[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND Rectal linitis plastica (RLP) is a rare disease with poor outcome. It is often accompanied by a delayed histopathological diagnosis, primarily due to submucosal disease. A concentric ring pattern or "target sign" on T2-weighted magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) has been proposed as being characteristic for early suspicion. Even though RLP is more aggressive and has poorer survival than other rectal adenocarcinomas, no specific treatment is recommended. In this case report of 3 patients, we challenge the sensitivity of the characteristic radiological pattern, and we review the existing data for a treatment strategy. CASE REPORT One patient presented classic clinical characteristics of RLP with young age and advanced stage at diagnosis, with chemo-refractory disease and rapid fatal evolution. Biopsies confirmed the RLP with the presence of signet-ring cells (SRC) in a strong desmoplastic stromal reaction. However, the characteristic concentric ring pattern was absent. Instead, he had a large vegetative lesion with important tumor infiltration in mesorectum and pelvic organs, with major lymph node involvement. The 2 other patients presented resectable locally advanced disease with characteristic concentric ring pattern. No clinical and radiological responses were observed to neo-adjuvant chemoradiotherapy (CRT), including 1 patient with non-resectable disease at surgery and another with upstaged disease at pathological specimen after resection. However, data suggest 2 types of RLP: about half of patients are extremely sensitive to CRT with pathological complete response, and the other half are highly resistant with no response to CRT. Current data are insufficient to distinguish between these 2 populations. CONCLUSIONS The absence of a concentric ring pattern should not eliminate the suspicion of RLP, especially in young patients with aggressive clinical presentation. There are probably 2 types of RLP in terms of chemoradiosensitivity, and neoadjuvant CRT could delay the curative-intent surgery in refractory patients. Future molecular analysis of the tumor and its environment are required to characterize the 2 different forms of RLP to develop more personalized treatment strategies.
American Journal of Case Reports 08/2015; 16:581-585. DOI:10.12659/AJCR.893830
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Objective: The study objectives were to analyze the impact of the number of lymph nodes (LNs) reported as resected (NLNr) and the number of LNs invaded (NLNi) on the prognosis of esophageal cancer (EC) after neoadjuvant chemoradiotherapy. Background: Pathological LN status is a major disease prognostic factor and marker of surgical quality. The impact of neoadjuvant chemoradiation (nCRT) on LN status remains poorly studied in EC. Methods: Post hoc analysis from a phase III randomized controlled trial comparing nCRT and surgery (group nCRT) to surgery alone (group S) in stage I and II EC (NCT00047112). Only patients who underwent surgical resection were considered (n = 170). Results: nCRT resulted in tumoral downstaging (pT0, 40.7% vs 1.1%, P < 0.001), LN downstaging (pN0, 69.1% vs 47.2%, P = 0.016), and reduction in the median NLNr [16.0 (range, 0-47.0) vs 22.0 (range, 3.0-58.0), P = 0.001] and NLNi [0 (range, 0-25) vs 1.0 (range, 0-25), P = 0.001]. A good histological response (TRG1/2) in the resected esophageal specimen correlated with reduced median NLNi [0 (range, 0-10) vs 1.0 (range, 0-4), P = 0.007]. After adjustment by treatment, NLNi [hazards ratio (HR) (1-3 vs 0) 3.5, 95% confidence interval (CI): 2.3-5.5, and HR (>3 vs 0) 3.5, 95% CI: 2.0-6.2, P < 0.001] correlated with prognosis, whereas NLNr [HR (<15 vs >=15) 0.95, 95% CI: 0.6-1.4, P = 0.807 and HR (<23 vs >=23) 1.4, 95% CI: 0.9-2.0, P = 0.131] did not. In Poisson regression analysis, nCRT was an independent predictive variable for reduced NLNr [exp(coefficient) 0.80, 95% CI: 0.66-0.96, P = 0.018]. Conclusions: nCRT is not only responsible for disease downstaging but also predicts fewer LNs being identified after surgical resection for EC. This has implications for the current quality criteria for surgical resection.
