[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The events that have led to the development of cytogenetics as a specialty within the life sciences are described, with special attention to the early history of human cytogenetics. Improvements in the resolution of chromosome analysis has followed closely the introduction of innovative technology. The review provides a brief account of the structure of somatic and meiotic chromosomes, stressing the high conservation of structure in plants and animals, with emphasis on aspects that require further research. The future of molecular cytogenetics is likely to depend on a better knowledge of chromosome structure and function.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Previous cross-species painting studies with probes from chicken (Gallus gallus) chromosomes 1–10 and a paint pool of nineteen microchromosomes have revealed that the drastic karyotypic reorganization in Accipitridae is due to extensive synteny disruptions and associations. However, the number of synteny association events and identities of microchromosomes involved in such synteny associations remain undefined, due to the lack of paint probes derived from individual chicken microchromosomes. Moreover, no genome-wide homology map between Accipitridae species and other avian species with atypical karyotype organization has been reported till now, and the karyotype evolution within Accipitriformes remains unclear.
To delineate the synteny-conserved segments in Accipitridae, a set of painting probes for the griffon vulture, Gyps fulvus (2n = 66) was generated from flow-sorted chromosomes. Together with previous generated probes from the stone curlew, Burhinus oedicnemus (2n = 42), a Charadriiformes species with atypical karyotype organization, we conducted multidirectional chromosome painting, including reciprocal chromosome painting between B. oedicnemus and G. fulvus and cross-species chromosome painting between B. oedicnemus and two accipitrid species (the Himalayan griffon, G. himalayensis 2n = 66, and the common buzzard, Buteo buteo, 2n = 68). In doing so, genome-wide homology maps between B. oedicnemus and three Accipitridae species were established. From there, a cladistic analysis using chromosomal characters and mapping of chromosomal changes on a consensus molecular phylogeny were conducted in order to search for cytogenetic signatures for different lineages within Accipitriformes.
Our study confirmed that the genomes of the diurnal birds of prey, especially the genomes of species in Accipitriformes excluding Cathartidae, have been extensively reshuffled when compared to other bird lineages. The chromosomal rearrangements involved include both fusions and fissions. Our chromosome painting data indicated that the Palearctic common buzzard (BBU) shared several common chromosomal rearrangements with some Old World vultures, and was found to be more closely related to other Accipitridae than to Neotropical buteonine raptors from the karyotypic perspective. Using both a chromosome-based cladistic analysis as well as by mapping of chromosomal differences onto a molecular-based phylogenetic tree, we revealed a number of potential cytogenetic signatures that support the clade of Pandionidae (PHA) + Accipitridae. In addition, our cladistic analysis using chromosomal characters appears to support the placement of osprey (PHA) in Accipitridae.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Heterogeneous supernumerary chromosomes (Bs) are recognized in the oryzomyines Holochilus brasiliensis, Nectomys rattus, N. squamipes, Oligoryzomys flavescens and Sooretamys angouya, representing about 10% of all known B-containing rodent species. They provide an outstanding model for understanding the origin, evolution and diversity of Bs in a phylogenetic context. Therefore, whole chromosome-specific probes were generated from flow-sorted Holochilus brasiliensis (HBR) autosomes 11 and 25+26 and chromosomes X, Y and Bs. Hybridizations were performed on male metaphases of 15 Oryzomyini species of which 3 are B-containing species. The results reveal that among the species sampled, 12 of them, belonging to a monophyletic Oryzomiyini subclade, are positive for an anonymous Oryzomyini shared heterochromatic region (OSHR) on both sex chromosomes. The OSHR is also present on Bs of Holochilus brasiliensis, Nectomys rattus and N. squa-mipes but not on Bs of O. flavescens and S. angouya. Two distinct additional OSHR/auto-some associations are observed on S. angouya. The three species that are OSHR negative belong to an outgroup. Molecular dating suggests that the OSHR originated between 7.8 and 3 Mya on ancestral sex chromosomes. A tentative explanation for the OSHR-positive nature of B regions in three species could be that transposable elements (TEs) from this specific sex chromosome region may have invaded existing B chromosomes. The presence of the OSHR on entire Xp and Yp adjacent to interstitial telomeric sequences at pericentro-meric positions, as observed in Drymoreomys albimaculatus, show a similar organization as on B chromosomes in Nectomys squamipes. The diversity of the Oryzomyini Bs in number , size, morphology and genetic content may be explained by the independent origin of B chromosomes in different subgroups of species, with Bs in Holochilus brasiliensis, Nect-omys squamipes and N. rattus sharing the OSHR with sex chromosomes, and those in Oli-goryzomys flavescens and Sooretamys angouya lacking OSHR in Bs. The species-specific pattern of Bs is probably a consequence of their independent evolutionary origin.
