Neil W Scott

The University of Warwick, Coventry, England, United Kingdom

Are you Neil W Scott?

Claim your profile

Publications (40)136.44 Total impact

  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: It is important for clinical practice and research that measurement scales of well-being and quality of life exhibit only minimal differential item functioning (DIF). DIF occurs where different groups of people endorse items in a scale to different extents after being matched by the intended scale attribute. We investigate the equivalence or otherwise of common methods of assessing DIF.
    Quality of life research : an international journal of quality of life aspects of treatment, care and rehabilitation. 05/2014;
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: The aim of this randomised placebo-controlled trial was to determine if withdrawing clopidogrel therapy leads to increased platelet activity compared to pre-treatment values in patients with stable coronary artery or peripheral arterial disease. Reports of increased cardiovascular events following planned cessation of clopidogrel therapy have raised concerns over the possible existence of a rebound in platelet activity. 171 patients on established aspirin therapy were randomised to placebo or clopidogrel (75mg daily) for 28 days. Blood samples were taken at pre-treatment baseline, on treatment just before discontinuation of study drug, and on days 7, 14 and 28 following discontinuation. The primary outcome measure was ADP-stimulated platelet fibrinogen binding. Six secondary outcomes were assessed: ADP-stimulated platelet P-selectin, unstimulated platelet fibrinogen binding, light transmission aggregometry with ADP 5μM and 10μM recorded at maximum and at six minutes. ADP-stimulated platelet fibrinogen binding, P-selectin expression, and platelet aggregation were lower on treatment with clopidogrel compared with baseline (p<0.0001), but returned to baseline levels by seven days after discontinuation. Mixed model analyses excluding the on-treatment timepoint showed no overall differences between the clopidogrel and placebo groups (p>0.05). Furthermore there was no evidence of an interaction between platelet inhibition over time and treatment allocation. This trial found no evidence for rebound of platelet activity to above baseline after stopping clopidogrel in patients with stable CAD or PAD. http://www.controlled-trials.com/ISRCTN77887299/77887299.
    Journal of the American College of Cardiology 10/2013; · 14.09 Impact Factor
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Chronic post-surgical pain (CPSP) is a common postoperative adverse event affecting up to half of women undergoing breast cancer surgery, yet few epidemiological studies have prospectively investigated the role of pre-, intra- and postoperative risk factors for pain onset and chronicity. We prospectively investigated preoperative sociodemographic and psychological factors, intraoperative clinical factors and acute postoperative pain in a prospective cohort of 362 women undergoing surgery for primary breast cancer. Intraoperative nerve handling (division or preservation) of the intercostobrachial nerve was recorded. At 4 and 9 months after surgery, incidence of chronic painful symptoms, not present preoperatively, was 68% and 63% respectively. Univariate analysis revealed that multiple psychological factors and nerve division was associated with chronic pain at 4 and 9 months. In a multivariate model independent predictors of CPSP at 4 months included younger age and acute postoperative pain (OR 1.34, 95% CI 1.12, 1.60), whereas preoperative psychological 'robustness' (OR 0.70, 95% CI 0.49, 0.99), a composite variable comprising high dispositional optimism, high positive affect and low emotional distress, was protective. At 9 months, younger age, axillary node clearance (OR 2.97, 95% CI 1.09, 8.06) and severity of acute postoperative pain (OR 1.17, 95% CI 1.00, 1.37) were predictive of pain persistence. Of those with CPSP, a quarter experienced moderate to severe pain and 40% 25% were positive on DN4 and S-LANSS. Overall, A high proportion of women report painful symptoms, altered sensations and numbness, in the upper body within the first 9 months after resectional breast surgery and cancer treatment.
    Pain 10/2013; · 5.64 Impact Factor
  • Source
    Article: Reply.
