[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Background
Cigarette smoking is a common risk factor for developing nasopharyngeal carcinoma. However, the relationship between smoking and clinical outcomes remains uncertain.Methods
The patients who participated in this study were drawn from a randomized clinical trial, for which the purpose was to compare the efficacy of induction chemotherapy plus concurrent chemoradiotherapy with that of induction chemotherapy plus radiotherapy in patients with locoregionally advanced nasopharyngeal carcinoma. The patients who ever smoked were divided into the following categories of cumulative smoking exposure based on the duration of smoking and the quantity of cigarettes smoked: light, short-term smokers; light, long-term smokers; heavy, short-term smokers; and heavy, long-term smokers. A log-rank test and Cox models were used to assess the association between smoking and the clinical outcomes of overall survival (OS), failure-free survival (FFS), locoregional recurrence failure-free survival (LRFFS) and distant failure-free survival (DFFS).ResultsWe found that ever-smokers experienced significantly shorter LRFFS times than never-smokers (5-year LRFFS rates: 85.8% vs. 88.5%, P¿=¿0.022). The amount of smoking was significantly associated with FFS (P¿=¿0.046) and LRFFS (P¿=¿0.001) in the different ever-smoker groups. The amount of smoking was associated with LRFFS [P¿=¿0.002, HR¿=¿2.069 (95% confident interval (CI), 1.298-3.299)] even after a multivariable adjustment.Conclusions
Smoking increases the risk of locoregional recurrence. Furthermore, the amount of smoking influences the prognosis of smokers, and these effects are dose-dependent.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The aim of this study was to investigate the prognostic significance and various classifications for anatomic masticator space involvement (MSI) in patients with nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC).
BMC Cancer 09/2014; 14(1):653. · 3.33 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Abstract Conclusion: The prognosis and late adverse effects of radiotherapy (RT) in the patients with nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC) with or without dermatomyositis (DM) were similar, although the NPC patients with DM had higher Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) VCA-IgA titers and more severe acute side effects. Gender, TNM stage, and chemotherapy were independent prognostic factors of overall survival for NPC with DM. Glucocorticoid treatment did not affect the survival of NPC patients with DM. Objectives: We evaluated the clinical characteristics, prognosis, and differences in the toxicity of RT in patients with NPC with or without DM. Methods: A paired study of 172 NPC cases with DM (DM group) or without DM (control group) from Sun Yat-sen University Cancer Center was conducted. Results: The DM group had higher EBV VCA-IgA titers than the control group (p = 0.017) and more acute adverse effects of RT (p < 0.001). No significant differences in the overall survival or late adverse effects were found between the two groups. Gender, TNM stage, and chemotherapy were independent prognostic factors for the overall survival in the DM group. No significant differences in the overall survival were found between the patients in the DM group who were taking glucocorticoids and those who were not.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: To investigate the prognostic role of major matrix metalloproteinase (MMP) gene polymorphisms in patients with locoregionally advanced nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC) treated with chemoradiotherapy. Four hundred twenty-one consecutive NPC patients were prospectively recruited. Two hundred patients were randomly selected as the training cohort, and the remaining 221 patients were the validation cohort. Twelve polymorphisms in the MMP-1, 2, 3, 7, 8, and 9 genes were genotyped by ligase detection reaction-PCR. MMP-9 rs2250889 PR/RR (HR = 2.287, 95 % CI 1.400-3.735) and rs17576 RQ/QQ (HR = 2.347, 95 % CI 1.431-3.849) genotypes were significantly related with increased death risk in the training cohort. Analysis of the validation cohort confirmed these results (rs2250889: HR = 2.231, 95 % CI 1.281-3.886; rs17576: HR = 2.987, 95 % CI 1.674-5.330). Multivariate analysis showed that rs17576 (HR = 2.284, 95 % CI 1.123-4.643, P = 0.023) was still an independent prognostic factor. The MMP-9 rs17576 is a novel independent prognostic marker in patients with locoregionally advanced NPC treated with chemoradiotherapy.
Medical Oncology 12/2013; 30(4):685. · 2.14 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Recent studies have indicated that the expression of endothelin A receptor (ETAR) and chemokine receptor 4 (CXCR4) could be used as an indicator of the metastatic potential of nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC). The aim of this study was to determine the prognostic value of ETAR and CXCR4 in NPC patients and to reveal the interplay of the endothelin-1 (ET-1)/ETAR and stromal-derived factor-1(SDF-1)/CXCR4 pathways in promoting NPC cell motility.