PLoS ONE 09/2015; 10(8). DOI:10.1371/journal.pone.0136663 · 3.23 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Parthenogenesis, unisexuality and triploidy are interesting but poorly studied phenomena
occurring in some reptile species. The mourning gecko (Lepidodactylus lugubris) represents
a complex of diploid and triploid parthenogenetic mostly all-female populations
(males occur quite rarely) widely distributed in coastal areas of the Indian and Pacific
Oceans. Here, we study karyotypes of a male and two female L. lugubris (LLU) triploid individuals
(3n = 66) using comparative painting with Gekko japonicus, Hemidactylus turcicus
and H. platyurus chromosome specific probes to visualize the homologous regions and to
reveal genus specific rearrangements. Also, we applied a 28S ribosomal DNA probe and
Ag-staining to detect nucleolus organizer regions (NORs). Our results suggest that the karyotype
of L. lugubris underwent a chromosome fission and a fusion after its divergence from
a common ancestor of the Gekko-Hemidactylus group. The NORs were found to be located
on one out of three homologs on each of LLU8, LLU15 and LLU18, thus further confirming a
hybrid origin of triploid individuals. It seems that three different bisexual populations might
have contributed to the origin of this triploid parthenogenetic population. We postulate that
the heterozygosity in NOR localization is maintained in the triploid clone studied by the
absence of recombination as described in whiptail lizards. The pattern of NOR localizations
and homologous regions in males and females, as well as the absence of other detectable
karyotypic differences, suggest that males arise spontaneously in all female populations
and do not arise from independent hybridizations with different species.
PLoS ONE 07/2015; DOI:10.1371/journal.pone.0132380 · 3.23 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Saltator is a genus within family Thraupidae, the second largest family of Passeriformes, with more than 370 species found exclusively in the New World. Despite this, only a few species have had their karyotypes analyzed, most of them only with conventional staining. The diploid number is close to 80, and chromosome morphology is similar to the usual avian karyotype. Recent studies using cross-species chromosome painting have shown that, although the chromosomal morphology and number are similar to many species of birds, Passeriformes exhibit a complex pattern of paracentric and pericentric inversions in the chromosome homologous to GGA1q in two different suborders, Oscines and Suboscines. Hence, considering the importance and species richness of Thraupidae, this study aims to analyze two species of genus Saltator, the golden-billed saltator (S. aurantiirostris) and the green-winged saltator (S. similis) by means of classical cytogenetics and cross-species chromosome painting using Gallus gallus and Leucopternis albicollis probes, and also 5S and 18S rDNA and telomeric sequences. The results show that the karyotypes of these species are similar to other species of Passeriformes. Interestingly, the Z chromosome appears heteromorphic in S. similis, varying in morphology from acrocentric to metacentric. 5S and 18S probes hybridize to one pair of microchromosomes each, and telomeric sequences produce signals only in the terminal regions of chromosomes. FISH results are very similar to the Passeriformes already analyzed by means of molecular cytogenetics (Turdus species and Elaenia spectabilis). However, the paracentric and pericentric inversions observed in Saltator are different from those detected in these species, an observation that helps to explain the probable sequence of rearrangements. As these rearrangements are found in both suborders of Passeriformes (Oscines and Suboscines), we propose that the fission of GGA1 and inversions in GGA1q have occurred very early after the radiation of this order.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Most species of macaws, which represent the largest species of Neotropical Psittacidae, characterized by their long tails and exuberant colours, are endangered, mainly because of hunting, illegal trade and habitat destruction. Long tailed species seem to represent a monophyletic group within Psittacidae, supported by cytogenetic data. Hence, these species show karyotypes with predominance of biarmed macrochromosomes, in contrast to short tailed species, with a predominance of acro/telocentric macrochromosomes. Because of their similar karyotypes, it has been proposed that inversions and translocations may be the main types of rearrangements occurring during the evolution of this group. However, only one species of macaw, Ara macao, that has had its genome sequenced was analyzed by means of molecular cytogenetics. Hence, in order to verify the rearrangements, we analyzed the karyotype of two species of macaws, Ara chloropterus and Anodorhynchus hyacinthinus, using cross-species chromosome painting with two different sets of probes from chicken and white hawk. Both intra- and interchromosomal rearrangements were observed. Chicken probes revealed the occurrence of fusions, fissions and inversions in both species, while the probes from white hawk determined the correct breakpoints or chromosome segments involved in the rearrangements. Some of these rearrangements were common for both species of macaws (fission of GGA1 and fusions of GGA1p/GGA4q, GGA6/GGA7 and GGA8/GGA9), while the fissions of GGA 2 and 4p were found only in A. chloropterus. These results confirm that despite apparent chromosomal similarity, macaws have very diverse karyotypes, which differ from each other not only by inversions and translocations as postulated before, but also by fissions and fusions.