Annals of Surgery 10/2014; 261(5). DOI:10.1097/SLA.0000000000000991 · 8.33 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Purpose:
Although often investigated in locally advanced esophageal cancer (EC), the impact of neoadjuvant chemoradiotherapy (NCRT) in early stages is unknown. The aim of this multicenter randomized phase III trial was to assess whether NCRT improves outcomes for patients with stage I or II EC.
The primary end point was overall survival. Secondary end points were disease-free survival, postoperative morbidity, in-hospital mortality, R0 resection rate, and prognostic factor identification. From June 2000 to June 2009, 195 patients in 30 centers were randomly assigned to surgery alone (group S; n = 97) or NCRT followed by surgery (group CRT; n = 98). CRT protocol was 45 Gy in 25 fractions over 5 weeks with two courses of concomitant chemotherapy composed of fluorouracil 800 mg/m(2) and cisplatin 75 mg/m(2). We report the long-term results of the final analysis, after a median follow-up of 93.6 months.
Pretreatment disease was stage I in 19.0%, IIA in 53.3%, and IIB in 27.7% of patients. For group CRT compared with group S, R0 resection rate was 93.8% versus 92.1% (P = .749), with 3-year overall survival rate of 47.5% versus 53.0% (hazard ratio [HR], 0.99; 95% CI, 0.69 to 1.40; P = .94) and postoperative mortality rate of 11.1% versus 3.4% (P = .049), respectively. Because interim analysis of the primary end point revealed an improbability of demonstrating the superiority of either treatment arm (HR, 1.09; 95% CI, 0.75 to 1.59; P = .66), the trial was stopped for anticipated futility.
Compared with surgery alone, NCRT with cisplatin plus fluorouracil does not improve R0 resection rate or survival but enhances postoperative mortality in patients with stage I or II EC.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Background
EORTC trial 22921 examined the addition of preoperative or postoperative chemotherapy to preoperative radiotherapy in patients with rectal cancer. After a median follow-up of 5 years, chemotherapy—irrespective of timing—significantly improved local control. Adjuvant chemotherapy did not improve survival, but the Kaplan-Meier curves diverged, suggesting possible delayed benefit. Here, we report the updated long-term results.
We randomly assigned patients with clinical stage T3 or T4 resectable rectal cancer to receive preoperative radiotherapy with or without concomitant chemotherapy before surgery followed by either adjuvant chemotherapy or surveillance. Randomisation was done using minimisation with factors of institution, sex, T stage, and distance from the tumour to the anal verge. Study coordinators, clinicians, and patients were aware of assignment. Radiotherapy consisted of 45 Gy to the posterior pelvis in 25 fractions of 1·8 Gy over 5 weeks. Each course of chemotherapy consisted of fluorouracil (350 mg/m2 per day intravenous bolus) and folinic acid (leucovorin; 20 mg/m2 per day intravenous bolus). For preoperative chemotherapy, two courses were given (during weeks 1 and 5 of radiotherapy). Adjuvant chemotherapy was given in four cycles, every 3 weeks. The primary endpoint was overall survival. This analysis was done by intention to treat. The trial is registered with ClinicalTrials.gov, number NCT00002523.
1011 patients were randomly assigned to treatment between April, 1993, and March, 2003 (252 to preoperative radiotherapy and 253 to each of the other three groups). After a median follow-up of 10·4 years (IQR 7·8–13·1), 10-year overall survival was 49·4% (95% CI 44·6–54·1) for the preoperative radiotherapy group and 50·7% (45·9–55·2) for the preoperative radiotherapy and chemotherapy group (HR 0·99, 95% CI 0·83–1·18; p=0·91). 10-year overall survival was 51·8% (95% CI 47·0–56·4) for the adjuvant chemotherapy group and 48·4% (43·6–53·0) for the surveillance group (HR 0·91, 95% CI 0·77–1·09, p=0·32). 10-year disease-free survival was 44·2% (95% CI 39·5–48·8) for the preoperative radiotherapy group and 46·4% (41·7–50·9) for the preoperative radiotherapy and chemotherapy group (HR 0·93, 95% CI 0·79–1·10; p=0·38). 10-year disease-free survival was 47·0% (95% CI 42·2–51·6) for the adjuvant chemotherapy group and 43·7% (39·1–48·2) for the surveillance group (HR 0·91, 95% CI 0·77–1·08, p=0·29). At 10 years, cumulative incidence of local relapse was 22·4% (95% CI 17·1–27·6) with radiotherapy alone, 11·8% (7·8–15·8) with neoadjuvant radiotherapy and chemotherapy, 14·5% (10·1–18·9) with radiotherapy and adjuvant chemotherapy and 11·7% (7·7–15·6) with both adjuvant and neoadjuvant chemotherapy (p=0·0017). There was no difference in cumulative incidence of distant metastases (p=0·52). The frequency of long-term side-effects did not differ between the four groups (p=0·22).
