[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: To estimate the efficacy of common treatments for vulvodynia: topical lidocaine monotherapy, oral desipramine monotherapy, and lidocaine-desipramine combined therapy.
A 12-week randomized, double-blinded, placebo-controlled trial was conducted on 133 vulvodynia-afflicted women assigned to four treatment arms: placebo tablets-placebo cream, desipramine tablets-placebo cream, placebo tablets-lidocaine cream, and desipramine tablets-lidocaine cream. The tampon test was selected as primary end point using a modified intention-to-treat analysis. Twelve secondary end points were also examined. At completion of the 12-week randomized phase, women were examined "open label" through 52 weeks postrandomization.
All treatment arms reported substantial tampon-test pain reduction: 33% reduction placebo cream-placebo tablet, 20% reduction lidocaine cream-placebo tablet, 24% reduction placebo cream-desipramine tablet, and 36% reduction lidocaine cream-desipramine tablet. Compared with placebo, we found no significant difference in tampon-test pain reduction with desipramine (t=0.90; P=.37) or lidocaine (t=1.27; P=.21). Of the remaining 12 outcome measures, only the Index of Sexual Satisfaction, improved with desipramine compared with placebo (t=-2.81; P=.006). During the open-label phase, women undergoing vestibulectomy surgery reported significantly improved pain as measured by cotton swab test and the McGill Pain Scale compared with nonsurgical alternatives.
Oral desipramine and topical lidocaine, as monotherapy or in combination, failed to reduce vulvodynia pain more than placebo. Placebo or placebo-independent effects are behind the substantial pain improvement seen in all treatment allocations.
ClinicalTrials.gov, www.clinicaltrials.gov, NCT00276068.
Obstetrics and Gynecology 09/2010; 116(3):583-93. · 4.80 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The risk of Parkinson disease (PD) and its rate of progression may decline with increasing concentration of blood urate, a major antioxidant.
To determine whether serum and cerebrospinal fluid concentrations of urate predict clinical progression in patients with PD.
Eight hundred subjects with early PD enrolled in the Deprenyl and Tocopherol Antioxidative Therapy of Parkinsonism (DATATOP) trial. The pretreatment urate concentration was measured in serum for 774 subjects and in cerebrospinal fluid for 713 subjects.
Treatment-, age-, and sex-adjusted hazard ratios (HRs) for clinical disability requiring levodopa therapy, the prespecified primary end point of the original DATATOP trial.
The HR of progressing to the primary end point decreased with increasing serum urate concentrations (HR for highest vs lowest quintile = 0.64; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.44-0.94; HR for a 1-SD increase = 0.82; 95% CI, 0.73-0.93). In analyses stratified by alpha-tocopherol treatment (2000 IU/d), a decrease in the HR for the primary end point was seen only among subjects not treated with alpha-tocopherol (HR for a 1-SD increase = 0.75; 95% CI, 0.62-0.89; vs HR for those treated = 0.90; 95% CI, 0.75-1.08). Results were similar for the rate of change in the Unified Parkinson's Disease Rating Scale score. Cerebrospinal fluid urate concentration was also inversely related to both the primary end point (HR for highest vs lowest quintile = 0.65; 95% CI, 0.44-0.96; HR for a 1-SD increase = 0.89; 95% CI, 0.79-1.02) and the rate of change in the Unified Parkinson's Disease Rating Scale score. As with serum urate concentration, these associations were present only among subjects not treated with alpha-tocopherol.
Higher serum and cerebrospinal fluid urate concentrations at baseline were associated with slower rates of clinical decline. The findings strengthen the link between urate concentration and PD and the rationale for considering central nervous system urate concentration elevation as a potential strategy to slow PD progression.
Archives of neurology 10/2009; 66(12):1460-8. · 6.31 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: A standardized tampon insertion and removal test, the Tampon Test provides an alternative to sexual intercourse pain as an outcome measure for vulvodynia research. We report upon the reliability, validity, and responsiveness to change of the Tampon Test as an outcome measure for vulvodynia clinical trials.