PLoS ONE 06/2015; 10(6). DOI:10.1371/journal.pone.0130157 · 3.23 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The Southern lapwing (Vanellus chilensis) is endemic to America and is well-known because of the vast expansion of its geographical distribution and its involvement in air accidents. Despite its popularity, there is no information concerning the genomic organization and karyotype of this species. Hence, because other species of the genus Vanellus have variable diploid numbers from 2n = 58 to 76, the aim of this report was to analyze the karyotype of V. chilensis by means of classical and molecular cytogenetics. We found that 2n = 78 and chromosome painting using probes of Gallus gallus (GGA) and Leucopternis albicollis revealed an organization similar to the avian putative ancestral karyotype, except for the fusion of GGA7 and GGA8, also found in Burhinus oedicnemus, the only Charadriiforme species analyzed by FISH so far. This rearrangement may represent a cytogenetic signature for this group and, in addition, must be responsible for the difference between the diploid number found in the avian putative ancestral karyotype (2n = 80) and V. chilensis (2n = 78).
Cytogenetic and Genome Research 06/2015; · 1.56 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The subfamily Phyllostominae comprises taxa with a variety of feeding strategies. From the cytogenetic point of view, Phyllostominae shows different rates of chromosomal evolution between genera, with Phyllostomus hastatus probably retaining the ancestral karyotype for the subfamily. Since chromosomal rearrangements occur rarely in the genome and have great value as phylogenetic markers and in taxonomic characterization, we analyzed three species: Lophostoma silvicola (LSI), Phyllostomus discolor (PDI) and Tonatia saurophila (TSA), representing the tribe Phyllostomini, collected in the Amazon region, by classic and molecular cytogenetic techniques in order to reconstruct the phylogenetic relationships within this tribe. LSA has a karyotype of 2n=34 and FN=60, PDI has 2n=32 and FN=60 and TSA has 2n=16 and FN=20. Comparative analysis using G-banding and chromosome painting show that the karyotypic complement of TSA is highly rearranged relative to LSI and PHA, while LSI, PHA and PDI have similar karyotypes, differing by only three chromosome pairs. Nearly all chromosomes of PDI and PHA were conserved in toto, except for chromosome 15 that was changed by a pericentric inversion. A strongly supported phyloge-ny (bootstrap=100 and Bremer=10 steps), confirms the monophyly of Phyllostomini. In agreement with molecular topologies, TSA was in the basal position, while PHA and LSI formed sister taxa. A few ancestral syntenies are conserved without rearrangements and most associations are autapomorphic traits for Tonatia or plesiomorphic for the three genera analyzed here. The karyotype of TSA is highly derived in relation to that of other phyllosto-mid bats, differing from the supposed ancestral karyotype of Phyllostomidae by multiple rearrangements. Phylogenies based on chromosomal data are independent evidence for the
PLoS ONE 03/2015; 10(3). DOI:10.1371/journal.pone.0122845 · 3.23 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Gekkotan lizards are a highly specious (∼1600 described species) clade of squamate lizards with nearly cosmopolitan distribution in warmer areas. The clade is primarily nocturnal and forms an ecologi-
cally dominantpart of the world nocturnal herpetofauna. However, molecular cytogenetic methods to study the
evolution of karyotypes have not been widely applied in geckos. Our aim here was to uncover the extent of
chromosomal rearrangements across the whole group Gekkota and to search for putative synapomorphies
supporting the newly proposed phylogenetic relationships within this clade. We applied cross-species chromosome painting with the recently derived whole-chromosomal probes from the gekkonid species
Gekko japonicus to members of the major gekkotan lineages. We included members of the families Diplodactylidae, Carphodactylidae, Pygopodidae, Eublepharidae, Phyllodactylidae and Gekkonidae. Our study demonstrates relatively high chromosome conservatism across the ancient group of gekkotan lizards. We documented that many changes in chromosomal shape across geckos can be attributed to intrachromosomal rearrangements. The documentedrearrangements are not totally in agreement with the recently newly erected family Phyllodactylidae.The results also pointed to homoplasy, particularly in the reuse of chromosome breakpoints, in the evolution of gecko karyotypes.
