[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: We estimated the prevalence and incidence of 14 human papillomavirus (HPV) types (6/11/16/18/31/33/35/39/45/51/52/56/58/59) in cervicovaginal swabs, and the attribution of these HPV types in cervical intraepithelial neoplasia (CIN), and adenocarcinoma in situ (AIS), using predefined algorithms that adjusted for multiple-type infected lesions.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: High-risk human papillomavirus (hrHPV) testing is now being introduced as a potential primary screening test for improved detection of cervical precancer and cancer. Current U.S. Food and Drug Administration-approved tests are batch-tests that take several hours to complete testing. A rapid, non-batch test might permit point-of-care (POC) testing, which can facilitate same-day screen and management strategies. For a non-batch, random-access platform (GeneXpert; Cepheid, Sunnyvale, CA, USA), a prototype hrHPV assay (Xpert) has been developed where testing for 14 hrHPV types can be completed in one hour. In the first clinical evaluation, Xpert was compared to two validated hrHPV tests, cobas4800 (cobas, Roche Molecular Systems) and Hybrid Capture 2 (hc2, Qiagen), and to histologic outcomes using specimens from colposcopic referral populations at 7 clinical sites in the U.S. (n = 697). Xpert was equally sensitive for cervical intraepithelial neoplasia grade 2 or more severe diagnoses (CIN2+) (n = 141) as cobas (90.8% vs. 90.8%, p = 1) and more sensitive than hc2 (90.8% vs. 81.6%, p = 0.004). Xpert was more specific than cobas (42.6% vs. 39.6%, p = 0.02) and less specific than hc2 (42.6% vs. 47.7%, p < 0.001). Similar results were observed for CIN3+ (n = 91). HPV16 detection by Xpert identified 41.8% of the CIN2+ with a positive predictive value (PPV) of 54.6%. By comparison, HPV16 detection by cobas identified 42.6% of the CIN2+ with a PPV of 55.0%. hrHPV detection by the Xpert demonstrated excellent clinical performance for identifying women with CIN2+ and CIN3+ that was comparable to currently available clinically-validated tests.
Journal of clinical microbiology 04/2014; · 4.16 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Background. In this analysis we examine the incidence and clearance of external genital HPV infection in heterosexual men aged 16 to 24.Methods. A total of 1,732 men between 16-24 years old in the placebo arm of a quadrivalent HPV vaccine trial were included in this analysis. Participants were enrolled from 18 countries in Africa, Asia-Pacific, Europe, Latin America and North America. Subjects underwent anogenital exams and sampling from the penis, scrotum, and perineal/perianal regions.Results. The incidence rate of any HPV 6/11/16/18 DNA detection was 9.0 per 100 person years. Rates of HPV DNA detection were highest in men from Africa. Median time to clearance of HPV DNA detection (HPV 6/11/16/18) was 6.1, 6.1, 7.7 and 6.2 months, respectively. Median time to clearance of persistent HPV detection (HPV 6/11/16/18) was 6.7, 3.2, 9.2 and 4.7 months, respectively.Conclusion. The study results suggest that the acquisition of HPV 6, 11, 16, or 18 in men is common and that many of these 'infections' are subsequently cleared, similar to women. Nevertheless, given the high rate of HPV detection in young men, male HPV vaccination may reduce infection in men and reduce the overall burden of HPV-associated disease in the community.