Outcome measures were assessed in women enrolled in the Vulvar Vestibulitis Clinical Trial, a randomized clinical trial of oral desipramine and topical lidocaine effectiveness. Reliability estimates of the Tampon Test using the Kappa statistic evaluated week-to-week measures at baseline. Tampon Test construct and discriminant validity were assessed through correlation with other outcome measures. Patients' ability to regularly perform the Tampon Test was compared with regularity of reporting intercourse pain.
During the 2-week baseline phase, women with vulvodynia reported stable mean Tampon Test scores 4.6+/-2.6 (week -2); 4.6+/-2.7 (week -1); and 4.7+/-2.8 (week 0) with moderate week-to-week reliability (weighted Kappa 0.52). Over an 8-week phase of trial intervention, change in the Tampon Test measure significantly correlated to a number of outcome measures, including daily pain (r=0.42), intercourse pain (r=0.35), cotton swab vestibular pain (r=0.38), and the Brief Pain Inventory (r=0.49). Women with vulvodynia study participants performed the Tampon Test 96.3% of the requested time, which was twofold higher adherence than intercourse pain measurement (49.7%).
The Tampon Test reflects a real life experience that is reliable, with good construct validity as shown by the breadth of correlated outcome measures. The Tampon Test is an appropriate outcome measure for vulvodynia research that can be considered for use as the primary efficacy endpoint in clinical trials of treatments for vulvodynia.
ClinicalTrials.gov, www.clinicaltrials.gov, NCT00276068
Obstetrics and Gynecology 05/2009; 113(4):825-32. · 4.80 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The prevalence and consequences of comorbid pain and depression in gynecology patients are understudied.
The purpose of the study was to determine the prevalence of pain, depression, and their co-occurrence among gynecology patients, and to examine how pain and depression are associated with additional comorbid mental disorders.
Self-reported pain, depressive symptoms, other mental-disorder symptoms, functional status, interpersonal distress, and abuse were assessed in 1,647 gynecology patients by use of the Patient Health Questionnaire and the Medical Outcomes Study (SF-20).
Moderate-to-severe pain was reported by 29% of patients; depression, by 21%; with both present in 10.3%. Comorbid pain and depression was associated with anxiety, suicidal or death ideation, functional impairment, interpersonal distress, and physical or sexual abuse.
Innovative approaches are needed to assess and treat gynecology patients with comorbid pain and depression, given the degree of overlap between them.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: To determine whether concentration of serum urate, a purine metabolite and potent antioxidant that has been linked to a reduced risk of Parkinson disease (PD), predicts prognosis in PD.
The Parkinson Research Examination of CEP-1347 Trial (PRECEPT) study, which investigated the effects of a potential neuroprotectant on rates of PD progression, was conducted between April 2002 and August 2005 (average follow-up time 21.4 months).
Eight hundred four subjects with early PD enrolled in the PRECEPT study.
The primary study end point was progression to clinical disability sufficient to warrant dopaminergic therapy. Cox proportional hazards models were used to estimate the hazard ratio (HR) of reaching end point according to quintiles of baseline serum urate concentration, adjusting for sex, age, and other potential covariates. Change in striatal uptake of iodine I 123-labeled 2-beta-carbomethoxy-3-beta-(4-iodophenyl)tropane ([(123)I]beta-CIT), a marker for the presynaptic dopamine transporter, was assessed with linear regression for a subset of 399 subjects.
The adjusted HR of reaching end point declined with increasing baseline concentrations of urate; subjects in the top quintile reached the end point at only half the rate of subjects in the bottom quintile (HR, 0.51; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.37-0.72; P for trend < .001). This association was markedly stronger in men (HR, 0.39; 95% CI, 0.26-0.60; P for trend < .001) than in women (HR, 0.77; 95% CI, 0.39-1.50; P for trend = .33). The percentage of loss in striatal [(123)I]beta-CIT uptake also improved with increasing serum urate concentrations (overall P for trend = .002; men, P = .001; women, P = .43).
These findings identify serum urate as the first molecular factor directly linked to the progression of typical PD and suggest that targeting urate or its determinants could be an effective disease-modifying therapy in PD. Trial Registration clinicaltrials.gov Identifier: NCT00040404.
Archives of neurology 07/2008; 65(6):716-23. · 6.31 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The best way to initiate dopaminergic therapy for early Parkinson disease remains unclear.