Survival analysis was used to analyze the prognostic value of ETAR and CXCR4 expression in 153 cases of NPC. Chemotaxis assays were used to evaluate alterations in the migration ability of non-metastatic 6-10B and metastatic 5-8F NPC cells. Real-time PCR, immunoblotting, and flow cytometric analyses were used to evaluate changes in the expression levels of CXCR4 mRNA and protein induced by ET-1.
The expression levels of ETAR and CXCR4 were closely related to each other and both correlated with a poor prognosis. A multivariate analysis showed that the expression levels of both ETAR and CXCR4 were independent prognostic factors for overall survival (OS), progression-free survival (PFS), and distant metastasis-free survival (DMFS). The migration of 6-10B and 5-8F cells was elevated by ET-1 in combination with SDF-1alpha. The knockdown of ETAR protein expression by siRNA reduced CXCR4 protein expression in addition to ETAR protein expression, leading to a decrease in the metastatic potential of the 5-8F cells. ET-1 induced CXCR4 mRNA and protein expression in the 6-10B NPC cells in a time- and concentration-dependent fashion and was inhibited by an ETAR antagonist and PI3K/AKT/mTOR and MAPK/ERK1/2 pathway inhibitors.
ETAR and CXCR4 expression levels are potential prognostic biomarkers in NPC patients. ETAR activation partially promoted NPC cell migration via a mechanism that enhanced functional CXCR4 expression.
Journal of Translational Medicine 08/2013; 11(1):203. · 3.46 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: PURPOSETo evaluate which patients with nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC) obtained the greatest benefits from the detection of distant metastasis with [(18)F]fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography and computed tomography (PET/CT) combined with plasma Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) DNA levels. PATIENTS AND METHODS
Consecutive patients with NPC were prospectively enrolled. PET/CT, conventional work-up (CWU), and quantification of plasma EBV DNA were performed before treatment. The accuracy of these strategies for distant metastases was assessed. The costs of the diagnostic strategies were compared.ResultsEighty-six (14.8%) of the 583 eligible patients were found to have distant metastases; 71 patients (82.6%) by PET/CT and 31 patients (36.0%) by CWU. In the multivariable analysis, advanced N stage (odds ratio, 2.689; 95% CI, 1.894 to 3.818) and pretreatment EBV DNA level (odds ratio, 3.344; 95% CI, 1.825 to 6.126) were significant risk factors for distant metastases. PET/CT was not superior to CWU for detecting distant metastases in very low-risk patients (N0-1 with EBV DNA < 4,000 copies/mL; P = .062), but was superior for the low-risk patients (N0-1 with EBV DNA ≥ 4,000 copies/mL and N2-3 with EBV DNA < 4,000 copies/mL; P = .039) and intermediate-risk patients (N2-3 disease with EBV DNA ≥ 4,000 copies/mL; P < .001). The corresponding patient management changes based on PET/CT were 2.9%, 6.3%, and 16.5%, respectively. The costs per true-positive case detected by PET/CT among these groups were ¥324,138 (≈$47,458), ¥96,907 (≈$14,188), and ¥34,182 (≈$5,005), respectively. CONCLUSIONPET/CT detects more distant metastases than conventional staging in patients with NPC. The largest benefit in terms of cost and patient management was observed in the subgroup with N2-3 disease and EBV DNA ≥ 4,000 copies/mL.