The Journal of Infectious Diseases 02/2014; · 5.85 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: A small number of HPV types are related to a majority of HPV-related neoplastic lesions in humans. High-risk types such as HPV 16 and 18 are most often implicated, although other oncogenic and non-oncogenic HPV types can cause disease in men. The efficacy of the quadrivalent HPV vaccine (qHPV) against external genital lesions and intra-anal disease related to HPV in men has been demonstrated. This report examines the vaccine's efficacy against disease due to 10 additional non-vaccine HPV types, as well as efficacy regardless of HPV detection. The data presented suggest that vaccinating males against HPV 6, 11, 16 and 18 protects them against most vaccine HPV-type related anogenital disease. However, significant efficacy against disease due to non-vaccine HPV types was not seen. In addition, the data do not provide any evidence that vaccination with qHPV vaccine will increase the likelihood of disease caused by non-vaccine types in the short term.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: OBJECTIVE: The objectives of this study were to determine women's knowledge of human papillomavirus (HPV) and anal cancer and knowledge and attitudes toward the anal Pap test. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A convenience sample of 370 women from the general population 21 years or older completed a 48-question preintervention survey; read an informational pamphlet about anal cancer, HPV, and anal Pap tests; and then completed a 21-question postintervention survey in Augusta, Atlanta, and Savannah, GA. The survey assessed their knowledge about anal cancer, HPV, and the anal Pap test and determined their attitudes toward the anal Pap test. Only preintervention results were considered in this article. Descriptive statistics were determined for all variables. RESULTS: Only 17.6% of women had previously heard of anal Pap tests, and the majority knew nothing (48.9%) or only a little (38.5%) about anal cancer. Yet, most women (78.6%) knew that anal Pap tests help to prevent anal cancer, and 86.2% knew that anal Pap tests are not only for people who have anal sex. Only a minority of women recognized known risk factors for anal cancer. Lack of knowledge about anal Pap tests (43.8%), pain or discomfort (41.3%), cost (24.0%), and embarrassment (21.2%) were the main reasons cited for not wanting an anal Pap test. CONCLUSIONS: Although most women had limited knowledge about anal cancer and anal Pap tests and few recognized known risk factors for anal cancer, women were receptive to screening. Further implementation of anal Pap testing for women may be improved by understanding women's limited knowledge and concerns.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: OBJECTIVE: To prospectively evaluate a new non invasive device that combines fluorescence and reflectance spectroscopy in a population in women at risk for cervical dysplasia. METHODS: A total of 1,607 women were evaluated with multimodal hyperspectroscopy (MHS), a painless test with extremely high spectral resolution. Subjects who were referred to colposcopy based on abnormal screening tests or other referral criteria underwent the MHS test and also had a sample taken for additional cytology and presence of high risk human papilloma virus (HPV) prior to undergoing biopsy. RESULTS: Sensitivity of MHS for cervical intraepithelial neoplasia (CIN) 2+ was 91.3% (252/276). Specificity, or the potential reduction in referrals to colposcopy and biopsy, was 38.9% (222/570) for women with normal or benign histology and 30.3% (182/601) for women with CIN1 histology. Two year follow up data, collected for a subgroup of 804 women, revealed 67 interval CIN2+ that originally were diagnosed at enrollment as normal or CIN1. MHS identified 60 of these (89.6%) as positive for CIN2+ prior to their discovery during the two year follow up period. CONCLUSIONS: MHS provides an immediate result at the point of care. Recently, the limitations of cytology have become more obvious and as a consequence greater emphasis is being placed on HPV testing for cervical cancer screening, creating a need for an inexpensive, convenient and accurate test to reduce false positive referrals to colposcopy and increase the yield of CIN2+ at biopsy. MHS appears to have many of the attributes necessary for such an application.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The purpose of this study was to determine and compare the knowledge and attitudes toward human papillomavirus (HPV), HPV vaccine, Pap tests, and cervical cancer among US and Peruvian women.
A convenience sample of 275 US women in Augusta, GA, and 702 Peruvian women living in or near Cusco, Peru, completed 22- or 21-item questionnaires, respectively. These questionnaires determined their knowledge about HPV, the HPV vaccine, Pap tests, and cervical cancer. Simple logistic regression was used to determine the relationship between location and language on the correct responses. Odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals were calculated.
US Spanish- (OR = 0.02), Quechua- (OR = 0.05), and Peru Spanish-speaking women (OR = 0.03) were significantly less likely to know that HPV causes cervical cancer compared with US non-Spanish-speaking women. US Spanish- (OR = 10.61, OR = 5.74), Quechua- (OR = 11.08, OR = 9.89), and Peru Spanish-speaking women (OR = 17.25, 14.43) were significantly more likely to be embarrassed and afraid, respectively, to get a Pap test compared with US non-Spanish-speaking women. US Spanish- (OR = 0.11), Quechua- (OR = 0.14), and Peru Spanish-speaking women (OR = 0.11) women were significantly less likely to know the HPV vaccine is safe and effective compared with US non-Spanish-speaking women.
