Silvia Martina Ferrari

Università di Pisa, Pisa, Tuscany, Italy

Are you Silvia Martina Ferrari?

Claim your profile

Publications (138)437.44 Total impact

  • 05/2015; DOI:10.2217/ije.15.4
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: The number of thyroid cancers is increasing. Standard treatment usually includes primary surgery, thyroid-stimulating hormone suppressive therapy, and ablation of the thyroid remnant with radioactive iodine (RAI). Despite the generally good prognosis of thyroid carcinoma, about 5% of patients will develop metastatic disease, which fails to respond to RAI, exhibiting a more aggressive behavior. The lack of specific, effective and well-tolerated drugs, the scarcity of data about the association of multi-targeting drugs, and the limited role of radioiodine for dedifferentiated thyroid cancer, call for further efforts in the field of new drugs development. Rearranged during transfection (RET)/papillary thyroid carcinoma gene rearrangements, BRAF (B-RAF proto-oncogene, serine/threonine kinase) gene mutations, RAS (rat sarcoma) mutations, and vascular endothelial growth factor receptor 2 angiogenesis pathways are some of the known pathways playing a crucial role in the development of thyroid cancer. Targeted novel compounds have been demonstrated to induce clinical responses and stabilization of disease. Sorafenib has been approved for differentiated thyroid cancer refractory to RAI.
    International Journal of Molecular Sciences 03/2015; 16(3):6153-6182. DOI:10.3390/ijms16036153 · 2.34 Impact Factor
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor- (PPAR-) γ expression has been shown in thyroid tissue from patients with thyroiditis or Graves' disease and furthermore in the orbital tissue of patients with Graves' ophthalmopathy (GO), such as in extraocular muscle cells. An increasing body of evidence shows the importance of the (C-X-C motif) receptor 3 (CXCR3) and cognate chemokines (C-X-C motif) ligand (CXCL)9, CXCL10, and CXCL11, in the T helper 1 immune response and in inflammatory diseases such as thyroid autoimmune disorders. PPAR-γ agonists show a strong inhibitory effect on the expression and release of CXCR3 chemokines, in vitro, in various kinds of cells, such as thyrocytes, and in orbital fibroblasts, preadipocytes, and myoblasts from patients with GO. Recently, it has been demonstrated that rosiglitazone is involved in a higher risk of heart failure, stroke, and all-cause mortality in old patients. On the contrary, pioglitazone has not shown these effects until now; this favors pioglitazone for a possible use in patients with thyroid autoimmunity. However, further studies are ongoing to explore the use of new PPAR-γ agonists in the treatment of thyroid autoimmune disorders.
    PPAR Research 02/2015; 2015:232818. DOI:10.1155/2015/232818 · 1.64 Impact Factor
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Interferon (IFN)-γ-induced protein 10 (IP-10/CXCL10) and its receptor, C-X-C motif receptor 3, appear to contribute to the pathogenesis of hepatitis C virus (HCV)-related mixed cryoglobulinaemia (MC) (HCV+MC). The secretion of CXCL10 by cluster of differentiation (CD) CD4+, CD8+, and natural killer-T cells is dependent on IFN-γ, which is itself mediated by the interleukin-12 cytokine family. Under the influence of IFN-γ, CXCL10 is secreted by several cell types including lymphocytes, hepatocytes, endothelial cells, fibroblasts, etc. In tissues, recruited T helper 1 lymphocytes may be responsible for enhanced IFN-γ and tumour necrosis factor-α production, which in turn stimulates CXCL10 secretion from the cells, therefore creating an amplification feedback loop, and perpetuating the autoimmune process. High levels of CXCL10 in circulation have been found in HCV+MC, especially in patients with clinically active vasculitis. Furthermore, HCV+MC patients with autoimmune thyroiditis (AT) have higher levels than those without AT. Further studies are needed to investigate interactions between chemokines and cytokines in the pathogenesis, and to evaluate whether CXCL10 is a novel therapeutic target in HCV-related MC.