Journal of Clinical Oncology 07/2013; · 18.04 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Neoadjuvant chemotherapy plus radiotherapy is the most common treatment regimen for advanced nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC). Whether chronomodulated infusion of chemotherapy can reduce its toxicity is not clear. The aim of this study was to evaluate the toxic and therapeutic effects of sinusoidal chronomodulated infusion versus flat intermittent infusion of cisplatin (DDP) and 5-fluorouracil (5-FU) followed by radiotherapy in patients with locoregionally advanced NPC. Patients with biopsy-diagnosed untreated stage III and IV NPC (according to the 2002 UICC staging system) were randomized to undergo 2 cycles of sinusoidal chronomodulated infusion (Arm A) or flat intermittent constant rate infusion (Arm B) of DDP and 5-FU followed by radical radiotherapy. Using a "MELODIE" multi-channel programmed pump, the patients were given 12 h continuous infusions of DDP (20 mg/m2∙day) and 5-FU (750 mg/m2∙day) for 5 days, repeated every 3 weeks for two cycles. DDP was administered from 10:00 am to 10:00 pm, and 5-FU was administered from 10:00 pm to 10:00 am each day. Chronomodulated infusion was performed in Arm A, with the peak deliveries of 5-FU at 4:00 am and DDP at 4:00 pm. The patients in Arm B underwent a constant rate of infusion. Radiotherapy was initiated in the fifth week, and both arms were treated with the same radiotherapy techniques and dose fractions. Between June 2004 and June 2006, 125 patients were registered, and 124 were eligible for analysis of response and toxicity. The major toxicity observed during neoadjuvant chemotherapy was neutropenia. The incidence of acute toxicity was similar in both arms. During radiotherapy, the incidence of stomatitis was significantly lower in Arm A than in Arm B (38.1% vs. 59.0%, P = 0.020). No significant differences were observed for other toxicities. The 1-, 3-, and 5-year overall survival (OS) rates were 88.9%, 82.4%, and 74.8% for Arm A and 91.8%, 90.2%, and 82.1% for Arm B. The 1-, 3-, and 5-year progression-free survival (PFS) rates were 91.7%, 88.1%, and 85.2% for Arm A and 100.0%, 94.5%, and 86.9% for Arm B. The 1-, 3-, and 5-year distant metastasis-free survival (DMFS) rates were 82.5%, 79.1%, and 79.1% for Arm A and 90.2%, 85.2%, and 81.7% for Arm B. Chronochemotherapy significantly reduced stomatitis but was not superior to standard chemotherapy in terms of hematologic toxicities and therapeutic response.
Ai zheng = Aizheng = Chinese journal of cancer 07/2013;
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND: To clarify the feasibility and efficacy of chemoradiotherapy (CRT) in elderly (age>=65 years) patients with locoregionally advanced nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC). METHODS: From January 2000 to December 2006, 101 newly diagnosed elderly non-metastatic NPC patients (age>=65 years) who received cisplatin 3-weekly or weekly concurrent CRT with/without sequential chemotherapy were recruited. Each patient from the CRT group was matched to another patient treated with radiotherapy (RT) alone based on age, gender, pathological type, performance status, overall stage, stage method, Adult Comorbidity Evaluation-27 (ACE-27) score and RT technique, from the same institute and time period. We also recruited 101 young patients (age<65 years) as the referent group, which had been matched to the CRT group based on patient characteristics and treatment parameters. Treatment tolerability and toxicity were clarified, and treatment outcomes were calculated and compared among groups. RESULTS: CRT was feasible in elderly NPC patients, while a concurrent regimen of weekly cisplatin was more tolerable. Grade>=3 acute toxicity in CRT group was similar with referent group, although it was significantly higher than the RT alone group (65.3% vs. 43.6%, P=0.002). Furthermore, patients with ACE-27 score>=2 in the CRT group had significantly higher severe acute toxicity and dose reduction. Survival was poorer in elderly patients than the referent group. Compared to RT alone, CRT significantly improved the 5-year overall survival (OS: 54.6% vs. 39.3%, P=0.009), cancer-specific survival (CSS: 56.6% vs. 42.7%, P=0.022), disease-free survival (DFS: 51.6% vs. 30.2%, P=0.028) and locoregional relapse-free survival (LRRFS: 78.4% vs. 52.2%, P=0.003), but not distant metastasis-free survival (DMFS: 69.6% vs. 63.6%, P=0.669). However, CRT did not significantly improve 5-year OS (43.6% vs. 27.3%, P=0.893) or CSS (43.6% vs. 34.1%, P=0.971) in elderly NPC patients with ACE-27 score>=2. CONCLUSIONS: CRT is feasible and effective in elderly patients with locoregionally advanced NPC without severe comorbidities. CRT should be used under serious consideration and be further tested in elderly patients with severe comorbidities. As such, it is essential to perform a comprehensive evaluation of pretreatment comorbidity status for all elderly NPC patients.