Education must be implemented to address serious misconceptions and worrisome attitudes toward Pap tests and the HPV vaccine to decrease the rate of cervical cancer in Peru and US Spanish-speaking women.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: To determine the effect of human papillomavirus (HPV) quadrivalent vaccine on the risk of developing subsequent disease after an excisional procedure for cervical intraepithelial neoplasia or diagnosis of genital warts, vulvar intraepithelial neoplasia, or vaginal intraepithelial neoplasia.
Retrospective analysis of data from two international, double blind, placebo controlled, randomised efficacy trials of quadrivalent HPV vaccine (protocol 013 (FUTURE I) and protocol 015 (FUTURE II)).
Primary care centres and university or hospital associated health centres in 24 countries and territories around the world.
Among 17,622 women aged 15-26 years who underwent 1:1 randomisation to vaccine or placebo, 2054 received cervical surgery or were diagnosed with genital warts, vulvar intraepithelial neoplasia, or vaginal intraepithelial neoplasia.
Three doses of quadrivalent HPV vaccine or placebo at day 1, month 2, and month 6.
Incidence of HPV related disease from 60 days after treatment or diagnosis, expressed as the number of women with an end point per 100 person years at risk.
A total of 587 vaccine and 763 placebo recipients underwent cervical surgery. The incidence of any subsequent HPV related disease was 6.6 and 12.2 in vaccine and placebo recipients respectively (46.2% reduction (95% confidence interval 22.5% to 63.2%) with vaccination). Vaccination was associated with a significant reduction in risk of any subsequent high grade disease of the cervix by 64.9% (20.1% to 86.3%). A total of 229 vaccine recipients and 475 placebo recipients were diagnosed with genital warts, vulvar intraepithelial neoplasia, or vaginal intraepithelial neoplasia, and the incidence of any subsequent HPV related disease was 20.1 and 31.0 in vaccine and placebo recipients respectively (35.2% reduction (13.8% to 51.8%)).
Previous vaccination with quadrivalent HPV vaccine among women who had surgical treatment for HPV related disease significantly reduced the incidence of subsequent HPV related disease, including high grade disease.
NCT00092521 and NCT00092534.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Human papillomavirus (HPV) infection can lead to significant disease in males, including anogenital warts, intraepithelial neoplasias, and several types of oral and anogenital cancers. The quadrivalent HPV (type 6/11/16/18) L1 virus-like particle (VLP) vaccine (qHPV vaccine; Gardasil) has recently been demonstrated to prevent persistent infection and associated disease related to vaccine HPV types in males. We report the overall immunogenicity results from a trial of the quadrivalent HPV vaccine in males. Overall, 3,463 heterosexual men and 602 men who had sex with men were enrolled into a randomized, placebo-controlled, double-blind safety, immunogenicity, and efficacy study. Serum samples were collected prior to vaccination at day 1 and at months 7, 24, and 36 postvaccination. Immunogenicity was evaluated with a multiplex, competitive Luminex immunoassay. Almost all subjects (97.4 to 99.2%) seroconverted for vaccine HPV types by month 7. At month 36, 88.9%, 94.0%, 97.9%, and 57.0% of subjects were still seropositive for HPV-6, -11, -16, and -18, respectively. For all vaccine HPV types, black subjects had significantly higher antibody titers at month 7 than did both Caucasian and Asian subjects. An anamnestic antibody response was seen in men seropositive before vaccination. The vaccine was highly immunogenic in males 16 to 23 years of age; responses were comparable to those observed in women. Furthermore, the immune responses were consistent with the established efficacy of the vaccine in the prevention of incident and persistent HPV infection, anogenital warts, and anal intraepithelial neoplasia.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The objective of this study was to determine the impact of Pap test compliance and cervical cancer screening intervals on human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccination acceptance.