    Clinical and experimental rheumatology 01/2015; · 2.97 Impact Factor
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: In this paper we will describe cultural, social and scientific changes occurred in psychiatry in the last years, identifying the new target for mental health professionals. Groups of young psychiatrists from the Italian Psychiatric Association, the European Psychiatric Association and the World Psychiatric Association have established an international network that launched a debate on the future role of psychiatry. In a rapidly changing world, there is the need to: 1) adapt training in psychiatry to the modern world; 2) identify the new target of mental health professionals; 3) enhance the image of psychiatry in the society; 4) overcome stigma towards people with mental disorders. In recent years, socio-cultural and scientific changes have had a significant impact on the psychiatrists' clinical practice. Mental health professionals should deal with these changes appropriately in order to overcome the current "crisis" of psychiatry, which should be considered as a developmental phase rather than a conceptual one. From time to time psychiatry is criticized both from inside and outside the profession. The current crisis was unavoidable due to the recent socio-cultural changes, but it should be considered an opportunity to adapt the profession to modern times.
    01/2015; 50(1):3-7. DOI:10.1708/1794.19524
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Background: The Burnout Syndrome (BS) is a common condition among health care professionals, yet data concerning its prevalence and associated factors among psychiatric residents are lacking. Objectives: To report the results of the Italian contribution to “BOSS”, an international multicentre research project aiming at estimating the burden of BS among residents in psychiatry, and at identifying factors contributing to its development and prevention. Methods: Cross-sectional study. The BOSS online questionnaire, which collected socio-demographic data and five psychometric tools (MBI-GS, AWLS, PHQ-9, SIBQ, BFI), was administered electronically to 180 Italian residents in psychiatry. Simple and multiple linear regressions were performed to analyse data. Results: 108 questionnaires provided data for the study (response rate: 60%). Mean age: 30.5±3.7 years. Eighty percent of the sample were female. A moderate level of BS emerged, related to work conditions, absence of major depression, satisfaction with pay or less academic activity. Only 0.9% (N=1) of the sample showed PHQ-9 scores suggestive of major depression, while lifetime suicidal ideation was admitted by 16% of residents. For the three dimensions of the MBIGS, Italian sample scores were consistent with previously published results concerning pooled data in a French- Croatian sample, reporting moderate levels of BS. Higher workload, symptoms of depression and lower satisfaction predicted higher levels of Emotional Exhaustion and Cynicism. Conclusions: Italian residents in psychiatry showed overall moderate levels of BS, related to workload and work organization. Other alerts of psychic distress were found among participants, namely symptoms of depression, suicidal ideation and use of psychotropic medications.
    La Medicina del lavoro 01/2015; 106(3):172. · 0.48 Impact Factor
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Cytokines are intercellular mediators involved in viral control and liver damage being induced by infection with hepatitis C virus (HCV). The complex cytokine network operating during initial infection allows a coordinated, effective development of both innate and adaptive immune responses. However, HCV interferes with cytokines at various levels and escapes immune response by inducing a T-helper (Th)2/T cytotoxic 2 cytokine profile. Inability to control infection leads to the recruitment of inflammatory infiltrates into the liver parenchyma by interferon (IFN)-γ-inducible CXC chemokine ligand (CXCL)9, -10, and -11 chemokines, which results in sustained liver damage and eventually in liver cirrhosis. The most important systemic HCV-related extrahepatic diseases-mixed cryoglobulinemia, lymphoproliferative disorders, thyroid autoimmune disorders, and type 2 diabetes-are associated with a complex dysregulation of the cytokine/chemokine network, involving proinflammatory and Th1 chemokines. The therapeutical administration of cytokines such as IFN-α may result in viral clearance during persistent infection and revert this process. Theoretically agents that selectively neutralize CXCL10 could increase patient responsiveness to traditional IFN-based HCV therapy. Several studies have reported IL-28B polymorphisms and circulating CXCL10 may be a prognostic markers for HCV treatment efficacy in HCV genotype 1 infection.
