[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Tuberculosis (TB) is a common disease worldwide. However, nasal TB is quite rare, and the diagnosis of nasal TB requires a high index of suspicion. The most common symptoms of this unusual presentation are nasal obstruction and nasal discharge. We present a case of nasal TB with involvement of the hard palate presenting with a chronically progressive nasal deformity and ulceration of the hard palate. A biopsy confirmed the diagnosis, and medication for TB was started and the lesions resolved. When a patient presents with chronic ulcerative lesions that do not respond to antibiotic treatment, TB should be included in the differential diagnosis. Biopsy of the lesion can aid in the confirmation of the diagnosis.
Clinical and Experimental Otorhinolaryngology 09/2014; 7(3):229-31. · 0.88 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Bacillus species have been frequently reported in recent decades as true pathogens among cancer patients. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the clinical features and risk factors of Bacillus bacteremia among adult patients with cancer.
Supportive care in cancer : official journal of the Multinational Association of Supportive Care in Cancer. 08/2014;
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: A total of 114 Acinetobacter sp. isolates were collected from patients in the emergency departments (EDs) of two Korean hospitals. Most isolates belonged to the A. baumannii complex (105 isolates, 92.1%). Imipenem resistance was found in 39 isolates (34.2%) of the Acinetobacter sp. isolates, and six colistin-resistant isolates were also identified. Species distribution and antimicrobial resistance rates were different between the two hospitals. In addition, two main clones were identified in the imipenem-resistant A. baumannii isolates from hospital B, but very diverse and novel genotypes were found in those from hospital A. Many of Acinetobacter sp. isolates, including the imipenem-resistant A. baumannii, are considered to be associated with the community. The evidence of high antimicrobial resistance and different features in these Acinetobacter sp. isolates between the two EDs suggests the need for continuous testing to monitor changes in epidemiology.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Cytomegalovirus (CMV) gastrointestinal (GI) disease has been noticed frequently in cancer patients, causing abdominal pain, diarrhea, and GI bleeding. However, little is known about its actual incidence, clinical presentation, and the risk factors for its development among cancer patients. To answer these questions, we analyzed all cases that occurred during an 18-year period at our center. A case-control study was performed to identify risk factors for CMV GI disease. Electronic medical records were reviewed from individuals who were admitted and diagnosed with CMV GI disease during the period of January 1995 through March 2013 at a tertiary care center. Two CMV disease-free cancer patients were matched as controls. A total of 98 episodes of CMV GI disease were included in this study, and the overall incidence rate was 52.5 per 100,000 cancer patients, with an increasing trend throughout the study period. According to multivariate analysis, male sex, low body mass index, lymphopenia, hematological malignancy, and steroid use and red blood cell transfusion within 1 month prior to the CMV disease were identified to be independent risk factors. Among these factors, RBC transfusion showed the highest odds ratio (OR = 5.09). Male sex, low body mass index, lymphopenia, hematological malignancy, steroid use, and red blood cell transfusion within 1 month prior to the CMV disease diagnosis were independent risk factors for the development of CMV GI disease in adult patients with cancer.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: To better understand extensively drug resistant Streptococcus pneumoniae, we assessed clinical and microbiological characteristics of 5 extensively drug-resistant pneumococcal isolates. We concluded that long-term care facility residents who had undergone tracheostomy might be reservoirs of these pneumococci; 13- and 23-valent pneumococcal vaccines should be considered for high-risk persons; and antimicrobial drugs should be used judiciously.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: A constant reduction in the incidence of community-onset acute pyelonephritis (CO-APN) caused by Escherichia coli has been shown with a parallel increase incidence caused by other organisms. Therefore, we evaluated the risk factors and outcome of non-E. coli as uropathogens in patients with community-onset APN.
As a part of a nationwide multicentre surveillance study conducted in Korea, a total of 416 patients with CO-APN were collected with their epidemiological, antibiotic treatment and outcome data.