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: OBJECTIVE: To investigate the relationship between the pretreatment body mass index (BMI) and the clinical outcomes in patients with locoregionally advanced nasopharyngeal carcinoma treated with combination of chemotherapy and radiotherapy. METHODS: From August 2002 to April 2005, 400 patients with stage III or stage IVa nasopharyngeal carcinoma were recruited for a randomised clinical trial of induction chemotherapy combined with radiotherapy or concurrent chemoradiotherapy. The patients were divided into four groups of underweight (BMI<18.5kg/m(2)), normal weight (BMI 18.5-22.9kg/m(2)), overweight (BMI 23.0-27.4kg/m(2)) or obese (BMI⩾27.5kg/m(2)) according to the World Health Organization classifications for Asian populations. The differences in the long-term survival, of these four BMI groups were analysed. RESULTS: The 5-year failure-free survival rates for the underweight, normal weight, overweight and obese groups were 44%, 61%, 68% and 73%, respectively (p=0.014), and the 5-year overall survival rates were 51%, 68%, 80% and 72% (p=0.001), respectively. BMI was a strongly favoured prognostic factor of overall survival and failure-free survival in a Cox regression model. CONCLUSIONS: Pretreatment body mass index was a simple, reliable independent prognostic factor for patients with locoregionally advanced nasopharyngeal carcinoma treated with chemoradiotherapy.
European journal of cancer (Oxford, England: 1990) 02/2013; · 4.12 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: AIMS: To evaluate the prognostic value of serum endostatin levels in patients with advanced-stage nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC). MATERIALS AND METHODS: Between August 2003 and March 2005, 218 patients with advanced-stage NPC were enrolled in this study, including 70 patients in the training cohort and 148 in the validation cohort. The pre-treatment serum endostatin and vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) levels were measured using competitive enzyme immunoassays. For the normal control, serums samples from 20 healthy individuals were also collected. RESULTS: Serum endostatin levels in the patients with advanced-stage NPC were significantly higher than those of controls, but VEGF levels were similar in the two groups. Univariate analysis revealed significant differences between the high and low endostatin level groups regarding 5 year overall survival (63.9% versus 90.5%; P = 0.003), progression-free survival (PFS) (50.2% versus 79.3%; P = 0.003) and distant metastasis-free survival (DMFS) (59.1% versus 85.3%; P = 0.01) in the training cohort. Using the same cut-off value generated from the training cohort, there were also significant unfavourable correlations between serum endostatin levels and overall survival (P = 0.001), PFS (P = 0.001) and DMFS (P = 0.002) in the second independent validation cohort. Multivariate analysis using the entire group (n = 218) revealed that the serum endostatin level was an independent unfavourable prognostic factor for overall survival (hazard ratio 4.8; 95% confidence interval 2.48-9.23; P < 0.0001), PFS (hazard ratio 3.44; 95% confidence interval 2.06-5.74; P < 0.0001) and DMFS (hazard ratio 3.65; 95% confidence interval 1.92-6.94; P < 0.0001) in patients with advanced-stage NPC. No associations were observed between the outcomes and the serum VEGF levels in patients with advanced-stage NPC. CONCLUSIONS: High endostatin levels are associated with poor survival and this knowledge may improve the risk stratification of patients with advanced-stage NPC.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Treatment outcomes vary greatly in patients with nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC). The purpose of this study is to evaluate the influence of radiation and chemotherapy drug action pathway gene polymorphisms on the survival of patients with locoregionally advanced NPC treated with cisplatin- and fluorouracil-based chemoradiotherapy.
Four hundred twenty-one consecutive patients with locoregionally advanced NPC were prospectively recruited. We utilized a pathway approach and examined 18 polymorphisms in 13 major genes. Polymorphisms were detected using the LDR-PCR technique. Multifactor dimensionality reduction (MDR) analysis was performed to detect potential gene-gene interaction.