    Immunologic Research 11/2014; 60(2-3). DOI:10.1007/s12026-014-8569-1 · 3.53 Impact Factor
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: To our knowledge, no study has evaluated the involvement of T helper (Th)1- and Th2-chemokines in extra-ocular muscle (EOM) myopathy in “patients with thyroid-associated ophthalmopathy” (TAO-p). We tested the effects of interferon (IFN)γ and tumor necrosis factor (TNF)α stimulation, and of increasing concentrations of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (PPAR)γ agonists (pioglitazone or rosiglitazone; 0.1 μM–20 μM), on Th1-chemokine [C-X-C motif ligand (CXCL)10] and Th2-chemokine [C-C motif ligand (CCL)2] secretion in primary EOM cultures from TAO-p vs. control myoblasts. Moreover, we evaluated serum CXCL10 and CCL2 in active TAO-p with prevalent EOM involvement (EOM-p) vs. those with prevalent orbital fat expansion (OF-p). Serum CXCL10 was higher in OF-p and EOM-p vs. controls, while serum CCL2 was not significantly different in controls, or in OF-p and EOM-p. We showed the expression of PPARγ in EOM cells. In primary EOM cultures from TAO-p: a) CXCL10 was undetectable in the supernatant, IFNγ dose-dependently induced it, whereas TNFα did not; b) EOM produced basally low amounts of CCL2, TNFα dose-dependently induced it, whereas IFNγ did not; c) the combination of TNFα and IFNγ had a significant synergistic effect on CXCL10 and CCL2 secretion; and d) PPARγ agonists have an inhibitory role on the modulation of CXCL10, while they stimulate CCL2 secretion. EOM participates in the self-perpetuation of inflammation by releasing both Th1 (CXCL10) and Th2 (CCL2) chemokines under the influence of cytokines, in TAO. PPARγ agonist activation plays an inhibitory role on CXCL10, but stimulates the release of CCL2.
    Autoimmunity Reviews 11/2014; DOI:10.1016/j.autrev.2014.08.025 · 7.10 Impact Factor
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Autoimmune thyroid diseases (AITD) result from a dysregulation of the immune system leading to an immune attack on the thyroid. AITD are T cell-mediated organ-specific autoimmune disorders. The prevalence of AITD is estimated to be 5%; however, the prevalence of antithyroid antibodies may be even higher. The AITD comprise two main clinical presentations: Graves' disease (GD) and Hashimoto's thyroiditis (HT), both characterized by lymphocytic infiltration of the thyroid parenchyma. The clinical hallmarks of GD and HT are thyrotoxicosis and hypothyroidism, respectively. The mechanisms that trigger the autoimmune attack to the thyroid are still under investigation. Epidemiological data suggest an interaction among genetic susceptibility and environmental triggers as the key factor leading to the breakdown of tolerance and the development of disease. Recent studies have shown the importance of cytokines and chemokines in the pathogenesis of AT and GD. In thyroid tissue, recruited T helper 1 (Th1) lymphocytes may be responsible for enhanced IFN-γ and TNF-α production, which in turn stimulates CXCL10 (the prototype of the IFN-γ-inducible Th1 chemokines) secretion from the thyroid cells, therefore creating an amplification feedback loop, initiating and perpetuating the autoimmune process. Associations exist between AITD and other organ specific (polyglandular autoimmune syndromes), or systemic autoimmune disorders (Sjögren's syndrome, rheumatoid arthritis, systemic lupus erythematosus, systemic sclerosis, cryoglobulinemia, sarcoidosis, psoriatic arthritis). Moreover, several studies have shown an association of AITD and papillary thyroid cancer. These data suggest that AITD patients should be accurately monitored for thyroid dysfunctions, the appearance of thyroid nodules, and other autoimmune disorders.