The risk factors and outcomes of non-E. coli as uropathogens were evaluated in a total of 416 patients with culture-confirmed CO-APN. Non-E. coli caused 127 cases (30.5%) of CO-APN. CO-APN caused by non-E. coli resulted in higher inappropriate empirical therapy (38.6% vs. 20.1%, p < 0.001), longer hospital stay (12.6 days vs. 6.7 days, p = 0.005) and higher 30-day mortality (9.4% vs. 3.8% p = 0.020) compared with CO-APN caused by E. coli. Multivariate analyses showed that male gender (OR, 3.48; CI, 2.13-5.67; p < 0.001), underlying haematological disease (OR, 5.32; CI, 1.17-24.254; p = 0.031), underlying benign prostate hyperplasia (OR, 2.61; CI, 1.02-6.74; p = 0.046), chronic indwelling urethral catheter (OR, 6.34; CI, 1.26-31.84; p = 0.025) and admission history in the previous 6 months (OR, 2.12; CI, 1.23-3.58; p = 0.005) were predictors for CO-APN caused by a non-E. coli isolate.
Community-onset APN caused by non-E. coli represents a distinct subset of urinary tract infections with worse outcomes. The defined risk factors related with non-E. coli should be taken into consideration when empirical antibiotic therapy is prescribed in patients with community-onset APN.
International Journal of Clinical Practice 01/2014; · 2.43 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: We performed a case-control study to identify risk factors of carbapenem-resistant Gram-negative bacteria (CRGNB) as an increasing cause of hospital-acquired pneumonia (HAP). The study included critically ill adult patients with HAP whose microbial etiology was identified at eight tertiary centers in Korea between June 2008 and December 2009. Eighty two patients with 86 isolates of CRGNB (62 Acinetobacter baumannii, 14 Pseudomonas aeruginosa, and 10 Stenotrophomonas maltophilia) were included in the case group, and 122 patients with carbapenem-susceptible Gram-negative bacteria were included in the control group. Diabetes mellitus (adjusted odds ratio [aOR] 2.82, 95% confidence interval [95% CI] 1.25-6.38), radiologic score ≥5 (aOR 4.56, 95% CI 2.36-8.81), prior fluoroquinolone (aOR 2.39. 95% CI = 1.07-5.35), or carbapenem usage (aOR 2.82, 95% CI 1.75-17.83) were found to be independent risk factors. Fluoroquinolone and carbapenem should be cautiously used to avoid HAP caused by CRGNB.
Diagnostic microbiology and infectious disease 01/2014; · 2.45 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Objectives
Although pyogenic vertebral osteomyelitis (PVO) with no identified microorganism is treated empirically, the clinical outcome is not well understood.
We conducted a retrospective review of patients with PVO at a tertiary-care hospital from 2000 through 2012. The study compared clinical features and outcomes of microbiologically confirmed (M-PVO) with clinically diagnosed PVO (C-PVO).
Of 151 patients with PVO, 75 (49.7%) had M-PVO. Compared to patients with M-PVO, patients with C-PVO had fewer underlying medical conditions. In addition, they presented less frequently with fever, high acute-phase reactants levels and paraspinal abscess. The rate of treatment failure tended to be lower in the C-PVO group (9.2% [7/76] vs. 17.3% [13/75]; p=0.157). The overall relapse rate was 6.6% and did not differ significantly between groups; notably this rate was higher in patients who received antibiotics for ≤6 weeks (18.8% [3/16]) and ≤8 weeks (12.1% [4/33]). The independent risk factors for treatment failure were higher CRP levels (odds ratio [OR], 1.087; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.025-1.153; p=0.005) and fever ≥37.8°C (OR, 8.556; 95% CI, 2.273-32.207; p=0.002).
