Hirofumi Goto

Saga Ceramics Research Laboratory, Сага Япония, Saga, Japan

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Publications (14)21.17 Total impact

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    ABSTRACT: In neuromyelitis optica (NMO), B-cell autoimmunity to aquaporin-4 (AQP4) has been shown to be essential. However, the role of T cells remains ambiguous. Here, we first showed an increase in CD69+ activated T cells in PBMCs during NMO relapses. Next, T-cell responses to AQP4 and myelin peptides were studied in 12 NM0 patients, 10 multiple sclerosis (MS) patients and 10 healthy subjects (HS). Four hours after adding 1 of 28 overlapping AQP4 peptides, a mixture of AQP4 peptides (AQP4-M) or one of six distinct myelin peptides to 2-day cultured PBMC, CD69 expression on CD4+ T cells was examined. Data were analyzed by paired t-test, frequency of samples with 3-fold increase of CD69 on CD4+ cells (fSI3) and mean stimulation index (mSI). The T-cell response to AQP4-M was significantly increased in NMO (fSI3 = 10/12, mSI = 5.50), with AQP4 (11-30) and AQP4 (91-110) representing the two major epitopes (AQP4 (11-30), fSI3 = 11/12, mSI = 16.0 and AQP4 (91-110), fSI3 = 11/12, mSI = 13.0). Significant but less extensive responses to these two epitopes were also observed in MS and HS. Significant reactivities against AQP4 (21-40), AQP4 (61-80), AQP4 (101-120), AQP4 (171-190) and AQP4 (211-230) were exclusively found in NMO. In addition, responses to AQP4 (81-100) were higher and more frequently detected in NMO, without reaching statistical significance. Interestingly, among the six myelin peptides studied, proteolipid protein (95-116) induced a significant T-cell response in NMO (fSI3 = 7/12, mSI = 4.60). Our study suggests that cellular as well as humoral responses to AQP4 are necessary for NMO development and that the immune response to myelin protein may contribute to disease pathogenesis.
    International Immunology 09/2011; 23(9):565-73. · 3.14 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: A 14-year-old boy developed a distinct asymmetrical muscle atrophy and weakness with no sensory disturbance in the lower extremities after enteritis. He had an elevated titre of the IgG antibody against GalNAc-GD1a, but none of the others. A nerve conduction study revealed motor axonopathy. Intravenous immunoglobulin therapy improved the status gradually, with low titres of IgG anti-GalNAc-GD1a.
    Case Reports 01/2011; 2011.
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    ABSTRACT: It has become increasingly clear that polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) have immunomodulatory effects. However, the intake of these fatty acids used in animal studies often greatly exceeds dietary human intake. Whether differences in the composition of fatty acids that are consumed in amounts consistent with normal dietary intake can influence immune function remains uncertain. We manufactured 3 types of liquid diet, related to modified fatty acid composition (omega-6/omega-3 = 0.25, 2.27 and 42.9), but excluding eicosapentaenoic acid and docosahexaenoic acid, based upon a liquid diet used clinically in humans. We assessed CD3-stimulated cytokine production of splenocytes in female BALB/c mice (n = 4 per group) fed 1 of 3 liquid diets for 4 weeks. We also measured the cytokine production of peripheral blood mononuclear cells stimulated with phorbol myristate acetate and ionomycin in humans at the end of a 4-week period of consumption of 2 different liquid diets (omega-6/omega-3 = 3 and 44). We found that the ratio of interfero omega-gamma (IFN-gamma) / interleukin-4 (IL-4) was significantly higher in mice fed the omega-3 rich diet than in others. In humans, IFN-gamma / IL-4 was significantly higher after the omega-3 versus the omega-6 enhanced diet. Differences in the composition of omega-3 and omega-6 PUFAs induces a shift in the Th1/Th2 balance in both mouse and human lymphocytes, even when ingested in normal dietary amounts. An omega-3 rich diet containing alpha-linolenic acid modulates immune function.
