[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Endothelial-mesenchymal transition (EndoMT) has been recognized as a key determinant of tumor microenvironment in cancer progression and metastasis. Endothelial cells undergoing EndoMT lose their endothelial markers, acquire the mesenchymal phenotype and become more invasive with increased migratory abilities. Early stages of esophageal adenocarcinoma (EAC) are characterized by strong microvasculature whose impact in tumor progression remains undefined. Our aim was to determine the role of EndoMT in esophageal adenocarcinoma by investigating the impact of tumor cells on normal primary human esophageal microvascular endothelial cells (HEMEC).
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Increased intraluminal pressure can reduce endothelial function in resistance arteries; however the mechanism of this impairment is unknown. The purpose of this study was to determine the effect of local renin-angiotensin system inhibition on the pressure-induced blunting of endothelium-dependent vasodilation in human adipose arterioles. Arterioles (100-200 µm) were dissected from fresh adipose surgical specimens, cannulated onto glass micropipettes, pressurized to an intraluminal pressure of 60 mmHg, and constricted with endothelin-1. Vasodilation to acetylcholine (ACh) was assessed at 60 mmHg, and again after a 30 minute exposure to an intraluminal pressure of 150 mmHg. The vasodilator response to ACh was significantly reduced in vessels exposed to 150 mmHg. Exposing the vessels to the superoxide scavenger PEG-SOD (100 U/mL), the AT1 receptor antagonist losartan (10(-6) mol/L), or the ACE inhibitor captopril (10(-5) mol/L) prevented the pressure-induced reduction in acetylcholine-dependent vasodilation observed in untreated vessels. High intraluminal pressure had no effect on papaverine-induced vasodilation or angiotensin II sensitivity. Increased intraluminal pressure increased dihydroethidium fluorescence in cannulated vessels, which could be prevented by PEG-SOD or losartan treatment, and endothelial denudation. These data indicate that high intraluminal pressure can increase vascular superoxide and reduce NO-mediated vasodilation via activation of the vascular renin-angiotensin system. This study provides evidence that the local renin-angiotensin system in the human microvasculature may be pressure sensitive, and contribute to endothelial dysfunction after acute bouts of hypertension.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) has a bimodal distribution with approximately 15 % of patients manifesting after age 65. Previous reports suggest an increased risk of surgical complications in the elderly.
To compare surgical outcomes in elderly IBD patients (≥65 years at the time of surgery) to matched younger IBD cohorts.
This was a retrospective cohort study at a single academic center of patients who underwent surgery for IBD. Forty-two elderly patients (≥65 years) were matched at least 1:1 (median 1:5) to patients in each of three control groups [18-35 years (n = 71); 36-49 years (n = 62); 50-64 years (n = 58)] according to gender, disease type/location, and type of surgery. Postoperative complications were compared. Patient characteristics were used in multivariate risk models. Analysis was performed using ordinary logistic regression.
Twenty ileal or ileocolonic resections, 12 partial or total colectomies, four stricturoplasties, and six laparoscopic partial or total colectomies were performed in the elderly group. The post-operative complication rate was not statistically different between the elderly and younger cohorts (38 % vs. 39 % vs. 40 % vs. 48 % in the 18-35, 36-49, 50-64, and ≥65 years groups, respectively, p = 0.26). The only significant risk factors for complication were Charlson comorbidity index (p = 0.0002), preoperative hemoglobin (p = 0.0065), total parenteral nutrition use (p = 0.024), and failed medical therapy (as the indication for surgery) (p = <0.0001).
The surgical complication rate among elderly and younger IBD patients was similar. Advanced age by itself should not be considered a risk factor for adverse operative outcome.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Gastrointestinal (GI) surgery associated with resection or bypass can affect the absorption and kinetics of certain drugs. The goal of this article is 3-fold: (1) highlight the physiologic changes associated with selected GI surgeries (specifically gastric, small intestine, and colon), (2) review the implications for drug and nutrient absorption, and (3) suggest modifications of the pharmacologic agents, dosing regimens, and routes of delivery. Few large trials are available to use as references, but there is a wealth of individual reports and small series. Understanding the predictable challenges of drug administration in these patients will improve care.
Nutrition in Clinical Practice 07/2013; 28(4). DOI:10.1177/0884533613490740 · 2.40 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: To elucidate the signaling mechanisms involved in the protective effect of EUK-207 against irradiation-induced cellular damage and apoptosis in human intestinal microvasculature endothelial cells (HIMEC).
HIMECs were irradiated and treated with EUK-207. Using hydroethidine and DCF-DA fluorescent probe the intracellular superoxide and reactive oxygen species (ROS) were determined. By real-time PCR and western blotting caspase-3, Bcl2 and Bax genes and proteins were analyzed. Proliferation was determined by [(3)H]-thymidine uptake. Immunofluorescence staining was used for translocation of p65 NFκB subunit. KEY FINDING: Irradiation increased ROS production, apoptosis, Bax, Caspase3 and NFkB activity in HIMEC and inhibited cell survival/growth/proliferation. EUK-207 restored the endothelial functions, markedly inhibited the ROS, up-regulated the Bcl2 and down-regulated Bax and prevented NFκB caspase 3 activity in HIMEC.
