Todd F Markle

University of Washington Seattle, Seattle, Washington, United States

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Publications (9)71.41 Total impact

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    ABSTRACT: Separated concerted proton-electron transfer (sCPET) reactions of two series of phenols with pendent substituted pyridyl moieties are described. The pyridine is either attached directly to the phenol (HOAr-pyX) or connected through a methylene linker (HOArCH2pyX) (X = 4-NO2, 5-CF3, 4-CH3, 4-NMe2). Electron-donating and -withdrawing substituents also have a substantial effect on the chemical environment of the transferring proton, as indicated by IR and 1H NMR spectra, X-ray structures and computational studies. One-electron oxidation of the phenols occurs concomitantly with proton transfer from the phenolic oxygen to the pyridyl nitrogen. The oxidation potentials vary linearly with the pKa of the free pyridine (pyX), with slopes slightly below the Nerstian value of 59 mV/pKa. For the HOArCH2pyX series, the rate constants ksCPET for oxidation by NAr3•+ or [Fe(diimine)3]3+ vary primarily with the thermodynamic driving force (ΔG°sCPET), whether ΔG° is changed by varying the potential of the oxidant or the substituent on the pyridine, indicating a constant intrinsic barrier λ. In contrast, the substituents in the HOAr-pyX series affect λ as well as ΔG°sCPET, and compounds with electron-withdrawing substituents have significantly lower reactivity. The relationship between the structural and spectroscopic properties of the phenols and their CPET reactivity is discussed.
    The Journal of Physical Chemistry A 11/2012; · 2.77 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The oxidation of three phenols, which contain an intramolecular hydrogen bond to a pendent pyridine or amine group, has been shown, in a previous experimental study, to undergo concerted proton-electron transfer (CPET). In this reaction, the electron is transferred to an outer-sphere oxidant, and the proton is transferred from the oxygen to nitrogen atom. In the present study, this reaction is studied computationally using a version of Hammes-Schiffer's multistate continuum theory where CPET is formulated as a transmission frequency between neutral and cation vibrational-electronic states. The neutral and cation proton vibrational wave functions are computed from one-dimensional potential energy surfaces (PESs) for the transferring proton in a fixed heavy atom framework. The overlap integrals for these neutral/cation wave functions, considering several initial (i.e., neutral) and final (i.e., cation) vibrational states, are used to evaluate the relative rates of oxidation. The analysis is extended to heavy atom configurations with various proton donor-acceptor (i.e., O-N) distances to assess the importance of heavy atom "gating". Such changes in d(ON) dramatically affect the nature of the proton PESs and wave functions. Surprisingly, the most reactive configurations have similar donor-acceptor distances despite the large (~0.2 Å) differences in the optimized structures. These theoretical results qualitatively reproduce the experimental faster reactivity of the reaction of the pyridyl derivative 1 versus the CH(2)-pyridyl 2, but the computed factor of 5 is smaller than the experimental 10(2). The amine derivative is calculated to react similarly to 1, which does not agree with the experiments, likely due to some of the simplifying assumptions made in applying the theory. The computed kinetic isotope effects (KIEs) and their temperature dependence are in agreement with experimental results.
    The Journal of Physical Chemistry B 12/2011; 116(1):571-84. · 3.61 Impact Factor
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    Todd F Markle, Ian J Rhile, James M Mayer
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    ABSTRACT: To test the effect of varying the proton donor-acceptor distance in proton-coupled electron transfer (PCET) reactions, the oxidation of a bicyclic amino-indanol (2) is compared with that of a closely related phenol with an ortho CPh(2)NH(2) substituent (1). Spectroscopic, structural, thermochemical, and computational studies show that the two amino-phenols are very similar, except that the O···N distance (d(ON)) is >0.1 Å longer in 2 than in 1. The difference in d(ON) is 0.13 ± 0.03 Å from X-ray crystallography and 0.165 Å from DFT calculations. Oxidations of these phenols by outer-sphere oxidants yield distonic radical cations (•)OAr-NH(3)(+) by concerted proton-electron transfer (CPET). Simple tunneling and classical kinetic models both predict that the longer donor-acceptor distance in 2 should lead to slower reactions, by ca. 2 orders of magnitude, as well as larger H/D kinetic isotope effects (KIEs). However, kinetic studies show that the compound with the longer proton-transfer distance, 2, exhibits smaller KIEs and has rate constants that are quite close to those of 1. For example, the oxidation of 2 by the triarylamminium radical cation N(C(6)H(4)OMe)(3)(•+) (3a(+)) occurs at (1.4 ± 0.1) × 10(4) M(-1) s(-1), only a factor of 2 slower than the closely related reaction of 1 with N(C(6)H(4)OMe)(2)(C(6)H(4)Br)(•+) (3b(+)). This difference in rate constants is well accounted for by the slightly different free energies of reaction: ΔG° (2 + 3a(+)) = +0.078 V versus ΔG° (1 + 3b(+)) = +0.04 V. The two phenol-amines do display some subtle kinetic differences: for instance, compound 2 has a shallower dependence of CPET rate constants on driving force (Brønsted α, Δ ln(k)/Δ ln(K(eq))). These results show that the simple tunneling model is not a good predictor of the effect of proton donor-acceptor distance on concerted-electron transfer reactions involving strongly hydrogen-bonded systems. Computational analysis of the observed similarity of the two phenols emphasizes the importance of the highly anharmonic O···H···N potential energy surface and the influence of proton vibrational excited states.