Patients with C-PVO had less systemic inflammatory response and a more favorable outcome compared to M-PVO. Prolonged antibiotic therapy, for at least 8 weeks, might be required for C-PVO as well as for M-PVO until better outcomes are assured.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Based on the new recommendations of the Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute (CLSI), the revised cephalosporin breakpoints may result in many CTX-M-producing Escherichia coli being reported as susceptible to ceftazidime. We determined the activity of ceftazidime and other parenteral β-lactam agents in standard- and high-inoculum minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) tests against CTX-M-producing E. coli isolates. Antimicrobial susceptibility was determined using a broth microdilution MIC method with inocula that differed 100-fold in density. An inoculum effect was defined as an eight-fold or greater increase in MIC on testing with the higher inoculum. When the revised CLSI ceftazidime breakpoint of 4 μg/mL was applied, 34 (34.3%) of the 99 CTX-M-producers tested were susceptible. More specifically, for 42 CTX-M-14-producing E. coli isolates, 32 (76.2%) were susceptible at 4 μg/mL. Cefotaxime, ceftazidime, cefepime and piperacillin/tazobactam were found to be associated with inoculum effects in 100% of the evaluable tests for extended-spectrum β-lactamase-producing E. coli isolates. The MIC50 (MIC required to inhibit 50% of isolates) of ceftazidime was 16 μg/mL in the standard-inoculum tests and > 512 μg/mL in the high-inoculum tests. In the high-inoculum tests including isolates encoding CTX-M-14, ceftazidime was dramatically affected, with susceptibility decreasing from 82.1% of isolates inhibited at 4 μg/mL in the standard-inoculum tests to 0% at high inoculum. Although further studies may demonstrate that ceftazidime has a role in the treatment of infections caused by these organisms, we suggest that until more data become available, clinicians should be cautious about treating serious CTX-M-producing E. coli infections with ceftazidime or cefepime.
International journal of antimicrobial agents 01/2014; · 3.03 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Low serum albumin levels occur in a variety of disease states and are related to in-hospital mortality and length of stay. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the association of commonly measured biochemical markers in critically ill patients such as serum albumin or C-reactive protein (CRP) with the need for intensive respiratory or vasopressor support (IRVS) in patients with 2009 influenza A (H1N1).
A total of 104 patients from an H1N1 registry database of 2436 patients were enrolled. Clinical characteristics and laboratory findings within 24 h of admission were reviewed to evaluate whether serum biochemical markers can be used as predictors of illness severity in adult patients with H1N1 based on the need for IRVS.
Twenty-four (23.1%) of the 104 patients enrolled in the study received IRVS during the study period. Independent predictors of the need IRVS were serum glucose level on admission (OR 1.02; 95% CI 1.00-1.04; p = 0.021) and serum albumin level on admission (OR 0.12; 95% CI 0.02-0.63; p = 0.013). The diagnostic sensitivity of albumin levels for predicting the need for IRVS in patients with confirmed H1N1 with a cut-off value of 2.7 g/dl was 79.17% (95% CI 57.8-92.9), the specificity was 85.71% (95% CI 75.9-92.6), the positive predictive value was 63.3% (95% CI 43.9-80.1) and the negative predictive value was 93.0% (95% CI 84.3-97.7). The area under the receiver operation characteristic curve was 0.860 (95% CI 0.773-0.923) for albumin, 0.808 (95% CI 0.713-0.882) for glucose and 0.734 (95% CI 0.633-0.821) for CRP.
Serum albumin levels and glucose levels on admission were predictors of the need IRVS in adult patients with H1N1. Based on these findings, the level of albumin at presentation may serve as a novel and simple early biomarker to identify patients at high risk for a complicated clinical course of disease.
International Journal of Clinical Practice 12/2013; · 2.43 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The causative pathogens of and prevalence of antibiotic resistance in community-acquired pneumonia (CAP) varies across countries. We evaluated the patterns of antibiotic prescriptions for adult CAP patients, and physician satisfaction with the form and content of the 2009 Korean CAP treatment guidelines.
We designed an online survey for clinical physicians who treat CAP (infectious disease specialists, pulmonologists, and other physicians). We e-mailed the online survey to physicians and gathered results from December 2011 to January 2012, and then analyzed their responses.