    Autoimmunity Reviews 10/2014; DOI:10.1016/j.autrev.2014.10.016 · 7.10 Impact Factor
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection and diabetes mellitus are two major public health problems that cause devastating health and financial burdens worldwide. Diabetes can be classified into two major types: type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1DM) and T2DM. T2DM is a common endocrine disorder that encompasses multifactorial mechanisms, and T1DM is an immunologically mediated disease. Many epidemiological studies have shown an association between T2DM and chronic hepatitis C (CHC) infection. The processes through which CHC is associated with T2DM seem to involve direct viral effects, insulin resistance, proinflammatory cytokines, chemokines, and other immune-mediated mechanisms. Few data have been reported on the association of CHC and T1DM and reports on the potential association between T1DM and acute HCV infection are even rarer. A small number of studies indicate that interferon-α therapy can stimulate pancreatic autoimmunity and in certain cases lead to the development of T1DM. Diabetes and CHC have important interactions. Diabetic CHC patients have an increased risk of developing cirrhosis and hepatocellular carcinoma compared with non-diabetic CHC subjects. However, clinical trials on HCV-positive patients have reported improvements in glucose metabolism after antiviral treatment. Further studies are needed to improve prevention policies and to foster adequate and cost-effective programmes for the surveillance and treatment of diabetic CHC patients.
    10/2014; 5(5):586-600. DOI:10.4239/wjd.v5.i5.586
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Background. We report the antineoplastic and anti-angiogenic activity of the pyrazolo[3,4-d]pyrimidine derivative CLM3 and the cyclic amide CLM94, both multiple tyrosine kinase inhibitors (TKIs), in human primary medullary thyroid cancer (P-MTC) cells, and in vitro in the medullary thyroid cancer (MTC) cell lines TT (harboring a RET C634W activating mutation) and MZ-CRC-1 (carrying the MEN2B RET mutation Met891Thr). Methods. The antiproliferative and proapoptotic effects of CLM3 and CLM94 (I, 5, 10, 30, and 50 mu mol/L) were tested in P-MTC cells obtained at operation, and in TT cells. In addition, the antiproliferative effects of CLM3 and CLM94 (0.005, 0.05, 0.5, and 5 mu mol/L) were tested in TT and MZ-CRC-1 cells after 7 days of treatment to compare the results with those previously reported in the literature. Results. CLM3 and CLM94 (30 or 50 mu mol/L) inhibited (P < .01) the proliferation of the P-MTC cells, TT cells, and MZ-CRC-1 cells and increased the level of apaptosis in a dose-dependent manner at 10, 30, and 50 mu mol/L (P < .001), while having no effect on migration or invasion. The inhibition of proliferation by CLM3 and CLM94 was similar among P-MTC cells with/without RET mutations, and similar effects were observed regarding the increased level of apoptosis. Furthermore, CLM3 and CLM94 significantly decreased vascular endothelial growth factor-A expression in TT cells. Conclusion. The antitumor activities of the multiple TKIs CLM3 and CLM94 were demonstrated in both primary MTC cultures as well as 2 established MTC cell lines in vitro, opening an avenue for future clinical evaluations.
    Surgery 08/2014; 156(5). DOI:10.1016/j.surg.2014.05.005 · 3.11 Impact Factor
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: CLM29 (a pyrazolo[3,4-d]pyrimidine, that inhibits RET, epidermal growth factor receptor, vascular endothelial growth factor receptor, and has an anti-angiogenic activity) has anti-neoplastic activity in papillary dedifferentiated thyroid cancer. Here we tested CLM29 in medullary thyroid cancer (MTC), in primary MTC cells (P-MTC) obtained at surgery, and in TT cells harboring (C634 W) RET mutation. CLM29 (10, 30, 50 μM) inhibited significantly (P < 0.001) the proliferation, and increased the percentage of apoptotic P-MTC, TT and human dermal microvascular endothelial cells. The inhibition of proliferation by CLM29 was similar in P-MTC cells with/without RET mutation. TT cells were injected sc in CD nu/nu mice, and tumor masses became detectable between 20 and 30 days after xenotransplantation; CLM29 (50 mg/kg/die) reduced significantly tumor growth and weight, and microvessel density. The anti-tumor activity of CLM29 has been shown in MTC in vitro, and in vivo, opening the way to a future clinical evaluation.
