[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Obesity is a worldwide pandemic, and obese patients face an increased risk of developing acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS). Prone positioning (PP) is a frequently used intervention in the treatment of ARDS. There are no data describing the impact of PP on morbidity and mortality in abdominally obese patients. We report our observations in abdominally obese ARDS patients treated with PP.
Patients with ARDS (n = 82) were retrospectively divided into 2 groups characterized by presence (n = 41) or absence (n = 41) of abdominal obesity as defined by a sagittal abdominal diameter of 26 cm or more.
There was no difference in cumulative time abdominally obese patients were placed in prone position from admission to day 7 (41.0 hours [interquartile range, 50.5 hours] vs 39.5 hours [interquartile range, 61.5 hours]; P = .65) or in overall intensive care unit mortality (34% vs 34%; P = 1). However, abdominally obese patients developed renal failure (83% vs 35%; P < .001) and hypoxic hepatitis (22% vs 2%; P = .015) more frequently. A significant interaction effect between abdominal obesity and prone position with respect to mortality risk (likelihood ratio, P = .0004) was seen if abdominally obese patients were treated with prolonged cumulative PP.
A cautious approach to PP should be considered in abdominally obese patients.
Journal of critical care 02/2014; · 2.13 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Purpose
Obesity is a worlwide pandemic and obese patients face an increased risk of developing acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS). Prone positioning, a frequently used intervention in the treatment of ARDS. There are no data describing the impact of prone positioning on morbidity and mortality in abdominally obese patients. We report our observations in abdominally obese ARDS patients treated with prone positioning.
Material and methods
Patients with ARDS (n = 82) were retrospectively divided into two groups characterised by presence (n = 41) or absence (n = 41) of abdominal obesity as defined by a sagittal abdominal diameter of ≥ 26 cm.
There was no difference in cumulative time abdominally obese patients were placed in prone position from admission to day 7 [41.0 h (IQR 50.5 h) vs. 39.5 h (IQR 61.5 h); p = .65)] or in overall ICU mortality (34% vs. 34%; p = 1). However, abdominally obese patients developed renal failure (83% vs. 35%; p < .001) and hypoxic hepatitis (22% vs. 2%; p = .015) more frequently. A significant interaction effect between abdominal obesity and prone position with respect to mortality risk (likelihood ratio p = .0004) was seen if abdominally obese patients were treated with prolonged cumulative prone positioning.
A cautious approach to prone positioning should be considered in abdominally obese patients.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Objective and Methods The Eurotransplant Foundation introduced the lung allocation score (LAS) in Germany on December 10, 2011. We analyzed characteristics of the Munich Lung Transplant Group (MLTG) waiting list during the first 9 months after the introduction of the LAS. Results A mean number of 39 ± 1 patients were constantly listed for lung transplantation and 60 transplants were performed by the MLTG during the observation period. While the majority (42 ± 0%) of patients waiting for transplant comprised chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD)/emphysema patients, only 26% of transplanted patients suffered from COPD/emphysema. Instead, the majority (42%) of transplanted patients suffered from interstitial lung disease. Waiting times did not markedly change in the LAS era. Notably, patients with interstitial lung disease had shorter waiting times when compared with patients suffering from COPD/emphysema and cystic fibrosis, both on the waiting list and at the time of transplant. Conclusion The MLTG lung transplant waiting list has not markedly changed during the first 9 months after the introduction of the LAS. Our data indicate that the LAS accommodates disease-specific patient statuses well. Although patients with interstitial lung disease are preferably transplanted, the LAS system provides a very reasonable basis to also list and transplant COPD/emphysema patients.
The Thoracic and Cardiovascular Surgeon 12/2013; · 0.93 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Hypoxic hepatitis is a common cause of hepatic impairment in critically ill patients and is an independent risk factor for mortality. An elevated level of unmeasured anions is another unfavourable prognostic marker in many disease entities. While the biochemical nature of unmeasured anions is unknown, data suggest that they may be released from the liver. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to determine whether the strong ion gap-the gold standard for estimation of unmeasured anions-is elevated and associated with outcome in patients with hypoxic hepatitis.
One hundred and five consecutive patients with hypoxic hepatitis admitted to the (intensive care unit) ICU of a university hospital were prospectively included in the study and compared with 15 healthy controls.