    Retina (Philadelphia, Pa.) 07/2013; · 2.93 Impact Factor
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND: Several observational studies have suggested the potential benefit of internal limiting membrane (ILM) peeling to treat idiopathic full-thickness macular hole (FTMH). However, no strong evidence is available on the potential benefit(s) of this surgical manoeuvre and uncertainty remains among vitreoretinal surgeons about the indication for peeling the ILM, whether to use it in all cases or in long-standing and/or larger holes. OBJECTIVES: To determine whether ILM peeling improves anatomical and functional outcomes of macular hole surgery compared with the no-peeling technique and to investigate the impact of different parameters such as presenting vision, stage/size of the hole and duration of symptoms in the success of the surgery. SEARCH METHODS: We searched the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL) which contains the Cochrane Eyes and Vision Group Trials Register (The Cochrane Library 2013, Issue 2), Ovid MEDLINE, Ovid MEDLINE In-Process and Other Non-Indexed Citations, Ovid MEDLINE Daily, Ovid OLDMEDLINE, (January 1950 to February 2013), EMBASE (January 1980 to February 2013), Latin American and Caribbean Literature on Health Sciences (LILACS) (January 1982 to February 2013), the metaRegister of Controlled Trials (mRCT) (www.controlled-trials.com), ClinicalTrials.gov (www.clinicaltrials.gov) and the WHO International Clinical Trials Registry Platform (ICTRP) (www.who.int/ictrp/search/en). We searched the reference lists of included studies for any additional studies not identified by the electronic searches. We did not use any date or language restrictions in the electronic searches for trials. We last searched the electronic databases on 28 February 2013.We searched reference lists of the studies included in the review for information about other studies on ILM peeling in macular hole surgery. We searched Proceedings for the following conferences up to February 2013: American Academy of Ophthalmology (AAO), Annual Meeting of the American Society of Retina Specialists (ASRS), Annual Meeting of the Retina Society, Congress of the Asia-Pacific Academy of Ophthalmology (APAO), European Association for Vision and Eye Research (EVER) Annual Congress, European Vitreoretinal Society (EVRS) Annual Meeting, Association for Research in Vision and Ophthalmology (ARVO) Meeting, International Vitreoretinal Meeting, and World Ophthalmology Congress. SELECTION CRITERIA: Only randomised controlled trials (RCTs) comparing ILM peeling with the no-peeling counterpart were included. DATA COLLECTION AND ANALYSIS: Two review authors (KSC and NL) independently assessed the titles and abstracts of all RCTs identified by electronic and manual searches.We obtained Individual patient data (IPD) from three of the four identified eligible trials. The fourth identified RCT had only been published in abstract form and no IPD were available; we included data from this published abstract for one outcome (macular hole closure).The primary outcome was distance visual acuity at six months. Secondary outcomes included distance and near visual acuity at three and 12 months postoperatively, near visual acuity at six months postoperatively, primary (after a single surgery) and final (following more than one surgery) macular hole closure, need for additional surgical interventions, vision-related quality of life and intraoperative and postoperative complications.We performed meta-analysis using standard techniques (the Mantel-Haenszel odds ratio (OR) for binary outcomes, mean difference (MD) for continuous outcomes) using a fixed-effect model. For two outcomes we also used the IPD to perform adjusted analyses using regression methods. MAIN RESULTS: We identified and included four RCTs; these were conducted in Denmark, France, Hong Kong and the United Kingdom/Republic of Ireland and randomised 47, 80, 49 and 141 participants respectively.There was no evidence of a difference in the primary outcome (distance visual acuity at six months), nor in distance visual acuity at 12 months between randomised groups. However, there was evidence of improved best corrected distance visual acuity in the ILM peeling group at three months (WMD -0.09, 95% CI -0.17 to -0.02). We found no evidence for a difference in near vision between groups at any of the time points investigated.Overall, more participants in the ILM peeling group than in the no-peeling group had primary macular hole closure (OR 9.27, 95% CI 4.98 to 17.24); this held true when results were stratified by the stage of the macular hole. There was also evidence that those in the ILM peeling group were more likely to have final macular hole closure (OR 3.99, 95% CI 1.63 to 9.75). Fewer participants required further surgery in the ILM peeling group than in the no-peeling group (OR 0.11, 95% CI: 0.05 to 0.23).Rates of intraoperative and postoperative complications were similar in both groups.Based on the results of one study, there was no evidence that total VFQ-25 or EQ-5D scores differed between the groups at six months. Based on this same study, ILM peeling is highly likely to be cost-effective. AUTHORS' CONCLUSIONS: Although we found no evidence of a benefit of ILM peeling in terms of the primary outcome (visual acuity at six months), ILM peeling appears to be superior to its no-peeling counterpart as it offers more favourable cost effectiveness by increasing the likelihood of primary anatomical closure and subsequently decreasing the likelihood of further surgery, with no differences in unwanted side-effects compared with no peeling.