Adjuvant fluorouracil-based chemotherapy after preoperative radiotherapy (with or without chemotherapy) does not affect disease-free survival or overall survival. Our trial does not support the current practice of adjuvant chemotherapy after preoperative radiotherapy with or without chemotherapy. New treatment strategies incorporating neoadjuvant chemotherapy are required.
EORTC, US National Cancer Institute, Programme Hospitalier de Recherche Clinique, Ligue contre le Cancer Comité du Doubs.
The Lancet Oncology 02/2014; 15(2). DOI:10.1016/S1470-2045(13)70599-0 · 24.69 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: In the oncology setting, there has been increasing interest in evaluating treatment outcomes in terms of quality of life and patient satisfaction. The aim of our study was to investigate the determinants of patient satisfaction, especially the relationship between quality of life and satisfaction with care and their changes over time, in curative treatment of cancer outpatients.
Patients undergoing ambulatory chemotherapy or radiotherapy in two centers in France were invited to complete the OUT-PATSAT35, at the beginning of treatment, at the end of treatment, and three months after treatment. This questionnaire evaluates patients' perception of doctors and nurses, as well as other aspects of care organization and services. Additionally, for each patient, socio-demographic and clinical characteristics, and self-reported quality of life data (EORTC QLQ-C30) were collected.
Of the 691 patients initially included, 561 answered the assessment at all three time points. By cross-sectional analysis, at the end of the treatment, patients who experienced a deterioration of their global health reported less satisfaction on most scales (p <= 0.001). Three months after treatment, the same patients had lower satisfaction scores only in the evaluation of doctors (p <= 0.002). Furthermore, longitudinal analysis showed a significant relationship between a deterioration in global health and a decrease in satisfaction with their doctor and, conversely, between an improvement in global health and an increase in satisfaction on the overall satisfaction scale. Global health at baseline was largely and significantly associated with all satisfaction scores measured at the following assessment time points (p < 0.0001). Younger age (<55 years), radiotherapy (versus chemotherapy) and head and neck cancer (versus other localizations) were clinical factors significantly associated with less satisfaction on most scales evaluating doctors.
Pre-treatment self-evaluated global health was found to be the major determinant of patient satisfaction with care. The subsequent deterioration of global health, during and after treatment, emphasized the decrease in satisfaction scores, mainly in the evaluation of doctors. Early initiatives aimed at improving the delivery of care in patients with poor health status should lead to improved perception of the quality of care received.
