonged action than other triptans. Dexketoprofen is a nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug with a relatively short half-life and rapid onset of action, blocking the action of cyclo-oxygenase, which is involved in prostaglandins' production, thus reducing inflammation and pain. Both drugs have been successfully employed as monotherapies for the treatment of acute migraine attacks. The combination of these two drugs (frovatriptan 2.5 mg plus dexketoprofen 25 or 37.5 mg) has been tested in migraine sufferers, showing a rapid and good initial efficacy, with 2-h pain free rates of 51%, and a high persistence in the 48-h following the onset of pain: recurrence occurred in only 29% of attacks and sustained pain free rates were 43% at 24- and 33% at 48-h.
Expert Review of Neurotherapeutics 08/2014; 14(8):867-77. · 2.96 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Abstract Fertility preservation programs (FPPs) based on oocyte or ovarian tissue cryostorage may be offered to women facing oncostatic treatments at risk of precocious ovarian insufficiency. The way in which FPPs are presented to patients affects their decision to join them. We studied herein 48 young women to whom a FPP was proposed, aiming at clarifying the emotional aspects involved. A psychologist attended the consultations in which the FPP was offered to patients; at the end of the talk, a questionnaire was administered and a semi-structured interview was carried out. Finally, the STAI test was administered to measure trait (TAI) and state (SAI) anxiety, both immediately after consultation, and later on, when patients returned home. We observed that the possibility to join a FPP implied important emotional aspects, and that the presence of a psychologist was helpful to integrate technical information and emotions as well as to reduce trait and state anxiety levels. Our study suggests that the presence of a psychologist during the meeting in which a FPP is offered improves communication between doctors and patients, and helps these women to get a full awareness before choosing to join the FPP.
Gynecological endocrinology : the official journal of the International Society of Gynecological Endocrinology. 07/2014;
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The purpose of this article is to investigate the efficacy and safety of frovatriptan plus dexketoprofen 25 or 37.5 mg (FroDex25 or FroDex37.5, respectively) compared to that of frovatriptan 2.5 mg (Frova) in menstrually related migraine (MRM).
Cephalalgia : an international journal of headache. 07/2014;
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: This study was intended to quantify T3 and T4 in various human tissues at different stages of gestation as a contribute in the evaluation of the role of thyroid hormones in fetal development, particularly before the maturation of fetal thyroid function. Moreover, for a better comprehension of the influence of thyroid hormone status in tissues, the study was extended to adults. Embryonic specimens were obtained from voluntary abortions between 6 and 12 weeks of gestation, fetal and neonatal specimens from fetuses and neonates between 15 and 36 weeks of gestation after spontaneous abortion or stillbirth, and adult specimens from men (age range: 45-65 years) after death for cardiovascular diseases. Thyroid hormones were measured by the method of Gordon and coworkers. In embryos T3 and T4 were measured in limbs, carcasses, brain and liver: considering all values measured in the period 9-12 weeks, a mean concentration of 0.11 ng/g for T3 and 1.28 ng/g for T4 was obtained. In pooled limbs of 6-8 weeks T3 was barely measurable (0.01 ng/g). In the carcasses there was an increase in T3 and T4 concentrations of 40 and 20 times respectively from the 9th to the 12th week, when thyroid follicles organization takes place. In fetuses and adults T3 and T4 were measured in brain, heart, kidney, liver, lung, skeletal muscle and skin (mean concentrations: 0.86 ng/g for T3 and 7.44 ng/g for T4 in fetuses and neonates; 1.36 ng/g for T3 and 12.75 ng/g for T4 in adults). Hormones concentration increased with gestational age; the T3/T4 ratio increased until 22-24 weeks, when the prevalent increment in T4 occurs. T3 concentration up to 30 weeks was generally higher in tissues than in cord serum of the corresponding age. During the last month of gestation T3 increment was faster in serum. T4 level was always predominant in serum. In conclusion, T3 and T4 have been detected in the limbs of embryos before the onset of thyroid hormone secretion. Concentrations were 1/150 and 1/70, of the normal maternal blood values respectively. It is conceivable that these hormones are of maternal origin, and the question of whether such small quantities may play a role in fetal development is open.