To compare initial treatment with pramipexole vs levodopa in early Parkinson disease, followed by levodopa supplementation, with respect to the development of dopaminergic motor complications, other adverse events, and functional and quality-of-life outcomes.
Multicenter, parallel-group, double-blind, randomized controlled trial.
Academic movement disorders clinics at 22 sites in the United States and Canada.
Patients with early Parkinson disease (N = 301) who required dopaminergic therapy to treat emerging disability, enrolled between October 1996 and August 1997 and observed until August 2001.
Subjects were randomly assigned to receive 0.5 mg of pramipexole 3 times per day with levodopa placebo (n = 151) or 25/100 mg of carbidopa/levodopa 3 times per day with pramipexole placebo (n = 150). Dosage was escalated during the first 10 weeks for patients with ongoing disability. Thereafter, investigators were permitted to add open-label levodopa or other antiparkinsonian medications to treat ongoing or emerging disability.
Time to the first occurrence of dopaminergic complications: wearing off, dyskinesias, on-off fluctuations, and freezing; changes in the Unified Parkinson's Disease Rating Scale and quality-of-life scales; and adverse events.
Initial pramipexole treatment resulted in a significant reduction in the risk of developing dyskinesias (24.5% vs 54%; hazard ratio, 0.37; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.25-0.56; P<.001) and wearing off (47% vs 62.7%; hazard ratio, 0.68; 95% CI, 0.49-0.63; P =.02). Initial levodopa treatment resulted in a significant reduction in the risk of freezing (25.3% vs 37.1%; hazard ratio, 1.7; 95% CI, 1.11-2.59; P =.01). By 48 months, the occurrence of disabling dyskinesias was uncommon and did not significantly differ between the 2 groups. The mean improvement in the total Unified Parkinson's Disease Rating Scale score from baseline to 48 months was greater in the levodopa group than in the pramipexole group (2 +/- 15.4 points vs -3.2 +/- 17.3 points, P =.003). Somnolence (36% vs 21%, P =.005) and edema (42% vs 15%, P<.001) were more common in pramipexole-treated subjects than in levodopa-treated subjects. Mean changes in quality-of-life scores did not differ between the groups.
Initial treatment with pramipexole resulted in lower incidences of dyskinesias and wearing off compared with initial treatment with levodopa. Initial treatment with levodopa resulted in lower incidences of freezing, somnolence, and edema and provided for better symptomatic control, as measured by the Unified Parkinson's Disease Rating Scale, compared with initial treatment with pramipexole. Both options resulted in similar quality of life. Levodopa and pramipexole both appear to be reasonable options as initial dopaminergic therapy for Parkinson disease, but they are associated with different efficacy and adverse-effect profiles.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Preclinical studies suggest that glutamate antagonists help ameliorate motor fluctuations in patients with PD treated with levodopa.
In a multicenter, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, parallel-group, dose-ranging study, the authors assessed the safety, tolerability, and efficacy of the glutamate receptor blocker remacemide hydrochloride in 279 patients with motor fluctuations treated with levodopa. The primary objective was to assess the short-term tolerability and safety of four dosage levels of remacemide during 7 weeks of treatment. Patients were also monitored with home diaries and the Unified PD Rating Scale (UPDRS) to collect preliminary data on treatment efficacy.
Remacemide was well tolerated up to a dosage of 300 mg/d on a twice daily schedule and 600 mg/d on a four times daily schedule. The most common dosage-related adverse events were dizziness and nausea, as observed in previous studies of remacemide. The percent "on" time and motor UPDRS scores showed trends toward improvement in the patients treated with 150 and 300 mg/d remacemide compared with placebo-treated patients, although these improvements were not significant.
Remacemide is a safe and tolerable adjunct to dopaminergic therapy for patients with PD and motor fluctuations. Although this study had limited power to detect therapeutic effects, the observed improvement is consistent with studies of non-human primates with 1-methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridine-induced parkinsonian signs and symptoms. Additional studies are warranted to confirm these results over an extended period of observation, and to explore the potential neuroprotective effects of remacemide in slowing the progression of PD.