Chromosome Research 02/2015; 23(2). DOI:10.1007/s10577-015-9468-6 · 2.48 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Oligoryzomys belongs to the tribe Oryzomyini, and contains about 22 species. Diploid numbers range from 2n = 44 in Oligoryzomys sp. 2 to 2n = 72 in O. utiaritensis and phylogenetic relationships are not well defined. The high morphological convergence leads to misidentification of taxonomic entities and the species are often identified by chromosomal characters. Until now, the genus has been studied only by classical cytogenetic approaches. To understand the chromosomal evolution of Oligoryzomys, we developed chromosome probes from a female of Oligoryzomys moojeni (OMO) with 2n = 70 and hybridized to other five Oligoryzomys species. The probes painted 31 segments on O. fornesi (OFO) with 2n = 62; 32 segments on O. microtis (OMI), 2n = 64; 33 segments on O. nigripes (ONI), 2n = 62 and on O. rupestris (ORU), 2n = 46; and 34 on Oligoryzomys sp. 2 (OSP), 2n = 44. OMO probes 4 and 5 showed a syntenic association in O. fornesi, O. microtis and O. nigripes and were also presented in the same pair, although disrupted, in O. rupestris and Oligoryzomys sp. 2. Concerning O. rupestris and Oligoryzomys sp. 2, species with the lowest diploid numbers of the genus, a total of 8 probes hybridized to 11 segments on the largest pair of ORU 1 and 9 probes hybridized to 12 segments on OSP 1. Also, OMO 6 painted three segments in ORU, corresponding to the proximal segment of ORU 2q, and the whole of ORU 19 and 20. In OSP, the segment corresponding to ORU 20 was homologous to OSP 1p. OMO X showed signals of hybridization in both X and Y chromosomes. Extensive chromosomal rearrangements, that could not be detected by classical cytogenetic techniques, such as pericentric inversions or repositioning of centromeres, Robertsonian rearrangements and tandem fusions/fissions, as well as gain/activation or loss/inactivation of centromeres and telomeric sequences have driven the huge genome reshuffling in these closely related species.
PLoS ONE 02/2015; 10(2):e0117579. DOI:10.1371/journal.pone.0117579 · 3.23 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: At present, it is widely assumed that hyperandrogenism in female athletes confers an unfair competitive advantage. This view is perpetuated in current regulations governing eligibility of female athletes with hyperandrogenism to compete, which identify testosterone levels in the male range as the critical factor. Detailed evidence is presented here for the first time that genes for stature (and possibly other genes) on the Y chromosome are responsible for the increased frequency of 46,XY disorder of sex development (46,XY DSD) among elite female athletes identified by eligibility tests. In many cases, androgens are non-functional or, alternatively, absent and therefore tes- tosterone cannot be responsible for their athletic success. Genetic variation has a major role in the selection of individuals for training and success in competition; however, this variation is not grounds for determining who should compete in athletic events. There is no convincing evidence to support the view that hyperandrogenism is associated with performance advantage in female athletes. Current time-consuming regulations may lead to the unwelcome resurgence of innuendo in the media and coercion of female athletes into accepting gonadectomy and other treatments to which they might otherwise not have been subjected. These regulations should be withdrawn on the grounds that they are not supported scientifically, are discriminatory towards women and place some female athletes at risk of unnecessary and potentially harmful investigations. Improved understanding about genetic factors that lead to selection in sport should offer reassurance that women with hyperandrogenism possess no physical attribute relevant to athletic performance that is neither attainable, nor present in other women.
Sports Medicine 12/2014; DOI:10.1007/s40279-014-0249-8 · 5.04 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Turdus rufiventris and Turdus albicollis, two songbirds belonging to the family Turdidae (Aves, Passeriformes) were studied by C-banding, 18S rDNA, as well as the use of whole chromosome probes derived from Gallus gallus (GGA) and Leucopternis albicollis (LAL). They showed very similar karyotypes, with 2n = 78 and the same pattern of distribution of heterochromatic blocks and hybridization patterns. However, the analysis of 18/28S rDNA has shown differences in the number of NOR-bearing chromosomes and ribosomal clusters. The hybridization pattern of GGA macrochromosomes was similar to the one found in songbirds studied by Fluorescent in situ hybridization, with fission of GGA 1 and GGA 4 chromosomes. In contrast, LAL chromosome paintings revealed a complex pattern of intrachromosomal rearrangements (paracentric and pericentric inversions) on chromosome 2, which corresponds to GGA1q. The first inversion changed the chromosomal morphology and the second and third inversions changed the order of chromosome segments. Karyotype analysis in Turdus revealed that this genus has derived characteristics in relation to the putative avian ancestral karyotype, highlighting the importance of using new tools for analysis of chromosomal evolution in birds, such as the probes derived from L. albicollis, which make it possible to identify intrachromosomal rearrangements not visible with the use of GGA chromosome painting solely.