Compared with the controls, patients with hypoxic hepatitis had an elevated strong ion gap (4.0 ± 2.6 vs. 7.8 ± 4.0 mmol/L; p = 0.0002) that contributed to metabolic acidosis. Patients dying within 5 days had a larger strong ion gap upon admission than did patients surviving beyond 5 days. The mean strong ion gap (SIG) over the course of the first 5 days after admission to the ICU was 1.3 mmol/L (0.3-2.3 mmol/L) larger in patients who died compared with patients who survived, p = 0.008. In multivariate Cox-regression, larger strong ion gaps were associated with shorter survival time. The SIG correlated positively with both AST and ALT.
Unmeasured anions are elevated in patients with hypoxic hepatitis, contribute to metabolic acidosis and are associated with mortality. The liver is a possible source of the unmeasured anions, which may represent markers of tissue damage in hypoxic hepatitis.
Wiener klinische Wochenschrift 07/2013; · 0.81 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Early initiation of appropriate antimicrobial treatment is a cornerstone in managing pneumonia. Since microbiological processing may not be available around the clock, optimal storage of specimens is essential for accurate microbiological identification of pathogenetic bacteria. The aim of our study was to determine the accuracy of two commonly used storage approaches for delayed processing of bronchoalveolar lavage in critically ill patients with suspected pneumonia.
This study included 132 patients with clinically suspected pneumonia at two medical intensive care units of a tertiary care hospital. Bronchoalveolar lavage samples were obtained and divided into three aliquots: one was used for immediate culture and two for delayed culture (DC) after storage for 24 hours at 4 degrees C (DC4) and -80 degrees C (DC-80), respectively.
Of 259 bronchoalveolar lavage samples, 84 (32.4%) were positive after immediate culture with 115 relevant culture counts ([greater than or equal to] 104 colony forming units/ml). Reduced (<104 colony forming units/ml) or no growth of 4 and 57 of these isolates was observed in DC4 and DC-80, respectively. The difference between mean bias of immediate culture and DC4 (-0.035, limits of agreement -0.977 to 0.906) and immediate culture and DC-80 (-1.832, limits of agreement -4.914 to 1.267) was -1.788 +/- 1.682 (P<0.0001). Sensitivity and negative predictive value were 96.5% and 97.8% for DC4 and 50.4% and 75.4% for DC-80, respectively; the differences were statistically significant (P<0.0001).
Bronchoalveolar lavage samples can be processed for culture when stored up to 24 hours at 4degreesC without loss of diagnostic accuracy. Delayed culturing after storage at -80 degrees C may be not reliable, in particular with regard to Gram-negative bacteria.
Critical care (London, England) 07/2013; 17(4):R135. · 4.72 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: PURPOSE: Changes in electrolyte homeostasis are important causes of acid-base disorders. While the effects of chloride are well studied, only little is known of the potential contributions of sodium to metabolic acid-base state. Thus, we investigated the effects of intensive care unit (ICU)-acquired hypernatremia on acid-base state. METHODS: We included critically ill patients who developed hypernatremia, defined as a serum sodium concentration exceeding 149 mmol/L, after ICU admission in this retrospective study. Data on electrolyte and acid-base state in all included patients were gathered in order to analyze the effects of hypernatremia on metabolic acid-base state by use of the physical-chemical approach. RESULTS: A total of 51 patients were included in the study. The time of rising serum sodium and hypernatremia was accompanied by metabolic alkalosis. A transient increase in total base excess (standard base excess from 0.1 to 5.5 mmol/L) paralleled by a transient increase in the base excess due to sodium (base excess sodium from 0.7 to 4.1 mmol/L) could be observed. The other determinants of metabolic acid-base state remained stable. The increase in base excess was accompanied by a slight increase in overall pH (from 7.392 to 7.429, standard base excess from 0.1 to 5.5 mmol/L). CONCLUSIONS: Hypernatremia is accompanied by metabolic alkalosis and an increase in pH. Given the high prevalence of hypernatremia, especially in critically ill patients, hypernatremic alkalosis should be part of the differential diagnosis of metabolic acid-base disorders.
European Journal of Intensive Care Medicine 11/2012; · 5.17 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Hypoxic hepatitis (HH) is a form of hepatic injury following arterial hypoxemia, ischemia, and passive congestion of the liver. We investigated the incidence and the prognostic implications of HH in the medical intensive care unit (ICU).
A total of 1,066 consecutive ICU admissions at three medical ICUs of a university hospital were included in this prospective cohort study. All patients were screened prospectively for the presence of HH according to established criteria. Independent risk factors of mortality in this cohort of critically ill patients were identified by a multivariate Poisson regression model.