BMC Cancer 01/2014; 14(1):42. DOI:10.1186/1471-2407-14-42 · 3.36 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Many studies have reported that most invasive anal carcinomas contain high-risk human papillomaviruses (HPVs), HPV16 being the most prevalent type. This study aimed to investigate HPV status and cellular biomarkers in invasive anal cancers. HPV genotype distribution was determined in 76 anal cancers by the INNO-LiPA assay (Innogenetics, Gent, Belgium). HPV16-positive samples were then tested for viral load and physical state with type-specific real-time polymerase chain reaction targeting E6, E2, and albumin genes. Samples were also subjected to immunohistochemical analysis of p16, Ki-67, p53, and p21. Of the analyzable tumors, 98.6% were positive for α-HPV DNA. HPV16 was the most prevalent genotype (89.0%), followed by HPV39 (4.1%) and HPV33 (2.7%). HPV16 viral load was high, ranging from 2.1 × 10(3) to 1.5 × 10(7) copies/10(3) cells. Integration of HPV16 estimated by the E2/E6 ratio was detected in 77.8% of cases, among which 70.4% were mixed integrated and episomal DNA cases and 7.4% were fully integrated DNA cases. The latter cases were associated with a low HPV16 load compared with cases containing either episomes or mixed integrated and episomal DNA. As expected, most HPV16-positive tumors expressed p16 (92.6%) with a high proliferative index, whereas a minority of them overexpressed p53 (10.3%). p21 expression did not appear to correlate with p53 expression. Although HPV16 was almost exclusively detected, high viral load and differences in DNA integration have been identified in the present series of anal cancers. HPV features assessed in conjunction with expression of cell-cycle regulators could be helpful, as joint biomarkers, in predicting clinical outcome.
Human pathology 12/2012; 44(6). DOI:10.1016/j.humpath.2012.08.019 · 2.77 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND: We report the long-term results of a trial of immediate postoperative irradiation versus a wait-and-see policy in patients with prostate cancer extending beyond the prostate, to confirm whether previously reported progression-free survival was sustained. METHODS: This randomised, phase 3, controlled trial recruited patients aged 75 years or younger with untreated cT0-3 prostate cancer (WHO performance status 0 or 1) from 37 institutions across Europe. Eligible patients were randomly assigned centrally (1:1) to postoperative irradiation (60 Gy of conventional irradiation to the surgical bed for 6 weeks) or to a wait-and-see policy until biochemical progression (increase in prostate-specific antigen >0·2 μg/L confirmed twice at least 2 weeks apart). We analysed the primary endpoint, biochemical progression-free survival, by intention to treat (two-sided test for difference at α=0.05, adjusted for one interim analysis) and did exploratory analyses of heterogeneity of effect. This trial is registered with ClinicalTrials.gov, number NCT00002511. FINDINGS: 1005 patients were randomly assigned to a wait-and-see policy (n=503) or postoperative irradiation (n=502) and were followed up for a median of 10·6 years (range 2 months to 16·6 years). Postoperative irradiation significantly improved biochemical progression-free survival compared with the wait-and-see policy (198 [39·4%] of 502 patients in postoperative irradiation group vs 311 [61·8%] of 503 patients in wait-and-see group had biochemical or clinical progression or died; HR 0·49 [95% CI 0·41-0·59]; p<0·0001). Late adverse effects (any type of any grade) were more frequent in the postoperative irradiation group than in the wait-and-see group (10 year cumulative incidence 70·8% [66·6-75·0] vs 59·7% [55·3-64·1]; p=0.001). INTERPRETATION: Results at median follow-up of 10·6 years show that conventional postoperative irradiation significantly improves biochemical progression-free survival and local control compared with a wait-and-see policy, supporting results at 5 year follow-up; however, improvements in clinical progression-free survival were not maintained. Exploratory analyses suggest that postoperative irradiation might improve clinical progression-free survival in patients younger than 70 years and in those with positive surgical margins, but could have a detrimental effect in patients aged 70 years or older. FUNDING: Ligue Nationale contre le Cancer (Comité de l'Isère, Grenoble, France) and the European Organisation for Research and Treatment of Cancer (EORTC) Charitable Trust.