    Journal of Parenteral and Enteral Nutrition 03/2009; 33(4):390-6. · 2.49 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The case of a 72-year-old demented woman having episodes of strokes without any risk factors for cardiovascular disease is reported. Her elder brother and sister have also had stroke episodes since their middle age. She experienced hallucinations, delusions, and recurrent headaches since the age of 55. She has gradually developed gait disturbance and cognitive impairment. Brain MRI revealed extensive leukoaraiosis and multiple lacunar infarcts in the deep white matter and brainstem. Repeated MRI incidentally disclosed fresh hemorrhage in the dorsal subcortical temporal lobe, which appeared to be asymptomatic. Anti-platelet agents were not used during disease progression. We detected G975C mutation of the Notch3 gene and diagnosed our patient's disease as cerebral autosomal dominant arteriopathy with subcortical infarcts and leukoencephalopathy (CADASIL). This report suggests that arteriopathy of CADASIL could cause a hemorrhagic process, indicating that, in such a case, routine administration of anti-platelet agent to prevent recurrent ischemic stroke is not recommended.
    Rinsho shinkeigaku = Clinical neurology 10/2006; 46(9):644-8.
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    ABSTRACT: The pathogenesis of most autoimmune diseases directly involves CD4(+) helper T cells. To remove CD4(+) T cells selectively from the circulation, we designed a new column in which an anti-CD4 monoclonal antibody was immobilized on the activated substance. Nearly 90% of CD4(+) T cells were selectively adsorbed from whole blood with a single passage through the column in vitro, resulting in depletion of the antigen-specific T cell responses. We conclude that this new column would be potentially useful for treatment of T cell-mediated autoimmune diseases.
    Therapeutic apheresis and dialysis: official peer-reviewed journal of the International Society for Apheresis, the Japanese Society for Apheresis, the Japanese Society for Dialysis Therapy 07/2004; 8(3):194-6. · 1.53 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE) is a major animal model of human multiple sclerosis (MS). CD4+ T cells are thought to play a pivotal role in the pathogenesis of EAE and MS. In order to investigate the depletion of CD4+ T cells from the systemic circulation as an effective strategy for the treatment of MS, we performed extracorporeal CD4+ T cell adsorption, using a filter to which anti-CD4+ antibody is immobilized as a ligand, in adoptively transferred EAE. Rats treated with CD4+ T cell removal filter (CD4RF) exhibited milder clinical signs of EAE and earlier recovery than those receiving sham treatment. Moreover, the thymic cells from EAE rats treated with CD4RF exhibited a suppressed proliferative response and IFN-gamma production to myelin basic protein. These results suggest that depletion of CD4+ T cells from the systemic circulation by extracorporeal treatment is a potentially useful strategy for treatment of acute phase and relapsing MS.
    Multiple Sclerosis 01/2004; 9(6):579-84. · 4.47 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: We report two brothers with hereditary motor and sensory neuropathies and pyramidal signs. Electrophysiological evaluation revealed polyneuropathy and involvement of the central motor, somatosensory, and auditory pathways. Brain magnetic resonance imaging studies showed diffuse white matter lesions, and sural nerve biopsy identified a reduction in the large myelinated nerve fibers. The patients' mother and sister exhibited similar, but milder neurologic findings suggesting that the genetic defect may be X-linked; however, a point mutation in the connexin 32 gene was negative.
    Muscle & Nerve 11/2003; 28(5):623-5. · 2.31 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: A Japanese man with a negative family history of paramyotonia congenita (PMC) was evaluated for symptoms of cold-induced weakness and stiffness. Exercise testing revealed findings characteristic of PMC, and a genetic analysis was therefore performed. A well-known sodium channel mutation for PMC (T1313M) was identified in the patient, but was absent in his biological parents. These data demonstrate the occurrence of a de novo mutation, suggesting that evaluation for PMC should be performed in patients with typical symptoms even if the family history is negative.
    Muscle & Nerve 09/2003; 28(2):232-5. · 2.31 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Treatment for Miller Fisher syndrome (MFS) is controversial, and even the natural history and prognosis are not fully understood. We retrospectively reviewed our cases of MFS for the last 3 years. The analysis of 4 MFS cases revealed that we had performed plasmapheresis or additional immunotherapy to each of 4 patients, and their symptoms resolved for up to 50 days after the onset (ataxia improved 20-35 days and ophthalmoplegia for 25-50 days) except for 1 patient, and that Guillain-Barré syndrome had been diagnosed in 1 patient who had developed profound muscle weakness. We also discovered that MFS patients had a deviated T-helper Type-1 (Th1)/T-helper Type-2 (Th2) polarization and that plasmapheresis can shift Th2-dominant status to Th1-dominant status in patients with MFS. Although plasmapheresis may remove humoral factors, including anti-GQ1b, and may induce a shift of the Th1/Th2 cytokine-producing cell balance in peripheral blood, the therapeutic rationale has not yet been established. Therefore, controlled clinical trials are required to show whether plasmapheresis leads to earlier recovery with fewer neurologic deficits in patients with MFS.