After adjustment for clinicopathological characteristics, overall survival was significantly decreased in patients with the MPO rs2243828 CT/CC genotype (HR=2.453, 95% CI, 1.687-3.566, P<0.001). The ERCC1 rs3212986 CC (HR=1.711, 95% CI, 1.135-2.579, P=0.010), MDM2 rs2279744 GT/GG (HR=1.743, 95% CI, 1.086-2.798, P=0.021), MPO rs2243828 CT/CC (HR=3.184, 95% CI, 2.261-4.483, P<0.001) and ABCB1 rs2032582 AT/AA (HR=1.997, 95% CI, 1.086-3.670, P=0.026) genotypes were associated with poor progression-free survival. Prognostic score models based on independent prognostic factors successfully classified patients into low-, intermediate-, and high-risk groups. Furthermore, MDR analysis showed no significant interaction between polymorphisms.
Four single nucleotide polymorphisms were associated with survival in patients with locoregionally advanced NPC treated with cisplatin- and fluorouracil-based chemoradiotherapy. Combining clinical prognostic factors with genetic information was valuable in identifying patients with different risk.
PLoS ONE 01/2013; 8(12):e82750. · 3.53 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Purpose: Complement receptor 1 (CR1) is induced by Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) and may be a potential biomarker of nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC). We conducted the present study to evaluate the association of CR1 expression with clinicopathological features and prognosis of NPC. Methods: We enrolled 145 NPC patients and 110 controls. Expression levels of CR1 in peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) were detected using quantitative real-time PCR and associations with clinicopathological features and prognosis were examined. Results: CR1 levels in the NPC group [3.54 (3.34, 3.79)] were slightly higher than those in the controls [3.33 (3.20, 3.47)] (P<0.001). Increased CR1 expression was associated with histology classification (type III vs. type II, P=0.002), advanced clinical stage (P=0.003), high T stage (P=0.017), and poor overall survival (HR, 4.89; 95% CI, 1.23-19.42; P=0.024). However, there were no statistically significant differences in CR1 expression among N or M stages. Conclusion: These findings indicate that CR1 expression in PBMCs may be a new biomarker for prognosis of NPC and a potential therapeutic target.
Asian Pacific journal of cancer prevention: APJCP 12/2012; 13(12):6527-31. · 1.50 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: A nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC) mass screening trial using a combination of immunoglobulin A antibodies to Epstein-Barr virus capsid antigen and nuclear antigen-1 by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay in addition to indirect mirror examination in the nasopharynx and/or lymphatic palpation (IMLP) was conducted in southern China. Cantonese aged 30-59 years residing in 2 cities randomly selected by cluster sampling, Sihui and Zhongshan, were invited to participate in this screening from May 2008 through May 2010. Participants were offered fiberoptic endoscopy examination and/or pathologic biopsy if their serologic tests reached our predefined level of high risk or if results from the physical examination indicated possible cancer (i.e., were IMLP positive). A total of 28,688 individuals were voluntarily screened in the initial round. The overall NPC detection rate was 0.14% (41/28,688) with an early diagnosis rate of 68.3% (28/41) during the first year of follow-up. Thirty-eight of 41 cases (92.7%) were detected among the high-risk group, and 7 of 41 cases (17.1%) were detected among the IMLP-positive group. The 2 Epstein-Barr virus serologic tests by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay could be a feasible alternative for NPC screening in endemic areas. Further follow-up is needed to examine whether screening has an effect on decreasing mortality from NPC in these areas.
American journal of epidemiology 12/2012; · 5.59 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND: The aim of this study was to identify the prognostic value and differences between the 6th and 7th International Union Against Cancer/American Joint Committee on Cancer staging systems in nasopharyngeal carcinoma. METHODS: The magnetic resonance imaging scans and medical records of 903 patients with histologically diagnosed non-disseminated nasopharyngeal carcinoma were reviewed retrospectively. Moreover, the extent of nasopharyngeal carcinoma was restaged according to the 6th and 7th editions of the staging systems. RESULTS: Among the 903 patients, the 5-year survival rates were as follows: overall survival (OS), 81 %; local relapse-free survival (LRFS), 90 %; distant metastasis-free survival, 86 %; and disease-free survival, 77 %. Using the 7th edition of the staging system, significant differences in OS between categories T1 and T3, categories T1 and T4, categories T2 and T3, and categories T2 and T4 were achieved (P < 0.001 for all models). However, LRFS differed only between categories T1 and T3 and categories T1 and T4 (P = 0.008 and P = 0.003). No statistically significant differences in LRFS were observed among the different groups of anatomic masticator space invasion (P = 0.781, P = 0.457 and P = 0.696). Significant differences in DMFS were achieved, except between categories N3a and N3b (P = 0.826). The T category and N category were independent prognostic factors for the major endpoints in the Cox multivariate regression analysis (P < 0.005). CONCLUSION: The revisions of the 7th edition of the staging system are acceptable with regard to the distribution of patient classifications and the separation of survival curves. Moreover, this study will help to develop a better classification system and to better identify the appropriate treatment regimens in nasopharyngeal carcinoma.