    Cochrane database of systematic reviews (Online) 06/2013; 6:CD009306. · 5.70 Impact Factor
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: PURPOSE: To document the prevalence of ophthalmic morbidities in babies born to mothers who misused substances in pregnancy and to assess whether it changes over 5 years. DESIGN: Retrospective comparative case series. METHODS: The series included: (1) a retrospective review of 301 children born between 2000 and 2004 to mothers misusing substances during pregnancy; (2) assessment at 5-year follow-up of this cohort; and (3) comparison with 7887 age-matched controls drawn from the preschool screening cohort in the north of Scotland in the same time period. Odds ratios (OR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) were calculated. Following data collection in both patient and control groups, the following were calculated: (1) rate of referral to the ophthalmology department; (2) prevalence of nystagmus and strabismus at presentation in the study group and at 5 years of age in both patient and control group; (3) prevalence of reduced visual acuity and lack of stereopsis. RESULTS: Ophthalmology referrals, strabismus, and nystagmus were found to be statistically significantly higher in the study group compared with the control group. In the study group, at baseline referral, 46 of 301 (15.3%) had strabismus (2.8% in control group) and 11 of 301 (3.7%) nystagmus (0.004% in control group). At 5-year follow-up, the prevalence of strabismus was 14.0% (OR 5.70, 95% CI: 4.01-8.12) and that of nystagmus was 3.3% (OR 90.34, 95% CI 24.73-330.02). A total of 42.4% of these children at age 5 had no demonstrable binocular vision and 28.2% had visual acuity of 0.3 (logMAR) or worse in 1 or both eyes. Clinic attendance at last follow-up was poor (61.9%). CONCLUSIONS: Exposure to maternal drug misuse in utero is associated with a statistically significantly higher prevalence of strabismus and nystagmus. These abnormalities tend to persist at 5 years of age and are associated with long-term visual morbidity, such as lack of binocularity and poor visual acuity. Our study highlights the need for ophthalmologic surveillance of this population and supports attendance, as nonattendance may be linked to more problems with substance misuse in parents and greater pathology in the child.
    American Journal of Ophthalmology 04/2013; · 4.02 Impact Factor
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND: Radiofrequency ablation (RFA) is undertaken as a potentially curative treatment for a variety of heart rhythm disturbances. Previous studies have demonstrated improved quality of life and reduced symptoms after ablation. In many health care environments waiting lists exist for scheduling of procedures. However, the psychological effects of waiting for radiofrequency ablation have not previously been assessed. We hypothesized that waiting for this intervention may be associated with increased psychological morbidity and health care costs. METHODS: Ninety-two patients scheduled for elective RFA completed repeated questionnaires comprising the Medical Outcomes Short Form 36, Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale, and an in-house questionnaire designed to assess the burden of symptoms related to arrhythmia (arrhythmia-related burden score). Mean scores were generated and compared at time points while waiting, before and after the procedure. Regression analyses were carried out to identify predictors of increased psychological morbidity while waiting and immediately prior to the procedure. Health care costs during the waiting period as a consequence of arrhythmia were quantified. RESULTS: Mean scores for parameters of psychological morbidity worsened during the period of waiting and improved after the procedure. Predictors of adverse effects within the cohort varied according to the time point assessed for each of the measures of psychological morbidity. A conservative estimate of the health care cost incurred while waiting exceeds £181 per patient. CONCLUSIONS: Waiting for radiofrequency ablation appears to be associated with adverse psychological effects and health care costs. These results may support strategies to reduce waiting times and prioritize resource allocation.
    Pacing and Clinical Electrophysiology 02/2013; · 1.75 Impact Factor
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: PURPOSE: The aim of this study was to evaluate the translated response categories used in eight translations of the European Organisation for Research and Treatment of Cancer QLQ-C30 questionnaire, which is used in many international clinical trials. Twenty-eight of the 30 items in the questionnaire have the same four response categories: "Not at all", "A little", "Quite a bit" and "Very Much". METHODS: People with knowledge of both English and one of eight European languages were asked to complete an Internet survey. The strength (intensity) of the translated categories was assessed using two separate approaches: one using a verbal response scale and the other a visual analogue scale (VAS). RESULTS: Two hundred and seventy-nine people participated in the survey. Most translations were rated similarly to English. The largest differences were for the German translation of "Quite a bit", which was rated 16.3 points lower than the corresponding English category on a 0-100 VAS. CONCLUSIONS: Most of the translated categories were found to be similar to the English versions and should continue to be used. We recommend that three translated categories should be considered for revision. Similar surveys could be used to assess the categories used in other translated quality of life instruments.