A total of 118 admissions (11%) had HH during their ICU stay. These patients had different baseline characteristics, longer median ICU stay (8 vs. 6 days, p < 0.001), and decreased ICU survival (43 vs. 83%, p < 0.001). The crude mortality rate ratio of admissions with HH was 4.62 (95% CI 3.63-5.86, p < 0.001). Regression analysis demonstrated strong mortality risk for admissions with HH requiring vasopressor therapy (adjusted rate ratio 4.91; 95% CI 2.51-9.60, p < 0.001), whereas HH was not significantly associated with mortality in admissions without vasopressor therapy (adjusted rate ratio 1.79, 95% CI 0.52-6.23, p = 0.359).
Hypoxic hepatitis (HH) occurs frequently in the medical ICU. The presence of HH is a strong risk factor for mortality in the ICU in patients requiring vasopressor therapy.
European Journal of Intensive Care Medicine 06/2011; 37(8):1302-10. · 5.17 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Hypernatremia is a serious electrolyte disturbance and an independent risk factor for mortality in critically ill patients. In many cases, hypernatremia is an iatrogenic problem that develops in the intensive care unit (ICU).
45 patients were studied in a medical ICU. For inclusion in the study, patients needed to show an increase in serum sodium concentration to greater than 149 mEq/L from an initial concentration of less than 146 mEq/L.
Solute balance, fluid balance, and both. Causes of hypernatremia.
The daily mass balance of sodium, potassium, and water over 1- to 3-day intervals was measured while serum sodium levels were increasing.
During the study period, 69 of 981 patients (7%) acquired hypernatremia after admission to the ICU. Of these, 45 had sufficient data for evaluation. Maximum serum sodium levels were 150 to 164 mEq/L. The average duration of hypernatremia was 2 days (range, 1 to 10 days), with an average onset on day 5.9 +/- 4.3 of the ICU stay. Patients were classified as having a positive solute balance (n = 17; 38%), negative fluid balance (n = 20; 44%), or both (n = 8; 18%). The most important extrarenal factors contributing to hypernatremia were fever (45%) and diarrhea (18%). Polyuria was observed in 38% of patients and 35% had acute renal failure. Hypertonic solutions were administered to 27% of patients.
Retrospective analysis; lack of daily measurement of body weight.
ICU-acquired hypernatremia is associated with multiple factors associated with negative fluid and positive solute balance.
American Journal of Kidney Diseases 06/2009; 54(4):674-9. · 5.29 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Hypoxic hepatitis (HH) is a frequent cause of acute hepatocellular damage at the intensive care unit. Although mortality is reported to be high, risk factors for mortality in this population are unknown.
One-hundred and seventeen consecutive patients with HH were studied prospectively at three medical intensive care units of a university hospital.
The main causes of hypoxic hepatitis were low cardiac output and septic shock, and most patients (74%) had more than one underlying factor. Peak aspartate transaminase (P = 0.02), lactate dehydrogenase (P = 0.03), INR (P < 0.001) and lactate (P < 0.01) were higher in non-survivors. Prolonged duration of HH caused higher overall mortality rate (P = 0.03). INR > 2 (P = 0.02), septic shock (P = 0.01) and SOFA score >10 (P = 0.04) were risk factors of mortality in the regression model.
Hypoxic hepatitis is the consequence of multiorgan injury. Outcome is influenced by the severity of liver impairment and the etiology and severity of the basic disease.
European Journal of Intensive Care Medicine 06/2009; 35(8):1397-405. · 5.17 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: This study investigates whether the strong ion gap (SIG) is associated with long-term outcome after cardiac arrest in patients treated with therapeutic hypothermia. The hypothesis of the study was that an elevated SIG was associated with unfavourable outcome after cardiac arrest.
Retrospective review of records from 1995 to 2007 of patients who received cardiopulmonary resuscitation.
Emergency department of a university hospital.
Patients who were successfully resuscitated after cardiac arrest (n = 288) and treated with mild therapeutic hypothermia.
Acid-base variables were calculated according to Stewart's approach, as modified by Figge and Fencl, and were determined immediately on admission and 12 h after the return of spontaneous circulation. Acid-base variables were determined at 37 degrees C and are reported without correction for patient temperature. Differences in SIG were compared between patients with favourable (survival 6 months with cerebral performance category 1 or 2) and unfavourable outcomes. SIG on admission and 12 h after return of spontaneous circulation was higher in patients with unfavourable outcome (n = 151; 52%). SIG 12 h after return of spontaneous circulation was identified as an independent predictor of outcome. A SIG > 8.9 mmol/L was associated with an increased cumulative hazard of death.
An elevated SIG 12 h after return of spontaneous circulation may be associated with unfavourable outcome in patients after cardiac arrest treated with mild therapeutic hypothermia. The unmeasured anions hidden behind an elevated SIG may represent markers of tissue damage.