Journal of Cancer Research and Clinical Oncology 10/2012; · 2.91 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND: The purpose of this study was to evaluate the prognostic value of cranial nerve (CN) palsy in nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC) patients. METHODS: A retrospective analysis was performed on CN involvement using medical records of 178 consecutive patients with histologically diagnosed, non-disseminated NPC. RESULTS: In 178 NPC patients with CN palsy, the 5-year survival rates were as follows: overall survival (OS), 61.0%; disease-specific survival (DSS), 69.6%; local relapse-free survival (LRFS), 75.2%; distant metastasis-free survival (DMFS), 73.4%; and disease-free survival (DFS), 55.3%. Significant differences were observed in the 5-year OS rates between patients with single and multiple CN palsy (69.8% vs. 54.3%; P = 0.033) and the OS rates between patients with different pretreatment durations (68.7% vs. 43.3%, P = 0.007). However, no significant differences were observed in OS, DSS, LRFS and DFS rates between patients with upper and lower CN palsy (P = 0.581, P = 0.792, P = 0.729 and P = 0.212, respectively). The results showed that recovery duration was an independent prognostic factor for OS (HR = 2.485; P < 0.001), DSS (HR = 2.065; P = 0.016), LRFS (HR = 3.051; P = 0.001) and DFS (HR = 2.440; P < 0.001). CONCLUSIONS: Recovery duration is an independent prognostic factor for NPC patients with CN palsy and is related to recurrence, which leads to poor survival. Recovery duration requires close surveillance and different treatment regimens.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The accumulation of an intratumoral CD4(+) interleukin-17-producing subset (Th17) of tumor-infiltrating lymphocytes (TILs) is a general characteristic in many cancers. The relationship between the percentage of Th17 cells and clinical prognosis differs among cancers. The mechanism responsible for the increasing percentage of such cells in NPC is still unknown, as is their biological function. Here, our data showed an increase of Th17 cells in tumor tissues relative to their numbers in normal nasopharynx tissues or in the matched peripheral blood of NPC patients. Th17 cells in tumor tissue produced more IFNγ than did those in the peripheral blood of matched NPC patients and healthy controls. We observed high levels of CD154, G-CSF, CXCL1, IL-6, IL-8, and macrophage inhibitory factor (MIF) out of 36 cytokines examined in tumor tissue cultures. MIF promoted the generation and recruitment of Th17 cells mediated by NPC tumor cells in vitro; this promoting effect was mainly dependent on the mammalian target of rapamycin pathway and was mediated by the MIF-CXCR4 axis. Finally, the expression level of MIF in tumor cells and in TILs was positively correlated in NPC tumor tissues, and the frequency of MIF-positive TILs was positively correlated with NPC patient clinical outcomes. Taken together, our findings illustrate that tumor-derived MIF can affect patient prognosis, which might be related to the increase of Th17 cells in the NPC tumor microenvironment.
Journal of Biological Chemistry 08/2012; 287(42):35484-95. · 4.65 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Abstract Conclusion: Advanced parapharyngeal space (PPS) involvement showed stronger prognostic value than PPS involvement. The classification of PPS involvement proposed by Min or Sham was the most appropriate classification for parapharyngeal extension in nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC). The degree of tumor extension into the PPS should be considered in future TNM staging revisions. Objectives: This study was conducted to evaluate the prognostic significance of the various classifications for PPS involvement in patients with NPC. Methods: From January to July 2000, a total of 176 patients with pathologically diagnosed NPC were prospectively enrolled in this study. The extent of PPS involvement was examined by contrast-enhanced computed tomography (CT) scan and graded according to the four previously reported classifications (Min, Sham, Xiao, and Heng). Results: The incidence of PPS involvement was 81.8%. The 5-year overall survival (OS), progression-free survival (PFS), distant metastasis-free survival (DMFS), and local relapse-free survival rates (LRFS) of the patients with and without PPS involvement were 68.1% and 90.2% (p = 0.010), 66.1% and 87.2% (p = 0.013), 76.7% and 93.6% (p = 0.032), and 84.9% and 93.1% (p = 0.220), respectively. Multivariate analysis showed that PPS involvement (yes vs no) was not an independent prognostic factor. However, graded PPS involvement was an independent factor affecting the prognosis of NPC. When the four classifications were included in a Cox model, it was shown that PPS involvement based on Min's classification was an independent factor for OS (p = 0.001). PPS involvement based on Sham's classification was an independent factor for PFS (p = 0.010) and DMFS (p = 0.009).