HIMEC provide a novel model to define the effect of irradiation induced endothelial dysfunction. Our findings suggest that EUK-207 effectively inhibits the damaging effect of irradiation.
Life sciences 08/2012; 91(15-16):771-82. DOI:10.1016/j.lfs.2012.08.018 · 2.70 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: GSK962040, a small molecule motilin receptor agonist, was identified to address the need for a safe, efficacious gastric prokinetic agent. However, as laboratory rodents lack a functional motilin system, studies in vivo have been limited to a single dose, which increased defecation in rabbits. Motilin agonists do not usually increase human colonic motility, so gastric prokinetic activity needs to be demonstrated.
The effect of intravenous GSK962040 on gastro-duodenal motility was assessed in fasted dogs implanted with strain gauges. Activity was correlated with blood plasma concentrations of GSK962040 (measured by HPLC-MS/MS) and potency of GSK962040 at the dog recombinant receptor [using a Fluorometric Imaging Plate Reader (Molecular Devices, Wokingham, UK) after expression in HEK293 cells].
GSK962040 activated the dog motilin receptor (pEC(50) 5.79; intrinsic activity 0.72, compared with [Nle(13) ]-motilin). In vivo, GSK962040 induced phasic contractions, the duration of which was dose-related (48 and 173 min for 3 and 6 mg kg(-1) ), driven by mean plasma concentrations >1.14 μmol L(-1) . After the effects of GSK962040 faded, migrating motor complex (MMC) activity returned. Migrating motor complex restoration was unaffected by 3 mg kg(-1) GSK962040 but at 6 mg kg(-1) , MMCs returned 253 min after dosing, compared with 101 min after saline (n=5 each).
The results are consistent with lower potency for agonists at the dog motilin receptor, compared with humans. They also define the doses of GSK962040 which stimulate gastric motility. Correlation of in vivo and in vitro data in the same species, together with plasma concentrations, guides further studies and translation to other species.
Neurogastroenterology and Motility 10/2011; 23(10):958-e410. DOI:10.1111/j.1365-2982.2011.01770.x · 3.59 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Radiation increases the frequency of small intestinal and colonic giant migrating contractions (GMCs). These contractions contribute to the diarrhea and cramping after radiation therapy and are coordinated with one another across the ileocolonic (IC) junction.
We investigated the coordination of contractile activity between the small intestine, cecum and colon in five canines following circumferential myotomy on the ileum at the IC junction and compared it to intact animals. Studies were performed before and during a radiation schedule.
Myotomy increased the frequency of small intestinal GMCs prior to irradiation. In intact animals, the duration and amplitude of cecal GMCs decreased when multiple contractions occurred in rapid succession. This is in contrast to small intestinal and colonic GMCs and suggests a different mechanism of propagation for GMCs within the cecum. Ileal myotomy dramatically decreased the frequency of propagating radiation-induced colonic GMCs. The total number of colonic GMCs was not altered. Colonic contractile activity was disrupted in intact animals during irradiation. However, after ileal myotomy, irradiation did not affect the pattern of colonic contractile states. Diarrhea in irradiated animals with myotomy started earlier than intact animals. This may be related to the frequency of small intestinal GMCs.
Our findings suggest importance of the enteric neural connections at the IC region to contractile disorders of both the small and large intestine. The anatomic relationship between the canine IC junction is similar to the human ileo-appendiceal-colonic region and surgical manipulations of this area may likewise affect human contractile activity.
Neurogastroenterology and Motility 08/2010; 22(8):919-26. DOI:10.1111/j.1365-2982.2010.01509.x · 3.59 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Since September 11, 2001, there has been the recognition of a plausible threat from acts of terrorism, including radiological or nuclear attacks. A network of Centers for Medical Countermeasures against Radiation (CMCRs) has been established across the U.S.; one of the missions of this network is to identify and develop mitigating agents that can be used to treat the civilian population after a radiological event. The development of such agents requires comparison of data from many sources and accumulation of information consistent with the "Animal Rule" from the Food and Drug Administration (FDA). Given the necessity for a consensus on appropriate animal model use across the network to allow for comparative studies to be performed across institutions, and to identify pivotal studies and facilitate FDA approval, in early 2008, investigators from each of the CMCRs organized and met for an Animal Models Workshop. Working groups deliberated and discussed the wide range of animal models available for assessing agent efficacy in a number of relevant tissues and organs, including the immune and hematopoietic systems, gastrointestinal tract, lung, kidney and skin. Discussions covered the most appropriate species and strains available as well as other factors that may affect differential findings between groups and institutions. This report provides the workshop findings.