    Journal of the American Chemical Society 09/2011; 133(43):17341-52. · 10.68 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Reported herein are thermochemical studies of hydrogen atom transfer (HAT) reactions involving transition metal H-atom donors M(II)LH and oxyl radicals. [Fe(II)(H(2)bip)(3)](2+), [Fe(II)(H(2)bim)(3)](2+), [Co(II)(H(2)bim)(3)](2+), and Ru(II)(acac)(2)(py-imH) [H(2)bip = 2,2'-bi-1,4,5,6-tetrahydropyrimidine, H(2)bim = 2,2'-bi-imidazoline, acac = 2,4-pentandionato, py-imH = 2-(2'-pyridyl)imidazole)] each react with TEMPO (2,2,6,6-tetramethyl-1-piperidinoxyl) or (t)Bu(3)PhO(*) (2,4,6-tri-tert-butylphenoxyl) to give the deprotonated, oxidized metal complex M(III)L and TEMPOH or (t)Bu(3)PhOH. Solution equilibrium measurements for the reaction of [Co(II)(H(2)bim)(3)](2+) with TEMPO show a large, negative ground-state entropy for hydrogen atom transfer, -41 +/- 2 cal mol(-1) K(-1). This is even more negative than the DeltaS(o)(HAT) = -30 +/- 2 cal mol(-1) K(-1) for the two iron complexes and the DeltaS(o)(HAT) for Ru(II)(acac)(2)(py-imH) + TEMPO, 4.9 +/- 1.1 cal mol(-1) K(-1), as reported earlier. Calorimetric measurements quantitatively confirm the enthalpy of reaction for [Fe(II)(H(2)bip)(3)](2+) + TEMPO, thus also confirming DeltaS(o)(HAT). Calorimetry on TEMPOH + (t)Bu(3)PhO(*) gives DeltaH(o)(HAT) = -11.2 +/- 0.5 kcal mol(-1) which matches the enthalpy predicted from the difference in literature solution BDEs. A brief evaluation of the literature thermochemistry of TEMPOH and (t)Bu(3)PhOH supports the common assumption that DeltaS(o)(HAT) approximately 0 for HAT reactions of organic and small gas-phase molecules. However, this assumption does not hold for transition metal based HAT reactions. The trend in magnitude of |DeltaS(o)(HAT)| for reactions with TEMPO, Ru(II)(acac)(2)(py-imH) < [Fe(II)(H(2)bip)(3)](2+) = [Fe(II)(H(2)bim)(3)](2+) < [Co(II)(H(2)bim)(3)](2+), is surprisingly well predicted by the trends for electron transfer half-reaction entropies, DeltaS(o)(ET), in aprotic solvents. This is because both DeltaS(o)(ET) and DeltaS(o)(HAT) have substantial contributions from vibrational entropy, which varies significantly with the metal center involved. The close connection between DeltaS(o)(HAT) and DeltaS(o)(ET) provides an important link between these two fields and provides a starting point from which to predict which HAT systems will have important ground-state entropy effects.