A total of 157 physicians responded to our survey: 61 (38.9%) infectious disease specialists, 33 (21.0%) pulmonologists, and 63 (40.1%) other physicians. Two-thirds (96/157, 61.2%) had positions in tertiary and secondary hospitals; the others (61, 38.8%) worked in primary clinics (hospitals and private clinics). One hundred and eight (68.8%) were aware of the Korean CAP clinical guidelines; of these, 98 (62.4%) applied the guidelines to their practice. Among physicians using them, 86.7% (85/98) reported the guidelines to be most useful for empirical selection of antibiotics, and 75.2% (118/157) said the guidelines were useful and satisfactory. Sixty-eight (43.3%) respondents indicated that they had not used aminoglycosides as an initial empirical CAP treatment, while 51 (32.5%) had combined aminoglycosides with other antibiotics to treat patients with CAP. Seventy-three (46.5%) physicians often combined macrolides with β-lactam antibiotics for empirical treatment of CAP, and 21 (13.4%) reported using macrolide monotherapy (which is not recommended in the 2009 Korean CAP treatment guidelines) for CAP patients. The most commonly used β-lactams were third-generation cephalosporins (72, 45.9%) and ampicillin/sulbactam or amoxicillin/clavulanate (28, 17.8%).
Some physicians remain unaware of the 2009 Korean treatment guidelines for CAP and do not use them in clinical practice. In addition, aminoglycoside combination therapy is frequently and inappropriately used in practice. In some cases, CAP is treated with macrolide monotherapy. Thus, the Korean CAP clinical guidelines must be more aggressively and continuously publicized.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Surgical site infection (SSI) is a potentially morbid and costly complication of surgery. While gastrointestinal surgery is relatively common in Korea, few studies have evaluated SSI in the context of gastric surgery. Thus, we performed a prospective cohort study to determine the incidence and risk factors of SSI in Korean patients undergoing gastric surgery.
A prospective cohort study of 2,091 patients who underwent gastric surgery was performed in 10 hospitals with more than 500 beds (nine tertiary hospitals and one secondary hospital). Patients were recruited from an SSI surveillance program between June 1, 2010, and August 31, 2011 and followed up for 1 month after the operation. The criteria used to define SSI and a patient's risk index category were established according to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention and the National Nosocomial Infection Surveillance System. We collected demographic data and potential perioperative risk factors including type and duration of the operation and physical status score in patients who developed SSIs based on a previous study protocol.
A total of 71 SSIs (3.3%) were identified, with hospital rates varying from 0.0 - 15.7%. The results of multivariate analyses indicated that prolonged operation time (P = 0.002), use of a razor for preoperative hair removal (P = 0.010), and absence of laminar flow in the operating room (P = 0.024) were independent risk factors for SSI after gastric surgery.
Longer operation times, razor use, and absence of laminar flow in operating rooms were independently associated with significant increased SSI risk after gastric surgery.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: We report three cases of Mycobacterium chelonae infections after bee venom acupuncture. All were treated with antibiotics and surgery. M. chelonae infections should be included in the differential diagnosis of chronic skin and soft tissue infections following bee venom acupuncture.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Treatment of Enterobacter infection is complicated due to its intrinsic resistance to cephalosporins. Medical records of 192 adults with cancer who had Enterobacter bacteremia were analyzed retrospectively to evaluate the risk factors for and the treatment outcomes in extended-spectrum cephalosporin (ESC)-resistant Enterobacter bacteremia in adults with cancer. The main outcome measure was 30-day mortality. Of the 192 patients, 53 (27.6%) had bloodstream infections caused by ESC-resistant Enterobacter species. Recent use of a third-generation cephalosporin, older age, tumor progression at last evaluation, recent surgery, and nosocomial acquisition were associated with ESC-resistant Enterobacter bacteremia. The 30-day mortality rate was significantly higher in the resistant group. Multivariate analysis showed that respiratory tract infection, tumor progression, septic shock at presentation, Enterobacter aerogenes as the culprit pathogen, and diabetes mellitus were independent risk factors for mortality. ESC resistance was significantly associated with mortality in patients with E. aerogenes bacteremia, although not in the overall patient population.