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The aim of this randomized study was to compare the efficacy of induction chemotherapy plus concurrent chemoradiotherapy (IC+CCRT) versus induction chemotherapy plus radiotherapy (IC+RT) for patients with locoregionally advanced nasopharyngeal carcinoma. From August 2002 to April 2005, 408 patients were randomly divided into two groups: an IC+CCRT group and an IC+RT group. Patients in both groups received the same induction chemotherapy: two cycles of floxuridine (FuDR)+carboplatin (FuDR, 750mg/m(2), d1-5; carboplatin, area under the curve [AUC]=6). The patients received radiotherapy 1week after they finished the induction chemotherapy. The patients in the IC+CCRT group also received carboplatin (AUC=6) on days 7, 28, and 49 of radiotherapy. Eight patients did not meet the inclusion criteria, and the remaining 400 cases were analyzed. Grade III or IV toxicity was found in 28.4% of the patients in the IC+CCRT group and 13.1% of those in the IC+RT group (P<.001). Five-year overall survival rates were 70.3% and 71.7% (P=0.734) in the IC+CCRT and IC+RT groups, respectively. No significant differences in failure-free survival, locoregional control, and distant control were found between the two groups. Compared with the IC+RT program, the IC+CCRT program used in the present study did not improve the overall survival and failure-free survival in patients with locoregionally advanced nasopharyngeal carcinoma. Using carboplatin in the concurrent chemoradiotherapy was not suitable for nasopharyngeal carcinoma.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Concurrent chemoradiotherapy (CCRT) has been shown to improve outcomes for stage III-IV nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC) patients compared with radiotherapy (RT) alone, but the effectiveness of the combined therapy for stage II NPC patients is unknown.
Patients with Chinese 1992 stage II NPC were randomly assigned to receive either RT alone (n = 114) or CCRT (n = 116). The CCRT patients were given concurrent cisplatin (30 mg/m(2) on day 1) weekly during RT. The primary endpoint was overall survival (OS). Secondary endpoints were progression-free survival (PFS), distant metastasis-free survival, and locoregional relapse-free survival. All patients were analyzed by the intent-to-treat principle. The Cox proportional hazards model was used to calculate hazard ratios (HRs) with 95% confidence intervals (CIs) and in multivariable analyses to test the independent statistical significance of treatment intervention. Toxic effects and the response to treatment were analyzed using the χ(2) test. All statistical tests were two-sided.
With a median follow-up of 60 months, adding chemotherapy statistically significantly improved the 5-year OS rate (94.5% vs 85.8%; HR of death = 0.30, 95% CI = 0.12 to 0.76; P = .007), PFS (87.9% vs 77.8%; HR of progression = 0.45, 95% CI = 0.23 to 0.88; P = .017), and distant metastasis-free survival (94.8% vs 83.9%; HR of distant relapse = 0.27, 95% CI = 0.10 to 0.74; P = .007); however, there was no statistically significant difference in the 5-year locoregional relapse-free survival rate (93.0% vs 91.1%; HR of locoregional relapse = 0.61, 95% CI = 0.25 to 1.51; P = .29). Multivariable analysis showed that the number of chemotherapy cycles was the only independent factor that was associated with OS, PFS, and distant control in stage II NPC. The CCRT arm experienced statistically significantly more acute toxic effects (P = .001), although the rate of late toxic effects did not increase statistically significantly.
Concurrent chemotherapy and radiotherapy is associated with a considerable survival benefit for patients with stage II NPC.