    Quality of Life Research 10/2012; · 2.86 Impact Factor
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND: Two population surveys were conducted in Belarus: The Living Conditions, Lifestyle and Health (LLH) in 2001 (n = 2000) and The Health in Times of Transition (HITT) in 2010 (n = 1800). Each survey included a question on health status. The LLH questionnaire provided a 4-point Verbal Response Scale, but the HITT questionnaire used a 5-point scale. When translated into Russian, only two response categories of these scales had identical wording. These differences made a direct comparison of self-reported health status between 2001 and 2010 difficult. METHODS: We conducted a Health Category Response Scale (HCRS) survey in 2010 (n = 570) using a 100ths graduated Visual Analogue Scale (VAS) to understand how the response categories of different scales are perceived by Russian speakers. We implemented the HCRS survey's data to calculate the weighted health status (WHS) for each of the original surveys and to compare health status in Belarus between 2001and 2010. RESULTS: The WHS in Belarus showed a small, but statistically significant, improvement of 2.9 points on a 0-100 scale between 2001 and 2010 (56.2 vs. 59.1). Identical response categories were perceived differently on a 4-point and 5-point VAS. The category 'good' ('Хорошее') measured ∼12 points higher, and the category 'bad/poor' ('Плохое') measured ∼16 points lower, on the 4-point compared with the 5-point VAS. CONCLUSION: Our HCRS survey and novel method enabled a direct comparison of questions with different response options. When applied to the LLH and HITT projects, we concluded that health status in Belarus has improved between 2001 and 2010.
    The European Journal of Public Health 09/2012; · 2.52 Impact Factor
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Background:Few epidemiological studies have prospectively investigated preoperative and surgical risk factors for acute postoperative pain after surgery for breast cancer. We investigated demographic, psychological, pain-related and surgical risk factors in women undergoing resectional surgery for breast cancer.Methods:Primary outcomes were pain severity, at rest (PAR) and movement-evoked pain (MEP), in the first postoperative week.Results:In 338 women undergoing surgery, those with chronic preoperative pain were three times more likely to report moderate to severe MEP after breast cancer surgery (OR 3.18, 95% CI 1.45-6.99). Increased psychological 'robustness', a composite variable representing positive affect and dispositional optimism, was associated with lower intensity acute postoperative PAR (OR 0.63, 95% CI 0.48-0.82) and MEP (OR 0.71, 95% CI 0.54-0.93). Sentinel lymph node biopsy (SLNB) and intraoperative nerve division were associated with reduced postoperative pain. No relationship was found between preoperative neuropathic pain and acute pain outcomes; altered sensations and numbness postoperatively were more common after axillary sample or clearance compared with SLNB.Conclusion:Chronic preoperative pain, axillary surgery and psychological robustness significantly predicted acute pain outcomes after surgery for breast cancer. Preoperative identification and targeted intervention of subgroups at risk could enhance the recovery trajectory in cancer survivors.
    British Journal of Cancer 07/2012; 107(6):937-46. · 5.08 Impact Factor
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: PURPOSE:: To evaluate the occurrence of retinal pigment epithelial atrophy in patients with age-related macular degeneration undergoing anti-vascular endothelial growth factor therapy. METHODS:: The study is a retrospective review. Eligible were patients with age-related macular degeneration and choroidal neovascular membranes treated with anti-vascular endothelial growth factor between October 2007 and February 2011; they were followed for >3 months, with fundus photographs and fluorescein angiography at baseline and with autofluorescence and near-infrared autofluorescence images at baseline and follow-up. Demographics, visual acuity, the type of choroidal neovascular membranes, the number of treatments performed, and the length of follow-up were recorded. Autofluorescence and near-infrared autofluorescence images were evaluated for the presence or absence of areas of reduced signal. A multilevel logistic regression model was used to investigate the factors that may be associated with "progression of atrophy" at follow-up, which was the primary outcome of this study. RESULTS:: Sixty-three patients (72 eyes) were followed for a median of 16 months (range, 3-36 months). Atrophy at baseline was observed in 47% (34/72) of eyes; progression of atrophy occurred in 62% (45/72) of eyes at the last visit. The number of anti-vascular endothelial growth factor injections received was statistically significantly associated with the progression of atrophy at follow-up (odds ratio, 1.35; 95% confidence interval, 1.05-1.73; P = 0.02). CONCLUSION:: Atrophy was frequently observed in patients with age-related macular degeneration and choroidal neovascular membranes undergoing anti-vascular endothelial growth factor therapy.