PLoS ONE 07/2014; 9(7):e103338. DOI:10.1371/journal.pone.0103338 · 3.23 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Multiple self-healing squamous epithelioma (MSSE) is a rare familial skin cancer in which multiple tumours resembling crateriform squamous carcinomas are locally invasive but regress spontaneously after several months, leaving deep disfiguring facial scars and shallower scars on the limbs. First identified in a number of Scottish families, the condition has since been reported more widely. We review here the investigations leading to the discovery of loss of function mutations in TGFBR1 that are responsible for the disease. Loss of heterozygosity in tumours reveals that TGFBR1 acts as a tumour suppressor gene. TGFBR1 was initially excluded as the MSSE gene because it lies outside an extensive chromosome 9 haplotype shared by Scottish families. MSSE can now be regarded as a digenic/multilocus disease in view of the evidence of a second linked locus necessary for pathogenesis located within the Scottish haplotype.
The international journal of biochemistry & cell biology 04/2014; 53. DOI:10.1016/j.biocel.2014.04.007 · 4.05 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Avian genome organisation is characterised, in part, by a set of microchromosomes that are unusually small in size and unusually large in number. Although containing about a quarter of the genome, they contain around half the genes and three quarters of the total chromosome number. Nonetheless, they continue to belie analysis by cytogenetic means. Chromosomal rearrangements play a key role in genome evolution, fertility and genetic disease and thus tools for analysis of the microchromosomes are essential to analyse such phenomena in birds. Here, we report the development of chicken microchromosomal paint pools, generation of pairs of specific microchromosome BAC clones in chicken, and computational tools for in silico comparison of the genomes of microchromosomes. We demonstrate the use of these molecular and computational tools across species, suggesting their use to generate a clear picture of microchromosomal rearrangements between avian species. With increasing numbers of avian genome sequences that are emerging, tools such as these will find great utility in assembling genomes de novo and for asking fundamental questions about genome evolution from a chromosomal perspective.
Chromosome Research 04/2014; 22(1). DOI:10.1007/s10577-014-9412-1 · 2.48 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The Coscoroba (Coscoroba coscoroba), endemic to southern South America, is traditionally considered as an early branch from the common ancestor leading to true geese and swans. Recently, an interesting association between the Coscoroba and Cape Barren goose (Cereopsis novaehollandiae) as sister groups has been proposed. We present here the characterization of the karyotype of C. coscoroba using whole chromosome probes derived from Gallus gallus macrochromosomes. Our data showed that C. coscoroba has the highest diploid number among Anseriformes (2n = 98), and the conservation of macrochromosome pairs 1–10 indicates that the increase in diploid number has occurred by fission events involving only the microchromosomes. Moreover, the similarity between the diploid numbers of C. coscoroba (2n = 98) and Cereopsis novaehollandiae (2n = 92) reinforces the phylogenetic position of these two species as sister groups, considering that other species of geese and swans have diploid numbers close to 2n = 80
Biological Journal of the Linnean Society 02/2014; 111(2):274-279. DOI:10.1111/bij.12202 · 2.26 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The genus Micronycteris is a diverse group of phyllostomid bats currently comprising 11 species, with diploid number (2n) ranging from 26 to 40 chromosomes. The karyotypic relationships within Micronycteris and between Micronycteris and other phyllostomids remain poorly understood. The karyotype of Micronycteris hirsuta is of particular interest: three different diploid numbers were reported for this species in South and Central Americas with 2n = 26, 28 and 30 chromosomes. Although current evidence suggests some geographic differentiation among populations of M. hirsuta based on chromosomal, morphological, and nuclear and mitochondrial DNA markers, the recognition of new species or subspecies has been avoided due to the need for additional data, mainly chromosomal data.