Journal of endocrinological investigation 07/2014; 14(7):559-68. · 1.65 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Headache patients often consult a pharmacist in an attempt to obtain momentary pain relief without having been given any previous expert advice. A specific questionnaire was distributed to the pharmacies in order to assess the patterns of use and dispensing of analgesic medications to the headache patient who turns to the pharmacist for relief of a painful attack. This study aimed at identifying migraine patients who self-medicated, with further end points including whether these patients shared any particular clinical characteristics, the most common type of analgesic medications used, and what, if anything, was recommended by the pharmacist; lastly, which health care professional, if any, routinely managed the patient's headaches. A total of 9,100 questionnaires were distributed to the pharmacies and the complete 3,065 were included in the database. The ID Migraine Screener Test was used to classify subjects into 4 groups: "Definite migraine" (3/3 positive answers: n = 1,042; 34 %), "Probable migraine" (2/3: n = 969; 31.6 %), "Unlikely migraine" (1/3: n = 630; 20.5 %), and "Other headaches" (0/3: n = 424; 13.8 %). Only Definite and Probable migraines (n = 2,011) are considered in this paper. Amongst the drugs usually taken by the patients, NSAIDs were more common in the Probable migraine group (60.7 %) than in the Definite migraine (44.7 %) group (p < 0.001). On the contrary, triptans were more commonly used by the Definite migraine group (42.9 %) than the Probable migraine (23.7 %) group (p < 0.001), and combination drugs were preferentially (p < 0.001) chosen by the Definite (13.8 %) rather than the Probable migraine group (8.7 %). A total of 29.2 % of respondents reported that for the management of their headaches, they did not avail themselves of any type of professional healthcare, such as their general practitioner, a headache specialist, or a Headache Center.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Some anatomo-functional alterations of the nose may be considered as possible causes of headache: deviations of the nasal septum, abnormal turbinates, especially middle or superior, with consequent areas of mucosal contact with the septum. This study was performed on 100 subjects, 27 chronic migraine (CM) sufferers and 73 subjects who never suffered from migraine as control group. In the CM group, a direct endoscopic assessment was carried out in order to search for mucosal points of contact. Following the endoscopy, the patients underwent a computerized tomography (CT) in order to confirm the mucosal contact and for a better evaluation of its localization. The control group (C group) consisted of subjects who underwent a CT of the skull for various reasons. In CM group, a mucosal contact was highlighted in 14 patients (51.8 %); it was unilateral in 50 % of cases. In C group, the contact was present in 27 cases (36.9 %); in 81.5 % of them (n = 22), it was unilateral. A single site of contact was present in 6 (22 %) patients in CM group and 20 (27.3 %) patients in C group; more sites, in 8 (29.6 %) CM group patients and in 7 (9.5 %) patients of the C group. The connection between subjects and the number of single or multiple contacts in the two groups was statistically significant (p = 0.049). Furthermore, the frequency of the septum-middle turbinate was significantly (p = 0.0013) more frequent in CM sufferers (13/14) compared with control subjects (11/27). This study suggests, although with extremely early data, the need to select carefully patients for a possible surgical approach, using various parameters: in particular, the site of the mucosal contact, favoring the cases with multiple areas of contact, mainly between septum-middle turbinate and septum-superior turbinate.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Although cluster headache (CH) is the most disabling form of primary headache, little evidences regarding alternative and complementary therapies are available. Only few dated studies and some isolated cases are described. We describe four patients with CH treated with acupuncture as a preventive treatment, combined with verapamil or alone. All patients received acupuncture treatment twice/week for 2 weeks, then once/week for 8 weeks, and then once/alternate weeks for 2 weeks. According to Traditional Chinese Medicine the acupoints selected were: Ex HN-5 Taiyang, GB 14 Yangbai (both only on the affected side), GB 20 Fengchi (on both sides), LI 4 Hegu, LR 2 Xingjiang, SP 6 Sanyinjiao, ST 36 Zusanli (all on both sides). At each point, after the insertion of the needle, the feeling of "De Qi" was evoked; after obtaining this sensation the acupoints were not further stimulated for a period of 20 min, until their extraction. In all patients an interruption of cluster attacks was obtained. To our knowledge, this is the first report concerning acupuncture in CH patients which details the protocol approach, acupoints and duration of the treatment. Our results offer the opportunity to discuss the emerging role of acupuncture in the therapy of CH, assuming a possible influence on opioid system.