European Journal of Intensive Care Medicine 10/2008; 35(2):232-9. · 5.17 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Hypernatraemia is common in intensive care patients and may present an independent risk factor of mortality. Several formulae have been proposed to guide infusion therapy for correction of serum sodium. Unfortunately, these formulae have never been validated comparatively. We assessed the predictive potential of four different formulae (Adrogué-Madias, Barsoum-Levine, Kurtz-Nguyen and a simple formula based on electrolyte-free water clearance) in correction and maintenance of serum sodium in 66 hyper- and normonatraemic ICU patients.
With daily measurements of sodium/potassium and fluid/electrolyte balances, a day-to-day prediction of serum sodium levels was calculated using the four formulae. This was compared to the measured changes in serum sodium.
Six hundred and eighty-one patient-days (194 hypernatraemic) in 66 patients were available for calculations. Prediction of serum sodium levels using all four formulae correlated significantly (P < 0.05) with measured changes in serum sodium. Individual variations were extreme, and the mean differences (+/-SD) for predicted versus measured serum sodium were within the range of 3.4-4.5 (+/-4.4-4.7) mmol/l similar for the Adrogué-Madias, Barsoum-Levine and Nguyen-Kurtz formulae. In comparison, our proposed formula underestimated the changes of serum sodium (mean +/- SD -1.5 +/- 5.3). During hypernatraemia, the differences between predicted and measured values were even greater (mean +/- SD 5.0-6.7 +/- 3.9-4.3) using the published formulae compared to our formula (mean +/- SD 0.2 +/- 4.0).
Currently available formulae to guide infusion therapy in hyper- and normonatraemic states do not accurately predict changes of serum sodium in the individual ICU patient. In clinical practice, infusion therapy should be based on the reasons for hypernatraemia and serial measurements of serum sodium to avoid evolution of derangements.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Voriconazole is a new triazole antifungal agent that is frequently used in intensive care patients with severe fungal infections. Continuous venovenous haemodiafiltration (CVVHDF) is an important extracorporal renal replacement therapy in critically ill patients suffering from severe infections and multiple organ failure. This study investigates the pharmacokinetics of voriconazole in anuric patients undergoing CVVHDF.
Pharmacokinetic analysis was performed in nine intensive care patients-one of them with liver cirrhosis-with suspected or proven fungal infection and acute renal failure undergoing CVVHDF who received voriconazole intravenously. The concentration of voriconazole in serum and ultradiafiltrate was determined by HPLC.
Mean peak pre-filter voriconazole concentration in eight patients without cirrhosis was 5.9 +/- 2.9 mg/L and mean pre-filter trough level was 1.1 +/- 0.3 mg/L. Mean elimination half-life, mean volume of distribution, mean AUC(0-12) and mean sieving coefficient were 14.7 +/- 6.5 h, 228 +/- 42 L, 22.4 +/- 3.7 mg.h/L and 0.56 +/- 0.16, respectively. The total clearance was 12.9 +/- 6.7 L/h and the clearance via CVVHDF was 1.1 +/- 0.3 L/h. In the patient with liver cirrhosis, elimination half-life, volume of distribution, AUC(0-12) and sieving coefficient were 52 h, 301 L, 19.8 mg.h/L and 0.31, respectively.
Voriconazole should be given without a dosage adaptation in critically ill patients without liver cirrhosis undergoing CVVHDF. However, according to results in one patient, reduction of the maintenance dosing regimen of voriconazole seems to be meaningful in patients with liver cirrhosis.
Journal of Antimicrobial Chemotherapy 12/2007; 60(5):1085-90. · 5.34 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Hypernatremia is common in the intensive care unit (ICU). We assessed the prevalence of hypernatremia and its impact on mortality and ICU length of stay (LOS).
All patients admitted to a medical ICU of a university hospital during a 35-month observation period.
Hypernatremia (serum sodium > 149 mmol/L) after admission to the ICU.
Main outcomes were 28-day hospital mortality and ICU LOS. Demographic factors, main diagnosis, and severity of illness. Cox proportional hazards regression models were used for data analysis.
Of 981 patients, 90 (9%) had hypernatremia, on admission to the ICU in 21 (2%) and developed during the ICU stay in 69 patients (7%). Of these 981 patients, 235 (24%) died; LOS was 8 +/- 9 (SD) days. Mortality rates were 39% and 43% in patients with hypernatremia on admission or that developed after admission compared with 24% in patients without hypernatremia (P < 0.01). LOS was 20 +/- 16 days in patients with hypernatremia compared with 8 +/- 10 days in patients without hypernatremia (P < 0.001). In multivariable analysis, hypernatremia was an independent risk factor for mortality (relative risk, 2.1; 95% confidence interval, 1.4 to 3.3).