    Molecular and Cellular Endocrinology 08/2014; 393(1-2). DOI:10.1016/j.mce.2014.06.002 · 4.24 Impact Factor
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: IFN-γ-induced protein 10 (IP-10) and its receptor, CXCR3 chemokine (C-X-C motif) receptor 3 (CXCR3), appear to contribute to the pathogenesis of HCV related mixed cryoglobulinemia (HCV+MC). The secretion of IP-10 by CD4+, CD8+ and natural killer (NK)-T cells is dependent on interferon (IFN)-γ, which is itself mediated by the interleukin (IL)-12 cytokine family. Under the influence of IFN-γ, IP-10 is secreted by several cell types including lymphocytes, hepatocytes, endothelial cells, fibroblasts, etc. In tissues, recruited T helper (Th) 1 lymphocytes may be responsible for enhanced IFN-γ and tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α production, which in turn stimulates IP-10 secretion from the cells, therefore creating an amplification feedback loop, and perpetuating the autoimmune process. High levels circulation of IP-10 have been found in HCV+MC, especially in patients with clinically active vasculitis. Furthermore, HCV+MC patients with autoimmune thyroiditis (AT), have higher levels than those without AT. Further studies are needed to investigate interactions between chemokines and cytokines in the pathogenesis, and to evaluate whether IP-10 is a novel therapeutic target in HCV+MC.
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: The interferon-γ-inducible protein 10 (IP-10) was initially identified as a chemokine that is induced by interferon (IFN)-γ. IP-10 exerts its function through binding to chemokine (C-X-C motif) receptor 3 (CXCR3). IP-10 and its receptor, CXCR3, appear to contribute to the pathogenesis of many autoimmune diseases, organ specific (such as type 1 diabetes, Graves' disease and ophthalmopathy), or systemic (such as systemic lupus erythematosus, mixed cryoglobulinemia, Sjogren syndrome, or systemic sclerosis). The secretion of IP-10 by (CD)4+, CD8+, and natural killer is dependent on IFN-γ. Under the influence of IFN-γ, IP-10 is secreted by thyrocytes. Determination of high level of IP-10 in peripheral fluids is therefore a marker of a T helper 1 orientated immune response. High levels of circulating IP-10, have been shown in patients with autoimmune thyroiditis (AT). Among patients with AT, IP-10 levels were significantly higher in those with a hypoechoic ultrasonographic pattern, which is a sign of a more severe lympho-monocytic infiltration, and in those with hypothyroidism. For these reasons, it has been postulated that IP-10 could be a marker of a stronger and more aggressive inflammatory response in the thyroid, subsequently leading to thyroid destruction and hypothyroidism. Further studies are needed to investigate whether IP-10 is a novel therapeutic target in AT.
    Hormone and Metabolic Research 06/2014; 46(09). DOI:10.1055/s-0034-1382053 · 2.04 Impact Factor
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: BackgroundIt has been frequently reported a higher incidence of psychotic disorders in immigrants than in native populations. There is, however, a lack of knowledge about risk factors which may explain this phenomenon. A better understanding of the causes of psychosis among first-generation migrants is highly needed, particularly in Italy, a country with a recent massive migration.Methods/DesignThe “Italian study on first-episode psychosis and migration (PEP-Ita)” is a prospective observational study over a two-year period (1 January 2012–31 December 2013) which will be carried out in 11 Italian mental health centres. All participating centres will collect data about all new cases of migrants with first-episode psychosis. The general purpose (“core”) of the PEP-Ita study is to explore the socio-demographic and clinical characteristics, and the pathways to care of a population of first-episode psychosis migrants in Italy. Secondary aims of the study will be: 1) to understand risk and protective factors for the development of psychotic disorders in migrants; 2) to evaluate the correlations between psychopathology of psychotic disorders in migrants and socio-demographic characteristics, migration history, life experiences; 3) to evaluate the clinical and social outcomes of first-episode psychoses in migrants.DiscussionThe results of the PEP-Ita study will allow a better understanding of risk factors for psychosis in first-generation migrants in Italy. Moreover, our results will contribute to the development of prevention programmes for psychosis and to the improvement of early intervention treatments for the migrant population in Italy.