    Retina (Philadelphia, Pa.) 07/2012; · 2.93 Impact Factor
  • Retina (Philadelphia, Pa.) 07/2012; · 2.93 Impact Factor
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: To investigate the statistical fit of alternative higher order models for summarizing the health-related quality of life profile generated by the EORTC QLQ-C30 questionnaire. A 50% random sample was drawn from a dataset of more than 9,000 pre-treatment QLQ-C30 v 3.0 questionnaires completed by cancer patients from 48 countries, differing in primary tumor site and disease stage. Building on a "standard" 14-dimensional QLQ-C30 model, confirmatory factor analysis was used to compare 6 higher order models, including a 1-dimensional (1D) model, a 2D "symptom burden and function" model, two 2D "mental/physical" models, and two models with a "formative" (or "causal") formulation of "symptom burden," and "function." All of the models considered had at least an "adequate" fit to the data: the less restricted the model, the better the fit. The RMSEA fit indices for the various models ranged from 0.042 to 0.061, CFI's 0.90-0.96, and TLI's from 0.96 to 0.98. All chi-square tests were significant. One of the Physical/Mental models had fit indices superior to the other models considered. The Physical/Mental health model had the best fit of the higher order models considered, and enjoys empirical and theoretical support in comparable instruments and applications.
    Quality of Life Research 12/2011; 21(9):1607-17. · 2.86 Impact Factor
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: In contrast with recurrent unipolar depression, relatively little is known about the seasonality of depressive episodes in bipolar affective disorder (BAD). We compared responses on the Seasonal Pattern Assessment Questionnaire (SPAQ) between a cohort of 183 patients with BAD and a large sample of patients in primary care (N=4746). Comparisons were adjusted for age and gender. 27% of the BAD patients fulfilled SPAQ criteria for Seasonal Affective Disorder (SAD. This gave an adjusted odds ratio of 3.73 (95% confidence intervals 2.64 to 5.27) in comparison with the rate among the primary care samples. Global seasonality scores were significantly higher among BAD patients (adjusted mean difference 1.73, 95% CI 0.97 to 2.49, p<0.001). The SPAQ was originally designed as a screening instrument rather than as a case-finding instrument. Vigilance for seasonal symptom recurrence in BAD may be important with regard to management and relapse prevention.
    Journal of affective disorders 03/2011; 132(1-2):289-92. · 3.76 Impact Factor
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: There is evidence of seasonality in bipolar affective disorder (BAD) and the preponderance of atypical symptoms in bipolar depressive episodes is also seen in winter type Seasonal Affective Disorder. Differences in seasonal symptoms between BAD and appropriate comparison populations have been scrutinised only in small studies. Symptoms described on the Seasonal Pattern Assessment Questionnaire (SPAQ) were compared between 183 patients with BAD and 468 patients consulting their general practitioners. Statistical analyses were adjusted for differing age and gender distributions between the two groups. Compared with the general practice patients, subjects with BAD reported greater seasonal fluctuations in mood (p=0.003). On one measure BAD subjects reported increased seasonal changes in social activity (p<0.001) and greater weight fluctuation over the year (p=0.001). The most striking differences were in sleep patterns; BAD subjects slept significantly more throughout the year, and slept for a mean of 1.8h more in winter than in summer (versus a 1.0h difference in the general practice group, p<0.001). Against 20% of the general practice group, 46% of BAD patients rated seasonal changes in well-being to be at least a moderate problem. The SPAQ was designed as a screening instrument for Seasonal Affective Disorder, not for studies of this nature. Some of the reported differences, notably in social activity and weight changes, may reflect secondary psychosocial effects of BAD. Seasonal changes, most notably winter hypersomnia, should be identified in patients with BAD. These symptoms may respond to treatments such as light therapy that are used in recurrent winter depression.