We describe two new cytotypes for Micronycteris hirsuta (MHI) (2n = 26 and 25, NF = 32), whose differences in diploid number are interpreted as the products of Robertsonian rearrangements. C-banding revealed a small amount of constitutive heterochromatin at the centromere and the NOR was located in the interstitial portion of the short arm of a second pair, confirmed by FISH. Telomeric probes hybridized to the centromeric regions and weakly to telomeric regions of most chromosomes. The G-banding analysis and chromosome painting with whole chromosome probes from Carollia brevicauda (CBR) and Phyllostomus hastatus (PHA) enabled the establishment of genome-wide homologies between MHI, CBR and PHA.
The karyotypes of Brazilian specimens of Micronycteris hirsuta described here are new to Micronycteris and reinforce that M. hirsuta does not represent a monotypic taxon. Our results corroborate the hypothesis of karyotypic megaevolution within Micronycteris, and strong evidence for this is that the entire chromosome complement of M. hirsuta was shown to be derivative with respect to species compared in this study.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Afrotheria genome size is reported to be over 50 per cent larger than that of human, but we show that this is a gross overestimate. Although genome sequencing in Afrotheria is not complete, extensive homology with human has been revealed by chromosome painting. We provide new data on chromosome size and GC content in four Afrotherian species using flow karyotyping. Genome sizes are 4.13Gb in aardvark, 4.01Gb in African elephant, 3.69Gb in golden mole and 3.31Gb in manatee, whereas published results show a mean of 5.18Gb for Afrotheria. Genome GC content shows a negative correlation with size, indicating that this is due to differences in the amount of AT-rich sequence. Low genome GC content and small variance in chromosome GC content are characteristic of aardvark and elephant and may be associated with the high degree of conserved synteny, suggesting that these are features of the Afrotherian ancestral genome.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Most eukaryotic species represent stable karyotypes with a particular diploid number. B chromosomes are additional to standard karyotypes and may vary in size, number and morphology even between cells of the same individual. For many years it was generally believed that B chromosomes found in some plant, animal and fungi species lacked active genes. Recently molecular cytogenetic studies showed the presence of additional copies of protein-coding genes on B chromosomes. However, the transcriptional activity of these genes remained elusive. We studied karyotypes of the Siberian roe deer (Capreolus pygargus) that possess up to 14 B chromosomes to investigate the presence and expression of genes on supernumerary chromosomes.
Here we describe a 2 Mbp region homologous to cattle chromosome 3 and containing TNNI3K (partial), FPGT, LRRIQ3 and a large gene-sparse segment on B chromosomes of the Siberian roe deer. The presence of the copy of the autosomal region was demonstrated by B specific cDNA analysis, PCR assisted mapping, cattle BAC clones localization and qPCR. By comparative analysis of B-specific and non-B chromosomal sequences we discovered some B chromosome-specific mutations in protein-coding genes, which further enabled the detection of a FPGT-TNNI3K transcript expressed from duplicated genes located on B chromosomes in roe deer fibroblasts.
Discovery of a large autosomal segment in all B chromosomes of the Siberian roe deer further corroborates the view of autosomal origin of these elements. Detection of a B-derived transcript in fibroblasts implies that the protein coding sequences located on Bs are not fully inactivated. The origin, evolution and effect on host of B chromosomal genes seem to be similar to autosomal segmental duplications, which reinforces the view that supernumerary chromosomal elements might play an important role in genome evolution.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Buteoninae (Falconiformes, Accipitridae) consist of the widely distributed genus Buteo, and several closely related species in a group called "sub-buteonine hawks", such as Buteogallus, Parabuteo, Asturina, Leucopternis and Busarellus, with unsolved phylogenetic relationships. Diploid number ranges between 2n = 66 and 2n = 68. Only one species, L. albicollis had its karyotype analyzed by molecular cytogenetics. The aim of this study was to present chromosomal analysis of three species of Buteoninae: Rupornis magnirostris, Asturina nitida and Buteogallus meridionallis using fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) experiments with telomeric and rDNA probes, as well as whole chromosome probes derived from Gallus gallus and Leucopternis albicollis. The three species analyzed herein showed similar karyotypes, with 2n = 68. Telomeric probes showed some interstitial telomeric sequences, which could be resulted by fusion processes occurred in the chromosomal evolution of the group, including the one found in the tassociation GGA1p/GGA6. In fact, this association was observed in all the three species analyzed in this paper, and also in L. albicollis, suggesting that it represents a cytogenetic signature which reinforces the monophyly of Neotropical buteoninae species.
PLoS ONE 07/2013; 8(7):e70071. DOI:10.1371/journal.pone.0070071 · 3.23 Impact Factor