    BMC Psychiatry 06/2014; 14(1):186. DOI:10.1186/1471-244X-14-186 · 2.24 Impact Factor
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: An increasing body of evidence shows the importance of the chemokine (C-X-C motif) receptor (CXCR)3 and cognate chemokines (C-X-C motif) ligand (CXCL)9, CXCL10 and CXCL11 in the T helper 1 immune response, and in inflammatory diseases such as bowel inflammatory disorders, allograft rejection, thyroid autoimmune disorders, vascular and renal inflammation, and others. Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (PPAR)-γ agonists show a strong inhibitory effect on the expression and production of CXCR3 chemokines in vitro, in various kinds of cells, such as denditric cells, monocytes, macrophages, endothelial and vascular smooth muscle cells, intestinal cells, thyrocytes, fibroblasts, preadypocytes and mesangial cells, and in vivo in animal models. As rosiglitazone has recently been linked to a higher risk of heart failure, stroke, and all-cause mortality in old patients, it has been interrupted from the European market. On the contrary, the safety profile of pioglitazone seems favorable. However, further studies are ongoing to explore the use of new PPAR-γ agonists in the treatment of the above mentioned inflammatory disorders, and many interesting patents have been recently applied.
    Recent Patents on Inflammation & Allergy Drug Discovery 06/2014;
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: The C-X-C chemokine receptor (CXCR)3 and its chemokines (CXCL9, CXCL10, CXCL11) are involved in the pathogenesis of autoimmune thyroiditis (AT), Graves' disease (GD) and Graves' Ophthalmopathy (GO). Under the influence of interferon(IFN)γ, the IFNγ-induced protein 10 (IP-10/CXCL10) is secreted by thyrocytes, orbital fibroblasts and preadipocytes. In tissue, Th1 lymphocytes are recruited, hence IFNγ is enhanced, which stimulates CXCL10 secretion reiterating the autoimmune process. The presence of elevated levels of CXCL10 in peripheral liquids is considered a marker of Th1 orientated immune response. High levels of circulating CXCL10 (sCXCL10) have been shown in patients with AT, overall with hypothyroidism. In GD and GO patients high sCXCL10 have been shown particularly in the active disease. A modulatory role of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor(PPAR)γ or -α agonists on CXCR3 chemokines in AT, GD and GO and the immuno-modulatory effect of methimazole on CXCR3 chemokines in GD have been shown. Further studies are ongoing to explore the use of new molecules that act as antagonists of CXCR3, or block CXCL10, in autoimmune disorders, and many interesting patents have been recently applied.
    Recent Patents on Endocrine Metabolic & Immune Drug Discovery 06/2014; DOI:10.2174/1872214808666140623114315
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Although generally the prognosis of differentiated thyroid carcinoma (DTC) is good, approximately 5% of people are likely to develop metastases which fail to respond to radioactive iodine, and other traditional therapies, exhibiting a more aggressive behavior. Nowadays, therapy is chosen and implemented on a watch-and-wait basis for most DTC patients. Which regimen is likely to work best is decided on the basis of an individual's clinical information, but only data referring to outcomes of groups of patients are employed. To predict the best course of therapy, an individual patient's biologic data is rarely employed in a systematic way. Anyway, the use of not expensive individual genomic analysis could lead us to a new era of patient-specific and personalized care. Recently, key targets that are now being evaluated in the clinical setting have been evidenced in the pathogenesis of these diseases. Some of the known genetic alterations playing a crucial role in the development of thyroid cancer include B-Raf gene mutations, rearranged during transfection/ papillary thyroid carcinoma gene rearrangements, and vascular endothelial growth factor receptor-2 angiogenesis pathways. The development of targeted novel compounds able to induce clinical responses and stabilization of disease has overcome the lack of effective therapies for DTC, which are resistant to radioiodine and thyroid stimulating hormone-suppressive therapy. Interestingly, the best responses have been demonstrated in patients treated with anti-angiogenic inhibitors such as vandetanib and XL184 in medullary thyroid cancer, and sorafenib in papillary and follicular DTC.