    Therapeutic Apheresis and Dialysis 01/2003; 6(6):450-3.
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Treatment for Miller Fisher syndrome (MFS) is controversial, and even the natural history and prognosis are not fully understood. We retrospectively reviewed our cases of MFS for the last 3 years. The analysis of 4 MFS cases revealed that we had performed plasmapheresis or additional immunotherapy to each of 4 patients, and their symptoms resolved for up to 50 days after the onset (ataxia improved 20–35 days and ophthalmoplegia for 25–50 days) except for 1 patient, and that Guillain-Barré syndrome had been diagnosed in 1 patient who had developed profound muscle weakness. We also discovered that MFS patients had a deviated T-helper Type-1 (Th1)/T-helper Type-2 (Th2) polarization and that plasmapheresis can shift Th2-dominant status to Th1-dominant status in patients with MFS. Although plasmapheresis may remove humoral factors, including anti-GQ1b, and may induce a shift of the Th1/Th2 cytokine-producing cell balance in peripheral blood, the therapeutic rationale has not yet been established. Therefore, controlled clinical trials are required to show whether plasmapheresis leads to earlier recovery with fewer neurologic deficits in patients with MFS.
    Therapeutic Apheresis and Dialysis 12/2002; 6(6):450 - 453.
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    ABSTRACT: The 1-Hz rTMS of 320 stimuli with an intensity of 90% of motor threshold was applied over the vertex of the skull using a round coil in a day. The effects of short-term (treated in 5 successive days) treatment was examined in 6 patients and long-term (treated in every one or two weeks for six months) treatment was examined in five. Unified Parkinson's Disease Rating Scale (UPDRS), motor evoked potential threshold (MT) and cortical silent period (SP) were recorded before and one day after the short-term treatment. In the long-term treatment, same recordings were obtained in every two months. After the short-term treatment, the total UPDRS scores was reduced from 37 +/- 3.3 (mean +/- S.E.) to 31 +/- 3.1 and the SP duration was prolonged from 98.9 +/- 24.7 to 106 +/- 22.0 significantly (P < 0.05 by Wilcoxon Matched Pairs Teat). After the long-term treatment, both total UPDRS scores and MEP threshold was reduced from 33 +/- 5.8 to 30 +/- 5.3 and from 75 +/- 7.2 to 69 +/- 5.7, respectively two months after the initiation of the treatment. Both values reduced continuously until the end of treatment, and a significant linear correlation was noted (r = 0.98) between them. Our results show the beneficial effects of rTMS and suggest the possible mechanism that the alteration of brain excitability induced by rTMS mediate therapeutic effects in patients with Parkinson's disease.
    Rinsho shinkeigaku = Clinical neurology 02/2002; 42(1):35-7.
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    ABSTRACT: Plasmapheresis not only removes humoral factors, but may also modulate cellular immunity. We investigated whether plasmapheresis influenced T helper type-1/T helper type-2 (Th1/Th2) cytokine-producing-cell balance in 3 patients with neuroimmunological disease. The production of interferon-gamma (IFN-gamma), interleukin-2 (IL-2), and IL-4 in the culture supernatant of peripheral blood mononuclear cells stimulated by anti-CD3 and anti-CD28 was assayed. In 2 of 3 patients, plasmapheresis (immunoadsorption or plasma exchange) reduced Th1/Th2 cytokine ratio. The results may suggest that plasmapheresis induces a shift of Th1/Th2 balance in peripheral blood.
    Therapeutic Apheresis and Dialysis 01/2002; 5(6):494-6.
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    Journal of Neurology Neurosurgery &amp Psychiatry 08/2000; 69(1):135. · 4.92 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: We report on 2 elderly patients with myasthenia gravis in whom recovery from crisis was prolonged despite intensive plasmapheresis (PP). In both patients, the anti-acetylcholine (anti-AChR) titer failed to fall sufficiently after completing PP. These patients might have had antibodies that produced a more pronounced effect on the degradation of AChR, or the synthesis of AChR might have been reduced by aging. The anti-AChR titer did not correlate with a reduction of IgG after PP in 1 patient. Successful treatment was achieved by keeping the anti-AChR titer at a low level via the concomitant use of prednisolone with PP.
    Therapeutic Apheresis and Dialysis 11/1999; 3(4):326-8.