ABSTRACT: To systematically evaluate the presumption that the healthy middle ear becomes colonized with organisms via the patent eustachian tube using modern microbiologic techniques.
Sterile saline washings were obtained from the middle ear of patients in a prospective fashion.
Tertiary/quaternary referral centers.
Pediatric and adult patients undergoing cochlear implantation surgery.
Standard bacterial and viral cultures, and nucleic acid amplification techniques.
Identification of organisms.
Specimens were obtained from 13 children and 9 adults. No organisms were identified in any of the specimens, either through standard culture or PCR testing.
The presumption that the healthy middle ear is colonized by bacteria from the nasopharynx is unsubstantiated.
Otology & neurotology: official publication of the American Otological Society, American Neurotology Society [and] European Academy of Otology and Neurotology 01/2009; 30(2):174-7. · 1.44 Impact Factor
ABSTRACT: As stigma is a socially constructed concept, it would follow that stigma related to sexual behaviours and sexually transmitted infections would carry with it many of the gender-based morals that are entrenched in social constructs of sexuality. In many societies, women tend to be judged more harshly with respect to sexual morals, and would therefore have a different experience of stigma related to sexual behaviours as compared to men. While a variety of stigma scales exist for sexually transmitted infections (STIs) in general; none incorporate these female-specific aspects. The objective of this study was to develop a scale to measure the unique experience of STI-related stigma among women.
A pool of items was identified from qualitative and quantitative literature on sexual behaviour and STIs among women. Women attending a social evening program at a local community health clinic in a low-income neighbourhood with high prevalence of substance use were passively recruited to take part in a cross-sectional structured interview, including questions on sexual behaviour, sexual health and STI-related stigma. Exploratory factor analysis was used to identify stigma scales, and descriptive statistics were used to assess the associations of demographics, sexual and drug-related risk behaviours with the emerging scales.
Three scales emerged from exploratory factor analysis--female-specific moral stigma, social stigma (judgement by others) and internal stigma (self-judgement)--with alpha co-efficients of 0.737, 0.705 and 0.729, respectively. In this population of women, internal stigma and social stigma carried higher scores than female-specific moral stigma. Aboriginal ethnicity was associated with higher internal and female-specific moral stigma scores, while older age (>30 years) was associated with higher female-specific moral stigma scores.
Descriptive statistics indicated an important influence of culture and age on specific types of stigma. Quantitative researchers examining STI-stigma should consider incorporating these female-specific factors in order to tailor scales for women.
BMC Women s Health 12/2008; 8:21.
ABSTRACT: The objective of this study was to assess the association of sexually transmitted disease (STD)-related stigma on sexual health care behaviors, including Papanicolaou smears and STD testing/treatment, among women from a high-risk community.
Descriptive statistics were used to assess the association of demographics, sexual and drug-related risk behaviors, and 3 measures of STD-stigma (internal, social, and tribal stigma, the latter referring to "tribes" of womanhood) with sexual health care in the past year. Pearson's chi-square test and Mann-Whitney test were used to assess significance. Multivariate logistic models were used to determine the association of STD-stigma with sexual health care after controlling for other factors.
Lower internal stigma score was marginally associated with reporting an STD test in the past year [median score (interquartile range) for those reporting and not reporting an STD test were 0.79 (0.30-1.59) and 1.35 (0.67-1.93), respectively]. In an adjusted model, internal stigma retained a negative association with reporting of STD testing in the past year (adjusted odds ratio, 0.92; 95% confidence interval, 0.85-0.99).
Most women had received a Papanicolaou smear in the past year, and none of the STD-stigma scales were associated with reporting this behavior. Internal stigma retained an association with not having any STD test or treatment. Although sexual stigma is a deeply rooted social construct, paying attention to how prevention messages and STD information are delivered may help remove one barrier to sexual health care.
Sex Transm Dis 07/2008; 35(6):553-7. · 2.87 Impact Factor
ABSTRACT: The paper is based on an ethnographic study conducted in a rural community in British Columbia, Canada. The study examined the impact of community culture on youth's development as sexual beings. We describe how social and geographical forces intersect to affect youth's lives and trace the ways in which deprivation of various forms of capital as well as social practices contribute to some youth being located in undesirable social positions. Our findings illustrate how the effects of stigmatisation, self-segregation, and other forms of symbolic violence can extend beyond health impacts and into the broader social realm.
Health & Place 01/2008; 13(4):826-38. · 2.67 Impact Factor
ABSTRACT: To describe a surveillance system and summarize data between January 2000 and December 2002 regarding diffuse lamellar keratitis (DLK), a complication of laser in situ keratomileusis (LASIK) surgery.
Community-based clinics in British Columbia, Canada, in which LASIK surgery is performed.
Monthly, all clinics in which LASIK is performed reported the number of LASIK procedures and nonnominal cases of DLK (by grade and onset date) to the British Columbia Centre for Disease Control. Diffuse lamellar keratitis outbreaks were investigated, and prevention and control measures were recommended.
From 2000 to 2002, approximately 72,000 LASIK procedures were performed, with a mean DLK incidence rate of 0.67% (95% confidence interval, 0.61-0.73). The overall proportion of DLK cases attributed to outbreaks was 64%, decreasing from 72% in 2000 to 40% in 2003.
An effective DLK surveillance program was implemented at all laser refractive clinics in British Columbia. Reported DLK incidence was 0.67 cases per 100 procedures, with 64% occurring in outbreaks.
Journal of Cataract [?] Refractive Surgery 01/2006; 31(12):2340-4. · 2.26 Impact Factor
ABSTRACT: Despite the fact that hepatitis C virus (HCV) is a relatively common infection in Canada, particularly in British Columbia (BC), there is a paucity of information on actual HCV prevalence in pregnant women. At present, pregnant women are only screened if they fit risk criteria, which may result in under-identification of HCV in this population. The purpose of this study was to determine the overall prevalence rate, age and geographic distribution of reported HCV infection among pregnant women in BC, and compare results to a previously conducted anonymous seroprevalence survey.
Reported HCV prevalence was determined through a confidential database linkage of all prenatal screening results at the Canadian Blood Services (CBS) with all HCV test results at the Provincial Laboratory, from May 2000 to Oct 2002. Data were stratified by age group and geographic location, and subsequently compared to an anonymous prenatal seroprevalence survey conducted in 1994.
The overall HCV prevalence rate was 50.3/10,000 (95% CI 46.3-54.6), or 0.5% of the cohort. Prevalence was highest in the northern BC region (66.2/10,000, 95% CI 51.4-85.3) and lowest in the populous suburban region southwest of Vancouver (38.0/10,000, 95% CI 32.3-44.8). Of note, the rate of reported HCV among pregnant women was significantly lower than the anonymous seroprevalence rate: 50.3/10,000 vs. 91.3/10,000 (p < 0.0001).
Rates of reported HCV among pregnant women were approximately 50% lower than the rates determined by the anonymous seroprevalence survey. Further research is needed to determine the relative merits of the current selective screening policy versus universal prenatal HCV screening in pregnancy.
Canadian journal of public health. Revue canadienne de santé publique 102(2):98-102. · 1.02 Impact Factor