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: An association between obesity and migraine has been observed in recent studies and it is supported by plausible biological mechanisms. The objective of this study is to evaluate the efficacy of frovatriptan and other triptans in the acute treatment of migraine, in patients enrolled in three randomized, double-blind, crossover, Italian studies and classified according to body mass index (BMI) levels, as normal weight or non-obese (NO, BMI 18.5-24.9 kg/m(2)) and overweight or obese subjects (O, BMI ≥ 25 kg/m(2)). 414 migraineurs with or without aura were randomized to frovatriptan 2.5 mg or rizatriptan 10 mg (study 1), frovatriptan 2.5 mg or zolmitriptan 2.5 mg (study 2), frovatriptan 2.5 mg or almotriptan 12.5 mg (study 3). After treating up to three episodes of migraine in 3 months with the first treatment, patients switched to the alternate treatment for the next 3 months. The present analysis assessed triptan efficacy in 220 N and in 109 O subjects of the 346 individuals of the intention-to-treat population. The proportion of pain free at 2 h did not significantly differ between frovatriptan and the comparators in either NO (30 vs. 34 %) or O (24 vs. 27 %). However, the rate of pain free at 2 h was significantly (p < 0.05) larger in NO than in O, irrespective of the type of triptan. Pain relief at 2 h was also similar between drug treatments for either subgroup. Pain relapse occurred at 48 h in significantly (p < 0.05) fewer episodes treated with frovatriptan in both NO (26 vs. 36 %) and O (27 vs. 49 %). The rate of 48-h relapse was similar in NO and O with frovatriptan, while it was significantly (p < 0.05) higher in O with the comparators. Frovatriptan, in contrast to other triptans, retains a sustained antimigraine effect in NO and even more so in O subjects.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: In recent years research explored different acupuncture stimulation techniques but interest has focused primarily on somatic acupuncture and on a limited number of acupoints. As regards ear Acupuncture (EA) there is still some criticism about the clinical specificity of auricular points/areas representing organs or structures of the body. The aim of this study was to verify through (Functional magnetic resonance imaging) fMRI the hypothesis of EA point specificity using two auricular points having different topographical locations and clinical significance. Six healthy volunteers underwent two experimental fMRI sessions: the first was dedicated to the stimulation of Thumb Auricular Acupoint (TAA) and the second to the stimulation of Brain Stem Auricular Acupoint (BSAA). The stimulation of the needle placed in the TAA of the left ear produced an increase in activation bilaterally in the parietal operculum, region of the secondary somatosensory area SII. Stimulation of the needle placed in the BSAA of the left ear showed a pattern that largely overlapped regions belonging to the pain matrix, as shown to be involved in previous somatic acupuncture studies but with local differences in the left amygdala, anterior cingulate cortex, and cerebellum. The differences in activation patterns between TAA and BSAA stimulation support the specificity of the two acupoints. Moreover, the peculiarity of the regions involved in BSAA stimulation compared to those involved in the pain matrix, is in accordance with the therapeutic indications of this acupoint that include head pain, dizziness and vertigo. Our results provide preliminary evidence on the specificity of two auricular acupoints; further research is warranted by means of fMRI both in healthy volunteers and in patients carrying neurological/psychiatric syndromes.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Early triptan use after headache onset may help improve the efficacy of acute migraine treatment. This may be particularly the case when triptan therapy is combined with a nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug (NSAID). The objective of this is to assess whether the combination of frovatriptan 2.5 mg + dexketoprofen 25 or 37.5 mg (FroDex25 and FroDex37.5) is superior to frovatriptan 2.5 mg alone (Frova) in the acute treatment of migraine attacks in patients who took the drug within 30 min from the onset of pain (early use) or after (late use). A total of 314 subjects with a history of migraine with or without aura were randomized into a double-blind, multicenter, parallel group, pilot study to Frova, FroDex25 or FroDex37.5 and were required to treat at least one migraine attack. In the present post hoc analysis, traditional migraine endpoints were compared across study drugs for subgroups of the 279 patients of the full analysis set according to early (n = 172) or late (n = 107) drug use. The proportion of patients pain free at 2 h in the early drug use subgroup was 33 % with Frova, 50 % with FroDex25 and 51 % with FroDex37.5 mg (p = NS combinations vs. monotherapy), while in the late drug use subgroup was 22, 51 and 50 % (p < 0.05 FroDex25 and FroDex37.5 vs. Frova), respectively. Pain-free episodes at 4 h were 54 % for early and 34 % for late use of Frova, 71 and 57 % with FroDex25 and 74 and 68 % with FroDex37.5 (p < 0.05 for early and p < 0.01 for late use vs. Frova). The proportion of sustained pain free at 24 h was 26 % under Frova, 43 % under FroDex25 mg and 40 % under FroDex37.5 mg (p = NS FroDex25 or 37.5 vs. Frova) in the early drug intake subgroup, while it was 19 % under Frova, 43 % under FroDex25 mg and 45 % under FroDex37.5 mg (p < 0.05 FroDex25 and FroDex37.5 vs. Frova) in the late drug intake subgroup. Risk of relapse at 48 h was similar (p = NS) among study drug groups (Frova: 25 %, FroDex25: 21 %, and FroDex37.5: 37 %) for the early as well as for the late drug use subgroup (14, 42 and 32 %). FroDex was found to be more effective than Frova taken either early or late. The intrinsic pharmacokinetic properties of the two single drug components made FroDex combination particularly effective within the 2-48-h window from the onset of the acute migraine attack. The efficacy does not seem to be influenced by the time of drug use relative to the onset of headache.