Retrospective design, absence of data for long-term mortality.
Most cases of hypernatremia in the ICU developed after admission, suggesting an iatrogenic component in its evolution. Hypernatremia is associated with increased mortality. Strategies for preventing hypernatremia in the ICU should be encouraged.
American Journal of Kidney Diseases 12/2007; 50(6):952-7. · 5.29 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The increasingly recognized prognostic impact of the strong ion gap in critical illness is in contrast to its largely unknown chemical nature. Experimental and clinical evidence suggest that acute phase proteins might account for elevation of the strong ion gap. The hypothesis of this investigation was that acute phase proteins account for strong ion gap in critically ill patients.
The charges of the two acute phase proteins C-reactive protein and fibrinogen were estimated by a computer model. Additionally, 142 patients admitted to a medical intensive care unit of a university hospital were studied prospectively during a six month period. Serial daily observations were recorded and classified according to the systemic inflammatory state. The acute phase proteins C-reactive protein and fibrinogen were measured and the strong ion gap was calculated from the measured acid-base variables.
The approximated mean charges of C-reactive protein and fibrinogen at a pH of 7.4 are -4.0 and -13.6 per molecule, respectively. Therefore, their negative charge is too small to explain the elevated strong ion gap even during a substantial increase of C-reactive protein and fibrinogen due to an acute-phase reaction. Moreover, C-reactive protein did not correlate with the strong ion gap when partialized for creatinine (R = 0.02, P = 0.567). Fibrinogen did not correlate with the strong ion gap. Creatinine correlated with the strong ion gap (R = 0.42, P < 0.001). Neither systemic inflammatory state nor increasing C-reactive protein levels were associated with an increasing strong ion gap.
Acute phase proteins do not account for an elevated strong ion gap in critically ill patients.
European Journal of Clinical Investigation 11/2007; 37(10):820-5. · 3.37 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The equilibrium of offsetting metabolic acid-base disorders in stable cirrhosis might be lost during episodes of hepatic decompensation, haemorrhage or sepsis. The purpose of this study was to determine whether the acid-base state is destabilized in critically ill patients with cirrhosis and whether this is associated with mortality.
One-hundred and eighty-one consecutive patients with cirrhosis were investigated in a prospective observational cohort study on admission to a medical intensive care unit (ICU) of a university hospital. Arterial acid-base state was assessed according to the Gilfix methodology. Clinical data, ICU mortality and hospital mortality were recorded.
Patients had net metabolic acidosis owing to unmeasured anions and owing to hyperchloraemic, dilutional and lactic acidosis. Lactic acidosis, acidemia and acute renal failure on ICU admission were associated with increased mortality. Lactate and pH discriminated survivors from non-survivors. The presence of lactic acidosis could not always be recognized by customary acid-base parameters.
The stable equilibrium of acid-base disorders is lost when patients with cirrhosis become critically ill. Lactic acidosis and acidaemia are associated with increased ICU mortality caused by severe underlying organ dysfunction.
Liver international: official journal of the International Association for the Study of the Liver 10/2007; 27(7):901-9. · 3.87 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Hyperlactatemia with unexplained absence of metabolic acidosis is observed in acute liver failure. In chronic liver disease offsetting metabolic acid-base disorders could be revealed by means of physical-chemical acid-base analysis. The purpose of this study was to determine whether the acidifying effect of lactate is neutralized by the alkalinizing effect of hypoalbuminemia in acute liver failure.
Serial arterial blood samples of 46 consecutive patients with non-paracetamol-induced acute liver failure were studied after admission to a medical ICU in a prospective investigation and compared to healthy controls. Acid-base state was assessed by quantitative physical-chemical analysis.
Lactate was increased and albumin was decreased in patients with acute liver failure compared to healthy controls resulting in normal net metabolic acid-base state. The alkalinizing effect of hypoalbuminemia was neutralized by the acidifying effect of elevated lactate. This observation was confirmed in serial analysis during 5 days after admission.
The acidifying effect of lactate is neutralized by the alkalinizing effect of hypoalbuminemia in non-paracetamol-induced acute liver failure. The absence of apparent metabolic acidosis in the presence of elevated lactate can be explained by means of the physical-chemical acid-base model.
Journal of Hepatology 10/2006; 45(3):387-92. · 9.86 Impact Factor