Radiation Research 04/2010; 173(4):557-78. DOI:10.1667/RR1880.1 · 2.91 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Radiation therapy is an essential modality in the treatment of colorectal cancers. Radiation exerts an antiangiogenic effect on tumors, inhibiting endothelial proliferation and survival in the tumor microvasculature. However, damage from low levels of irradiation can induce a paradoxical effect, stimulating survival in endothelial cells. We used human intestinal microvascular endothelial cells (HIMEC) to define effects of radiation on these gut-specific endothelial cells. Low-level irradiation (1-5 Gy) activates NF-kappaB and the phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K)/Akt pathway, which is involved in cell cycle reentry and cell survival in HIMEC. A downstream target of PI3K/Akt is mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR), which contributes to endothelial proliferation and angiogenesis. The aim of this study was to investigate the signaling molecules involved in the radiosensitizing effects of curcumin on HIMEC subjected to low levels of irradiation. We have demonstrated that exposure of HIMEC to low levels of irradiation induced Akt and mTOR phosphorylation, which was attenuated by curcumin, rapamycin, LY294002, and mTOR small interference RNA (siRNA). Activation of NF-kappaB by low levels of irradiation was inhibited by curcumin, SN-50, and mTOR siRNA. Curcumin also induced apoptosis by induction of caspase-3 cleavage in irradiated HIMEC. In conclusion, curcumin significantly inhibited NF-kappaB and attenuated the effect of irradiation-induced prosurvival signaling through the PI3K/Akt/mTOR and NF-kappaB pathways in these gut-specific endothelial cells. Curcumin may be a potential radiosensitizing agent for enhanced antiangiogenic effect in colorectal cancer radiation therapy.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Since the patient's skin is a major source of pathogens that cause surgical-site infection, optimization of preoperative skin antisepsis may decrease postoperative infections. We hypothesized that preoperative skin cleansing with chlorhexidine-alcohol is more protective against infection than is povidone-iodine.
We randomly assigned adults undergoing clean-contaminated surgery in six hospitals to preoperative skin preparation with either chlorhexidine-alcohol scrub or povidone-iodine scrub and paint. The primary outcome was any surgical-site infection within 30 days after surgery. Secondary outcomes included individual types of surgical-site infections.
A total of 849 subjects (409 in the chlorhexidine-alcohol group and 440 in the povidone-iodine group) qualified for the intention-to-treat analysis. The overall rate of surgical-site infection was significantly lower in the chlorhexidine-alcohol group than in the povidone-iodine group (9.5% vs. 16.1%; P=0.004; relative risk, 0.59; 95% confidence interval, 0.41 to 0.85). Chlorhexidine-alcohol was significantly more protective than povidone-iodine against both superficial incisional infections (4.2% vs. 8.6%, P=0.008) and deep incisional infections (1% vs. 3%, P=0.05) but not against organ-space infections (4.4% vs. 4.5%). Similar results were observed in the per-protocol analysis of the 813 patients who remained in the study during the 30-day follow-up period. Adverse events were similar in the two study groups.
Preoperative cleansing of the patient's skin with chlorhexidine-alcohol is superior to cleansing with povidone-iodine for preventing surgical-site infection after clean-contaminated surgery. (ClinicalTrials.gov number, NCT00290290.)
New England Journal of Medicine 01/2010; 362(1):18-26. DOI:10.1056/NEJMoa0810988 · 55.87 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The glutamic acid derivative thalidomide is a transcriptional inhibitor of TNF-alpha but is also known to affect human blood vessels, which may underlie its teratogenicity. Thalidomide has been used in the treatment of refractory Crohn's disease (CD), but the therapeutic mechanism is not defined. We examined the effect of thalidomide on primary cultures of human intestinal microvascular endothelial cells (HIMEC), the relevant endothelial cell population in inflammatory bowel disease (IBD), to determine its effect on endothelial activation, leukocyte interaction, and VEGF-induced angiogenesis. HIMEC cultures were pretreated with thalidomide before activation with either TNF-alpha/LPS or VEGF. A low-shear-stress flow adhesion assay with either U-937 or whole blood was used to assess HIMEC activation following TNF-alpha/LPS, and a Wright's stain identified adherent leukocytes. Expression of cell adhesion molecules (E-selectin, intercellular adhesion molecule-1, vascular cell adhesion molecule-1) was assessed using radioimmunoassay. Effects of thalidomide on NF-kappaB activation, cyclooxygenase (COX)-2, and inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) expression in TNF-alpha/LPS-activated HIMEC were determined by RT-PCR and Western blotting. Thalidomide blocked adhesion of both U-937 and whole blood leukocytes by 50% in HIMEC, inhibiting binding of all classes of leukocytes. Thalidomide also blocked NF-kappaB and cell adhesion molecule expression in HIMEC. In marked contrast, thalidomide did not affect either iNOS or COX-2 expression, two key molecules that play a role in the downregulation of HIMEC activation. VEGF-induced HIMEC transmigration, growth, proliferation, tube formation, and Akt phosphorylation were significantly inhibited by thalidomide. In summary, thalidomide exerted a potent effect on HIMEC growth and activation, suggesting that it may also function via an endothelial mechanism in the treatment of CD.