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Migraine is three times as common in females as in males, and attacks may be more severe and difficult to treat in women. However, no study specifically addressed possible gender differences in response to antimigraine therapy. The objective of this study was to review the efficacy of frovatriptan vs. other triptans, in the acute treatment of migraine in subgroups of subjects classified according to gender (men vs. women) through a pooled analysis of three individual randomized Italian studies. 414 patients suffering from migraine with or without aura were randomized to frovatriptan 2.5 mg or rizatriptan 10 mg (study 1), frovatriptan 2.5 mg or zolmitriptan 2.5 mg (study 2), frovatriptan 2.5 mg or almotriptan 12.5 mg (study 3). All studies had a multicenter, randomized, double-blind, crossover design. After treating 1-3 episodes of migraine in no more than 3 months with the first treatment, patients switched to the other treatment for the next 3 months. In this analysis, traditional migraine endpoints were compared between the 66 men and 280 women of the intent-to-treat population. At baseline, long-term and debilitating migraine attacks were more frequently reported by women than men. During the observation period, the proportion of pain-free attacks at 2 h did not significantly differ between frovatriptan and the comparators in either men (32 vs. 38 %, p = NS) or women (30 vs. 33 %, p = NS). Pain relief was also similar between treatments for both genders (men: 56 % frovatriptan vs. 57 % comparators; women: 55 vs. 57 %; p = NS for both). The rate of relapse was significantly lower with frovatriptan than with the comparators in men (24 h: 10 vs. 30 %; 48 h: 21 vs. 39 %; p < 0.05) as well as in women (24 h: 14 vs. 23 %; 48 h: 28 vs. 40 %; p < 0.05). The rate of adverse drug reactions was significantly larger with comparators, irrespectively of gender. Although migraine presents in a more severe form in women, frovatriptan seems to retain its good efficacy and favorable sustained antimigraine effect regardless of the gender.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Acupuncture has been proven to be effective in the treatment of various cardiovascular disorders; it acts both on the peripheral flow and on the cerebral flow. Our study aimed to evaluate the effects of the insertion of PC 6 Neiguan and LR 3 Taichong acupoints on the cerebral blood flow (CBF) in the middle cerebral artery (MCA). These effects were measured in a group of patients suffering from migraine without aura (Group M) and in a healthy control group (Group C). In the study, we included 16 patients suffering from migraine without aura, classified according to the criteria of the International Headache Society, and 14 healthy subjects as a control group. The subjects took part in the study on two different days, and on each day, the effect of a single acupoint was evaluated. Transcranial Doppler was used to measure the blood flow velocity (BFV) in the MCA. Our study showed that the stimulation of PC 6 Neiguan in both groups results in a significant and longlasting reduction in the average BFV in the MCA. After pricking LR 3 Taichong, instead, the average BFV undergoes a very sudden and marked increase; subsequently, it decreases and tends to stabilize at a slightly higher level compared with the baseline, recorded before needle insertion. Our data seem to suggest that these two acupoints have very different effects on CBF. The insertion of PC 6 Neiguan probably triggers a vasodilation in MCA, while the pricking of LR 3 Taichong determines a rapid and marked vasoconstriction.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: This large prospective, randomized study was designed to compare the "mild" protocol with clomiphene citrate, low-dose gonadotropins and a GnRH-antagonist (CC/Gn/GnRH-ant protocol) with the "long" protocol with a GnRH-agonist and high-dose Gn for the controlled ovarian hyperstimulation (COH) of patients with expected poor ovarian responsiveness undergoing IVF.
A total of 695 women with clinical, endocrine and ultrasound characteristics suggesting a low ovarian reserve and a poor responsiveness to COH were recruited and randomly assigned to receive the CC/Gn/GnRH-ant "mild" protocol (mild group, n = 355) or the "long" protocol with high-dose Gn (long group, n = 340).
The "mild" stimulation led to significantly shorter follicular phase, lower consumption of exogenous Gn and lower peak estradiol level than the "long" regimen. With the "long" protocol, significantly less cycles were cancelled due to the lack of ovarian response; further, it obtained significantly more oocytes, more mature oocytes, more embryos, and a thicker endometrium. As for the final IVF outcome, however, the two stimulation regimens obtained comparable implantation rate, clinical pregnancy rate, and ongoing pregnancy rate at 12 weeks.