    Current Genomics 06/2014; 15(3):190-202. DOI:10.2174/1389202915999140404101902 · 2.87 Impact Factor
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Introduction: Recently, tyrosine kinase inhibitors (TKIs) have emerged as a new class of anticancer therapy. Although generally considered less toxic than cytotoxic chemotherapy, TKIs do cause significant side effects including fatigue and hypertension. In addition, thyroid dysfunction is a well-known adverse effect of TKI. Areas covered: This review provides a comprehensive assessment of TKI-induced thyroid dysfunctions by sunitinib, sorafenib, pazopanib, imatinib, dasatinib, nilotinib, vandetanib, axitinib, motesanib and tivozanib. Furthermore, the potential mechanisms that result in this toxicity, the clinical impact of thyroid dysfunction in these patients and the controversies regarding treatment with thyroid hormone (TH) therapy are evaluated. Expert opinion: Detection of TKI-induced thyroid dysfunction requires routine monitoring of thyroid function and may necessitate treatment. Potential benefits in developing thyroid dysfunction and potential harm in treating it necessitate controlled studies. Finally, if treatment is pursued, appropriate dosing and timing of TH replacement will require prospective clinical evaluation.
    Expert Opinion on Drug Safety 05/2014; 13(6). DOI:10.1517/14740338.2014.913021 · 2.74 Impact Factor
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: The chemokine (C-X-C motif) ligand 10 (CXCL10, also called IP-10) was initially identified as a chemokine that is induced by interferon (IFN)-γ. CXCL10 exerts its function through binding to chemokine (C-X-C motif) receptor 3 (CXCR3). CXCL10 and its receptor, CXCR3, appear to contribute to the pathogenesis of many autoimmune diseases, organ specific (such as type 1 diabetes, Graves' disease and ophthalmopathy), or systemic (such as systemic lupus erythematosus, mixed cryoglobulinemia, Sjogren syndrome, or systemic sclerosis). The secretion of CXCL10 by CD4+, CD8+, and natural killer is dependent on IFN-γ. Under the influence of IFN-γ, CXCL10 is secreted by thyrocytes. Determination of high level of CXCL10 in peripheral fluids is therefore a marker of a T helper 1 orientated immune response. High levels of circulating CXCL10, have been shown in patients with autoimmune thyroiditis (AT). Among patients with AT, CXCL10 levels were significantly higher in those with a hypoechoic ultrasonographic pattern, that is a sign of a more severe lympho-monocytic infiltration, and in those with hypothyroidism. For these reasons it has been postulated that CXCL10 could be a marker of a stronger and more aggressive inflammatory response in the thyroid, subsequently leading to thyroid destruction and hypothyroidism. Further studies are needed to investigate whether CXCL10 is a novel therapeutic target in AT.

Publication Stats

2k Citations
437.44 Total Impact Points

Institutions

  • 2005–2015
    • Università di Pisa
      • Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine
      Pisa, Tuscany, Italy
    • National Research Council
      • Institute of Clinical Physiology IFC
      Roma, Latium, Italy
  • 2014
    • University of Bologna
      • Department of Medical and Surgical Sciences DIMEC
      Bolonia, Emilia-Romagna, Italy
  • 2004–2014
    • Università degli Studi di Modena e Reggio Emilia
      • • Department of Diagnostic Medicine, Clinical and Public Health
      • • Department of Biomedical, Metabolical and Neurosciences
      Modène, Emilia-Romagna, Italy
  • 2004–2007
    • University of Florence
      Florens, Tuscany, Italy