    Journal of affective disorders 03/2011; 132(1-2):200-8. · 3.76 Impact Factor
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: The purpose of this study was to evaluate "in vivo" safety of trypan blue (TB) in patients undergoing TB-assisted internal limiting membrane or epiretinal membrane peeling. Prospective study including 21 patients (21 eyes) with full-thickness macular hole and/or epiretinal membrane undergoing TB-assisted internal limiting membrane/epiretinal membrane peeling. Main outcome measures included distance visual acuity, near visual acuity, amplitude of P50 and N95 of the pattern electroretinogram, and fundus autofluorescence; these were assessed preoperatively, at 6 months (n = 21) and 12 months (n = 10) postoperatively. There was a statistically significant improvement in distance visual acuity, near visual acuity, P50, and N95 amplitude at 6 months and 12 months postoperatively. The mean logarithm of the minimum angle of resolution distance visual acuity and near visual acuity improved from baseline by 0.31 (SD 0.37) and 0.17 (SD 0.31) at 6 months, respectively, and by 0.4 (SD 0.25) and 0.35 (SD 0.28) at 12 months, respectively. The mean P50 and N95 component amplitudes improved by 28% compared with baseline at 6 months (P50 0.4 [SD 0.8]; N95 0.53 [SD 1.07]) and by 63% at 12 months (P50 0.9 [0.85]; N95 1.04 [1.34]). Autofluorescence did not demonstrate damage to the retinal pigment epithelium attributable to TB. No deleterious effects of TB were observed in this study.
    Retina (Philadelphia, Pa.) 12/2010; 31(6):1122-7. · 2.93 Impact Factor
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Small bowel angiodysplasia accounts for 30 to 40% of cases of obscure gastrointestinal bleeding and is associated with significant morbidity and mortality. Identifying lesions can be difficult. Small bowel capsule endoscopy (SBCE) is a significant advance on earlier diagnostic techniques. The cause of angiodysplasia is unknown and the natural history poorly understood. Many lesions are thought to arise from a degenerative process associated with ageing, local vascular anomalies, and tissue hypoxia. Nonpathologic lymphangiectasias are commonly seen throughout the small bowel and are considered a normal finding. To determine whether there is an association between lymphangiectasias, angiodysplasia, and atherosclerosis related conditions. Relevant information was collected from a dedicated SBCE database. Logistic regression analysis was used to examine associations between angiodysplasia, lymphangiectasia, patient demographics, and comorbidity. In all, 180 patients underwent SBCE during the study period, 46 (25%) had angiodysplasia and 47 (26%) lymphangiectasia. Lymphangiectasia were seen in 24 (52%) of 46 with angiodysplasia, in 16 (19%) of 84 with obscure gastrointestinal bleeding without angiodysplasia and in 7 (14%) of 50 without gastrointestinal bleeding. Logistic regression analysis confirmed a strong positive association between angiodysplasia and lymphangiectasia; odds ratio 4.42, P<0.003. Angiodysplasias were also associated with increasing age; odds ratio 1.1. There was no correlation with any other patient characteristic. Lymphangiectasia are strongly associated with the presence of small intestinal angiodysplasia and may represent a useful clinical marker for this condition. Angiodysplasia are also associated with increasing age. Conditions associated with systemic atherosclerosis did not increase the risk of angiodysplasia.
    Journal of clinical gastroenterology 10/2010; 44(9):610-4. · 2.21 Impact Factor
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Differential item functioning (DIF) analyses are used to determine whether certain groups respond differently to a particular item of a test or questionnaire; however, these do not explain the reasons for observed response differences. Many studies have used external reviews of items, sometimes using blinded reviewers, to help interpret these results. The authors conducted a literature review of this topic to describe the current usage of external reviews alongside DIF analyses. It concentrated on studies of health-related quality of life instruments, but studies in other fields were also considered. Relatively few examples of blinded item reviews were identified, and these were mostly from educational studies. A case study using blinded bilingual reviewers alongside translation DIF analyses of a health-related quality of life instrument is described. Future researchers should consider conducting external item reviews alongside DIF analyses.