The Lancet 10/2012; 380(9858). DOI:10.1016/S0140-6736(12)61253-7 · 45.22 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: After the foundation of the EORTC in 1962, the Radio-Chemotherapy Group within this organization split in 1973 into two groups. One of these groups, concentrating on Hodgkin's and Non-Hodgkin's Lymphoma, later became the Lymphoma Group while the other became the Radiotherapy Group. During the 1990's the latter changed its name to the Radiation Oncology Group (ROG), underscoring its position within the field of multidisciplinary oncology research. By 2011 the ROG had initiated or participated in 83 clinical studies, of which more than 73% were randomized phase III trials. It has concentrated on almost every disease site from brain to gynecological tumors with emphasis on brain, head and neck, breast, prostate, and lower gastro-intestinal tumours. The ROG has published several hundreds peer-reviewed articles, including publications in prestigious journals such as the New England Journal of Medicine or Lancet Oncology. Since its foundation, the ROG has understood the importance of conducting a proper Radiotherapy Quality Assurance (RT-QA) program for every clinical trial aiming at guaranteeing the quality of radiotherapy, i.e. minimizing any uncertainties in the conduction of trials. As radiotherapy evolved from two-dimensional to Intensity Modulated Radio Therapy, this program has progressively matured with time to be part of a worldwide RT-QA consortium in 2012.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The aim of this study was to identify factors associated with satisfaction with care in cancer patients undergoing ambulatory treatment. We investigated associations between patients' baseline clinical and socio-demographic characteristics, as well as self-reported quality of life, and satisfaction with care.
Patients undergoing ambulatory chemotherapy or radiotherapy in 2 centres in France were invited, at the beginning of their treatment, to complete the OUT-PATSAT35, a 35 item and 13 scale questionnaire evaluating perception of doctors, nurses and aspects of care organisation. Additionally, for each patient, socio-demographic variables, clinical characteristics and self-reported quality of life using the EORTC QLQ-C30 questionnaire were recorded.
Among 692 patients included between January 2005 and December 2006, only 6 were non-responders. By multivariate analysis, poor perceived global health strongly predicted dissatisfaction with care (p < 0.0001). Patients treated by radiotherapy (vs patients treated by chemotherapy) reported lower levels of satisfaction with doctors' technical and interpersonal skills, information provided by caregivers, and waiting times. Patients with primary head and neck cancer (vs other localisations), and those living alone were less satisfied with information provided by doctors, and younger patients (< 55 years) were less satisfied with doctors' availability.
A number of clinical of socio-demographic factors were significantly associated with different scales of the satisfaction questionnaire. However, the main determinant was the patient's global health status, underlining the importance of measuring and adjusting for self-perceived health status when evaluating satisfaction. Further analyses are currently ongoing to determine the responsiveness of the OUT-PATSAT35 questionnaire to changes over time.
BMC Cancer 12/2011; 11(1):526. DOI:10.1186/1471-2407-11-526 · 3.36 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The purpose of this study was to develop accurate models and nomograms to predict local recurrence, distant metastases, and survival for patients with locally advanced rectal cancer treated with long-course chemoradiotherapy (CRT) followed by surgery and to allow for a selection of patients who may benefit most from postoperative adjuvant chemotherapy and close follow-up.
All data (N = 2,795) from five major European clinical trials for rectal cancer were pooled and used to perform an extensive survival analysis and to develop multivariate nomograms based on Cox regression. Data from one trial was used as an external validation set. The variables used in the analysis were sex, age, clinical tumor stage stage, tumor location, radiotherapy dose, concurrent and adjuvant chemotherapy, surgery procedure, and pTNM stage. Model performance was evaluated by the concordance index (c-index). Risk group stratification was proposed for the nomograms.
The nomograms are able to predict events with a c-index for external validation of local recurrence (LR; 0.68), distant metastases (DM; 0.73), and overall survival (OS; 0.70). Pathologic staging is essential for accurate prediction of long-term outcome. Both preoperative CRT and adjuvant chemotherapy have an added value when predicting LR, DM, and OS rates. The stratification in risk groups allows significant distinction between Kaplan-Meier curves for outcome.
The easy-to-use nomograms can predict LR, DM, and OS over a 5-year period after surgery. They may be used as decision support tools in future trials by using the three defined risk groups to select patients for postoperative chemotherapy and close follow-up (http://www.predictcancer.org).
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 (STAT3) has been implicated as an oncogene in several neoplastic diseases. However, the biological effects of STAT3 have not been extensively studied in rectal carcinogenesis.
To evaluate STAT3 activation in advanced rectal cancers and its association with clinicopathological variables and prognosis.