Diagnostic microbiology and infectious disease 11/2013; · 2.45 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Despite the high prevalence of antimicrobial-resistant Escherichia coli in hospital-acquired infections, the clinical epidemiology of fluoroquinolone (FQ) resistance in community-onset spontaneous bacterial peritonitis (SBP) in patients with cirrhosis is not well understood. This study was performed to evaluate clinical features and risk factors for community-onset SBP caused by FQ-resistant E. coli.
A case-control control study was performed using cases of community-onset SBP from June 2000 to August 2011 at Samsung Medical Center (Seoul, Korea). Patients with FQ-resistant E. coli were designated as case patients. A control group I (CG I) patient was defined as a person whose clinical sample yielded FQ-susceptible E. coli, and a control group II (CG II) patient was defined as a person with a negative culture result.
A total of 82 subjects with community-onset SBP caused by E. coli were identified, of which 26 (31.7%) were FQ-resistant E. coli infection. Fifty-seven matched subjects were randomly selected for CG II. Compared with CG I, previous SBP episodes (OR, 4.91; 95% CI, 1.50-16.53; P = 0.010), prior use of FQ within 30 days (OR, 7.05; 95% CI, 1.17-42.38; P = 0.033), and third-generation cephalosporin resistance (OR, 17.68; 95% CI, 1.67-187.26; P = 0.017) were significantly associated with FQ-resistant E. coli. Compared with CG II, a previous SBP episode was significantly associated with FQ-resistant E. coli (OR, 4.20; 95% CI, 1.50-11.80; P = 0.006).
FQ-resistant E. coli is a significant cause of community-onset SBP, with relation to previous SBP episodes, recent FQ use and third-generation cephalosporin resistance.
Liver international: official journal of the International Association for the Study of the Liver 11/2013; · 3.87 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The purpose of this study was to compare the clinical efficacy and safety of vancomycin vs teicoplanin for the treatment of adult patients with healthcare-associated methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (HA-MRSA) bacteremia. A multi-center observational study was prospectively conducted in 15 teaching hospitals in Korea between February 2010 and July 2011. Adult patients (≥18 years) with HA-MRSA bacteremia who were initially treated with vancomycin (n = 134) or teicoplanin (n = 56) were enrolled. Clinical and microbiological responses and drug-related adverse events were compared between the 2 treatment groups using univariate and multivariate logistic regression analyses. The vancomycin or teicoplanin minimum inhibitory concentrations (MIC) were determined by E-test. The MRSA-related mortality, duration of fever, and duration of MRSA bacteremia between the 2 treatment groups were not significantly different. There was no significant difference in the occurrence of drug-related adverse events. Among the 190 MRSA isolates, the VAN MICs ranged 0.5 to 2 μg/mL (both MIC50 and MIC90, 1.5 μg/mL), and the TEC MIC ranged 0.5 to 8 μg/mL (MIC50, 3 μg/mL; MIC90, 6 μg/mL). In multivariate analyses, the antibiotic type, vancomycin or teicoplanin, was not associated with treatment outcomes. This study indicates that teicoplanin is an effective and safe alternative to vancomycin for the treatment of HA-MRSA bacteremia.
Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy 10/2013; · 4.57 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: A retrospective study was conducted to evaluate the efficacy of levofloxacin in the treatment of S. maltophilia bacteremia. The 30-day mortality rates were similar between the TMP-SMX and levofloxacin treatment groups. Adverse events related to antibiotics occurred more frequently in patients receiving TMP-SMX, and recurrent bacteremia due to levofloxacin-resistant S. maltophilia strains developed in patients treated with levofloxacin. Our data suggest that levofloxacin can be a useful alternative option for treating S. maltophilia infections.
Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy 10/2013; · 4.57 Impact Factor