    Expert Review of Pharmacoeconomics & Outcomes Research 06/2010; 10(3):253-8. · 1.67 Impact Factor
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: A case-control study of genetic, environmental, and occupational risk factors for Parkinson's disease (PD) was carried out in five European countries (Italy, Malta, Romania, Scotland, and Sweden) to explore the possible contribution of interactions among host and environmental factors in sporadic PD. Whereas smoking habits confirmed its negative association with PD, a possible modulatory role of genetic polymorphisms was investigated to obtain further mechanistic insights. We recruited 767 cases of PD and 1989 age-matched and gender-matched controls. Participants completed an interviewer-administered questionnaire including the history of smoking habits. The polymorphisms of genes involved either in metabolism of compounds contained in tobacco smoke (CYP2D6, CYP1B1, GSTM1, GSTT1, GSTM3, GSTP1, NQO1, SOD2, EPHX and NAT2) or in dopaminergic neurotransmission (MAOA, MAOB, DAT1 and DRD2) were characterized by PCR based methods on genomic DNA. We found evidence of statistically significant gene-tobacco interaction for GSTM1, NAT2, and GSTP1, the negative association between tobacco smoking and PD being significantly enhanced in subjects expressing GSTM1-1 activity, in NAT2 fast acetylators, and in those with the GSTP1*B*C haplotype. Owing to the retrospective design of the study, these results require confirmation.
    Movement Disorders 05/2010; 25(7):912-9. · 5.63 Impact Factor
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: To quantify the relationship between Stanford Health Assessment Questionnaire (HAQ) disability and arterial stiffness in patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA). A consecutive series of 114 patients with RA but without overt arterial disease, aged 40-65 years, were recruited from rheumatology clinics. A research nurse measured blood pressure (BP), arterial stiffness (heart rate-adjusted augmentation index), fasting lipids, glucose, erythrocyte sedimentation rate (ESR), and rheumatoid factor (RF). A self-completed patient questionnaire included HAQ, damaged joint count, EuroQol measure of health outcome, and Godin physical activity score. Multiple linear regression (MLR) adjusted for age, sex, smoking pack-years, cholesterol, mean arterial BP, physical activity, daily fruit and vegetable consumption, arthritis duration, ESR, and RA criteria. Mean age was 54 years (81% women) with a median HAQ of 1.13 (interquartile range 0.50; 1.75). Median RA duration was 10 years, 83% were RF-positive, and median ESR was 16 mm/h. Mean arterial stiffness was 31.5 (SD 7.7), BP 125/82 mm Hg, cholesterol 5.3 mmol/l, and 24% were current smokers. Current therapy included RA disease-modifying agents (90%), prednisolone (11%), and antihypertensive therapy (18%). Arterial stiffness was positively correlated with HAQ (r = 0.42; 95% CI 0.25 to 0.56). On MLR, a 1-point increase in HAQ disability was associated with a 2.8 increase (95% CI 1.1 to 4.4; p = 0.001) in arterial stiffness. Each additional damaged joint was associated with a 0.17 point increase (95% CI 0.04 to 0.29; p = 0.009) in arterial stiffness. The relationship between EuroQol and arterial stiffness was not statistically significant. In patients with RA who are free of overt arterial disease, higher RA disability is associated with increased arterial stiffness independently of traditional cardiovascular risk factors and RA characteristics.
    The Journal of Rheumatology 03/2010; 37(5):946-52. · 3.26 Impact Factor

Publication Stats

560 Citations
136.44 Total Impact Points

Institutions

  • 2013
    • The University of Warwick
      • Warwick Clinical Trials Unit
      Coventry, England, United Kingdom
  • 2005–2011
    • University of Aberdeen
      • Institute of Applied Health Sciences
      Aberdeen, Scotland, United Kingdom
  • 2009
    • Norwegian University of Science and Technology
      • Department of Cancer Research and Molecular Medicine
      Trondheim, Sor-Trondelag Fylke, Norway
  • 2006
    • National Institute of Public Health, Denmark
      København, Capital Region, Denmark
    • Bispebjerg Hospital, Copenhagen University
      • Department of Palliative Medicine
      Copenhagen, Capital Region, Denmark