Nuclear immunohistochemical expression of phosphorylated STAT3 (p-STAT3) was studied in 104 advanced rectal cancers (T3-T4). All patients were participating in the EORTC 22921 trial to assess whether preoperative chemoradiotherapy followed by postoperative chemotherapy improved overall and progression-free survival.
Nuclear p-STAT3 expression was detected in 37.5% of rectal cancer patients. No correlation was observed between p-STAT3 and any clinicopathological variables tested. However, patients with tumours positive for p-STAT3 had significantly improved overall survival.
These results highlight an unexpected role for nuclear p-STAT3 expression in advanced rectal cancers and need further investigation to clarify this finding.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Preoperative 5-fluorouracil-based chemoradiotherapy has been established as standard treatment for patients with cT3-T4 or
N+ resectable rectal cancer by three randomized clinical trials. Local recurrence rates in the range of 6–8% are now common,
a figure that was unachievable 15 years ago. However, combined modality treatment does not necessarily translate into a survival
gain and induce acute toxicity that may be significant for some patients. The identification of higher risk subgroups of patients
from lower risk subgroups of patients is a new paradigm designed to match treatment intensity with risk assessment and clinical
outcome. Modern imaging techniques, biomarkers, and gene expression profiling hold promising for selecting future preoperative
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The aim of this study is to identify factors associated with the decision to perform an abdominoperineal resection (APR) and to assess if these factors or the surgical procedure itself is associated with circumferential resection margin (CRM) involvement, local recurrence (LR), overall survival (OS) and cancer-specific survival (CSS).
The Swedish Rectal Cancer Trial (SRCT), TME trial, CAO/ARO/AIO-94 trial, EORTC 22921 trial and Polish Rectal Cancer Trial (PRCT) were pooled. A propensity score was calculated, which indicated the predicted probability of undergoing an APR given gender, age and distance, and used in the multivariate analyses.
An APR procedure was associated with an increased risk of CRM involvement [odd ratio (OR) 2.52, p<0.001], increased LR rate [hazard ratio (HR) 1.53, p=0.001] and decreased CSS rate (HR 1.31, p=0.002), whereas the propensity score was not.
The results suggest that the APR procedure itself is a significant predictor for non-radical resections and increased risk of LR and death due to cancer for patients with advanced rectal cancer.
European journal of cancer (Oxford, England: 1990) 05/2009; 45(7):1175-83. DOI:10.1016/j.ejca.2008.11.039 · 5.42 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Preoperative treatments for patients with T3 rectal cancer have significantly improved local recurrence rates, while survival outcomes have not changed significantly relative to those achieved with surgery alone. The prognosis of patients with T3 tumors, however, is heterogeneous; therapy should be carefully selected based on characteristics of the tumor and other prognostic indices to provide an optimal outcome for each patient. This paper summarizes key findings from several large trials that have examined use of preoperative radiotherapy and chemoradiotherapy for rectal cancer, how these results can be applied to selection of the best therapy for an individual patient, as well as prognostic/predictive factors that have been identified and clinical tools for measuring them.
Gastrointestinal cancer research: GCR 08/2008; 2(4 Suppl):S54-7.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Small and large bowels are dose-limiting structures for acute and late toxicity of abdominopelvic radiotherapy. Minor or moderate toxicities are underestimated. Major toxicities may occur years from treatment. Current optimal radiotherapy planning may predict precisely toxicities and new technologies for treatment delivery may prevent and/or reduce the frequency and severity of radiation enteropathy.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Randomized clinical trials have recently established preoperative chemoradiotherapy as the new standard treatment for patients with localized cT3-T4 or N+ rectal cancer. Although its inclusion in the modern multidisciplinary management of patients with rectal cancer makes total eradication of pelvic failure a near reality, it does not yet translate into improved survival. As a result, clinical research should be primarily directed against the micrometastatic process, focusing on integrating innovative strategies, such as upfront chemotherapy before chemoradiation, in subgroups of patients recognized to be at high risk.
Current Oncology Reports 06/2008; 10(3):220-4. DOI:10.1007/s11912-008-0034-7 · 2.89 Impact Factor