In conclusion, the "mild" CC/Gn/GnRH-ant stimulation protocol is a valid alternative to the long protocol with high Gn dose as it obtains a comparable success rate and requires significantly less medications, with an obvious economical advantage.
Journal of Assisted Reproduction and Genetics 04/2014; · 1.82 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Multiple sclerosis (MS) is a chronic autoimmune disease of the CNS, which usually affects women during their childbearing years. Several studies have reported that pregnant MS patients have a low risk of disease progression and an even lower risk of exacerbation, especially in the third trimester, with a rise in relapse rate during the first 3 postpartum months. Although it has been demonstrated that pregnancy has no effect either on the lifetime course of the disease or long-term disability, it is not yet known exactly how well informed patients are as to the interactions between pregnancy and MS or how patients perceive the course of the disease during and after pregnancy. The heterogeneity of symptoms and their multifactorial impact on various sectors such as physical, psychological, familial, social and business necessitate the involvement of an interdisciplinary team with various professionals who work both with one another as well as with the MS patient. This article aims at providing the gynecologist with a brief overview of the most commonly encountered questions and situations to be faced when managing a pregnant woman with MS.
Expert Review of Obstetrics & Gynecology 01/2014; 8(3).
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Autophagy is dysregulated in cancer and might be involved in ovarian carcinogenesis. BECLIN-1, a protein that interacts with either BCL-2 or PI3k class III, plays a critical role in the regulation of both autophagy and cell death. Induction of autophagy is associated with the presence of vacuoles characteristically labelled with the protein LC3. We have studied the biological and clinical significance of BECLIN 1 and LC3 in ovary tumours of different histological types. The positive expression of BECLIN 1 was well correlated with the presence of LC3-positive autophagic vacuoles and was inversely correlated with the expression of BCL-2. The latter inhibits the autophagy function of BECLIN 1. We found that type I tumours, which are less aggressive than type II, were more frequently expressing high level of BECLIN 1. Of note, tumours of histologic grade III expressed low level of BECLIN 1. Consistently, high level of expression of BECLIN 1 and LC3 in tumours is well correlated with the overall survival of the patients. The present data are compatible with the hypotheses that a low level of autophagy favours cancer progression and that ovary cancer with upregulated autophagy has a less aggressive behaviour and is more responsive to chemotherapy.
BioMed Research International 01/2014; 2014:462658. · 2.71 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Drugs for migraine attacks include triptans and NSAIDs; their combination could provide greater symptom relief.
A total of 314 subjects with history of migraine, with or without aura, were randomized to frovatriptan 2.5 mg alone (Frova), frovatriptan 2.5 mg + dexketoprofen 25 mg (FroDex25) or frovatriptan 2.5 mg + dexketoprofen 37.5 mg (FroDex37.5) and treated at least one migraine attack. This was a multicenter, randomized, double-blind, parallel-group study. The primary end point was the proportion of pain free (PF) at two hours. Secondary end points were PF at one and four hours, pain relief (PR) at one, two, four hours, sustained PF (SPF) at 24 and 48 hours, recurrence at 48 hours, resolution of nausea, photophobia and phonophobia at two and four hours, the use of rescue medication and the judgment of the treatment.
The results were assessed in the full analysis set (FAS) population, which included all subjects randomized and treated for whom at least one post-dose intensity of headache was recorded.The proportions of subjects PF at two hours (primary end point) were 29% (27/93) with Frova compared with 51% (48/95 FroDex25 and 46/91 FroDex37.5) with each combination therapies ( P < 0.05). Proportions of SPF at 24 hours were 24% (22/93) for Frova, 43% (41/95) for FroDex25 ( P < 0.001) and 42% (38/91) for FroDex37.5 ( P < 0.05). SPF at 48 hours was 23% (21/93) with Frova, 36% (34/95) with FroDex25 and 33% (30/91) with FroDex37.5 ( P = NS). Recurrence was similar for Frova (22%, 6/27), FroDex25 (29%, 14/48) and FroDex37.5 (28%, 13/46) ( P = NS), meaning a lack of improvement with the combination therapy.Statistical adjustment for multiple comparisons was not performed.No statistically significant differences were reported in the occurrence of total and drug-related adverse events.FroDex25 and FroDex37.5 showed a similar efficacy both for primary and secondary end points. There did not seem to be a dose response curve for the addition of dexketoprofen.
FroDex improved initial efficacy at two hours compared to Frova whilst maintaining efficacy at 48 hours in this study. Tolerability profiles were comparable. Intrinsic pharmacokinetic properties of the two single drugs contribute to this improved efficacy profile.