    Journal of the American Chemical Society 04/2009; 131(12):4335-45. · 10.68 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: A series of seven substituted 4,6-di-tert-butyl-2-(4,5-diarylimidazolyl)-phenols have been prepared and characterized, along with two related benzimidazole compounds. X-ray crystal structures of all of the compounds show that the phenol and imidazole rings are close to coplanar and are connected by an intramolecular ArOHN hydrogen bond. One-electron oxidation of these compounds occurs with movement of the phenolic proton to the imidazole base by concerted proton-electron transfer (CPET) to yield fairly stable distonic radical cations. These phenol-base compounds are a valuable system in which to examine the key features of CPET. Kinetic measurements of bimolecular CPET oxidations, with E(rxn) between +0.04 and -0.33 V, give rate constants from (6.3 +/- 0.6) x 10(2) to (3.0 +/- 0.6) x 10(6) M(-1) s(-1). There is a good correlation of log(k) with DeltaG degrees , with only one of the 15 rate constants falling more than a factor of 5.2 from the correlation line. Substituents on the imidazole affect the (O-HN) hydrogen bond, as marked by variations in the (1)H NMR and calculated vibrational spectra and geometries. Crystallographic d(ON) values appear to be more strongly affected by crystal packing forces. However, there is almost no correlation of rate constants with any of these measured or computed parameters. Over this range of compounds from the same structural family, the dominant contributor to the differences in rate constant is the driving force DeltaG degrees .
    Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences 07/2008; 105(24):8185-90. · 9.74 Impact Factor
  • Todd F Markle, James M Mayer
    Angewandte Chemie International Edition 02/2008; 47(4):738-40. · 13.73 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Crystals of the 2,4,6-tri-tert-butylphenoxyl radical have been isolated and characterized by X-ray diffraction, and calculations have been performed that give the distribution of spin density in the radical.
    Chemical Communications 02/2008; · 6.38 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Three phenols with pendant, hydrogen-bonded bases (HOAr-B) have been oxidized in MeCN with various one-electron oxidants. The bases are a primary amine (-CPh(2)NH(2)), an imidazole, and a pyridine. The product of chemical and quasi-reversible electrochemical oxidations in each case is the phenoxyl radical in which the phenolic proton has transferred to the base, (*)OAr-BH(+), a proton-coupled electron transfer (PCET) process. The redox potentials for these oxidations are lower than for other phenols, predominately from the driving force for proton movement. One-electron oxidation of the phenols occurs by a concerted proton-electron transfer (CPET) mechanism, based on thermochemical arguments, isotope effects, and DeltaDeltaG(++)/DeltaDeltaG degrees . The data rule out stepwise paths involving initial electron transfer to form the phenol radical cations [(*)(+)HOAr-B] or initial proton transfer to give the zwitterions [(-)OAr-BH(+)]. The rate constant for heterogeneous electron transfer from HOAr-NH(2) to a platinum electrode has been derived from electrochemical measurements. For oxidations of HOAr-NH(2), the dependence of the solution rate constants on driving force, on temperature, and on the nature of the oxidant, and the correspondence between the homogeneous and heterogeneous rate constants, are all consistent with the application of adiabatic Marcus theory. The CPET reorganization energies, lambda = 23-56 kcal mol(-)(1), are large in comparison with those for electron transfer reactions of aromatic compounds. The reactions are not highly non-adiabatic, based on minimum values of H(rp) derived from the temperature dependence of the rate constants. These are among the first detailed analyses of CPET reactions where the proton and electron move to different sites.
    Journal of the American Chemical Society 06/2006; 128(18):6075-88. · 10.68 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The coupling of proton and electron transfers is a key part of the chemistry of photosynthesis. The oxidative side of photosystem II (PS II) in particular seems to involve a number of proton-coupled electron transfer (PCET) steps in the S-state transitions. This mini-review presents an overview of recent studies of PCET model systems in the authors' laboratory. PCET is defined as a chemical reaction involving concerted transfer of one electron and one proton. These are thus distinguished from stepwise pathways involving initial electron transfer (ET) or initial proton transfer (PT). Hydrogen atom transfer (HAT) reactions are one class of PCET, in which H(+) and e (-) are transferred from one reagent to another: AH + B --> A + BH, roughly along the same path. Rate constants for many HAT reactions are found to be well predicted by the thermochemistry of hydrogen transfer and by Marcus Theory. This includes organic HAT reactions and reactions of iron-tris(alpha-diimine) and manganese-(mu-oxo) complexes. In PS II, HAT has been proposed as the mechanism by which the tyrosine Z radical (Y(Z)*) oxidizes the manganese cluster (the oxygen evolving complex, OEC). Another class of PCET reactions involves transfer of H(+) and e (-) in different directions, for instance when the proton and electron acceptors are different reagents, as in AH-B + C(+) --> A-HB(+) + C. The oxidation of Y(Z) by the chlorophyll P680 + has been suggested to occur by this mechanism. Models for this process - the oxidation of phenols with a pendent base - are described. The oxidation of the OEC by Y(Z)* could also occur by this second class of PCET reactions, involving an Mn-O-H fragment of the OEC. Initial attempts to model such a process using ruthenium-aquo complexes are described.
    Photosynthesis Research 01/2006; 87(1):3-20. · 3.15 Impact Factor