A convenience sample of 499 women 21 to 65 years old completed a 37-question survey in Augusta and Savannah, GA. The survey assessed their knowledge about HPV, cervical cancer, and the HPV vaccine. The questionnaire also determined their Pap test compliance and how longer Pap test intervals would influence their willingness to receive the HPV vaccine. Differences between categorical variables and knowledge scores were examined using χ test and unequal-variance t tests, respectively.
Pap test-noncompliant women were more likely to get the HPV vaccine if they only needed a Pap test every 10 years compared with Pap test-compliant women (27.6% vs 14.6%, p = .02). A greater number (83.5%) of Pap test-noncompliant women preferred the HPV vaccine plus every 10-year Pap test option compared with Pap test-compliant women (31.3%, p < .0001). Most women (87%) responded that they would likely get the HPV vaccine if it would safely reduce the frequency of Pap testing.
Women are receptive to getting the HPV vaccine in exchange for longer cervical cancer screening intervals. Moreover, Pap test-noncompliant women are more likely to get the HPV vaccine if Pap testing was needed less frequently. Increasing the Pap testing interval may be an excellent method to improving HPV vaccine acceptance in women at highest risk for cervical cancer.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The rate of anal cancer is increasing among both women and men, particularly men who have sex with men. Caused by infection with human papillomavirus (HPV), primarily HPV type 16 or 18, anal cancer is preceded by high-grade anal intraepithelial neoplasia (grade 2 or 3). We studied the safety and efficacy of quadrivalent HPV vaccine (qHPV) against anal intraepithelial neoplasia associated with HPV-6, 11, 16, or 18 infection in men who have sex with men.
In a substudy of a larger double-blind study, we randomly assigned 602 healthy men who have sex with men, 16 to 26 years of age, to receive either qHPV or placebo. The primary efficacy objective was prevention of anal intraepithelial neoplasia or anal cancer related to infection with HPV-6, 11, 16, or 18. Efficacy analyses were performed in intention-to-treat and per-protocol efficacy populations. The rates of adverse events were documented.
Efficacy of the qHPV vaccine against anal intraepithelial neoplasia associated with HPV-6, 11, 16, or 18 was 50.3% (95% confidence interval [CI], 25.7 to 67.2) in the intention-to-treat population and 77.5% (95% CI, 39.6 to 93.3) in the per-protocol efficacy population; the corresponding efficacies against anal intraepithelial neoplasia associated with HPV of any type were 25.7% (95% CI, -1.1 to 45.6) and 54.9% (95% CI, 8.4 to 79.1), respectively. Rates of anal intraepithelial neoplasia per 100 person-years were 17.5 in the placebo group and 13.0 in the vaccine group in the intention-to-treat population and 8.9 in the placebo group and 4.0 in the vaccine group in the per-protocol efficacy population. The rate of grade 2 or 3 anal intraepithelial neoplasia related to infection with HPV-6, 11, 16, or 18 was reduced by 54.2% (95% CI, 18.0 to 75.3) in the intention-to-treat population and by 74.9% (95% CI, 8.8 to 95.4) in the per-protocol efficacy population. The corresponding risks of persistent anal infection with HPV-6, 11, 16, or 18 were reduced by 59.4% (95% CI, 43.0 to 71.4) and 94.9% (95% CI, 80.4 to 99.4), respectively. No vaccine-related serious adverse events were reported.
Use of the qHPV vaccine reduced the rates of anal intraepithelial neoplasia, including of grade 2 or 3, among men who have sex with men. The vaccine had a favorable safety profile and may help to reduce the risk of anal cancer. (Funded by Merck and the National Institutes of Health; ClinicalTrials.gov number, NCT00090285.).
New England Journal of Medicine 10/2011; 365(17):1576-85. · 54.42 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Background: Prophylactic vaccination with a quadrivalent HPV (types 6, 11, 16, 18) vaccine (qHPV) has been shown to prevent infection with HPV 6/11/16/18 and associated disease in women and more recently, in men. Here we report on the safety and reactogenicity of the qHPV vaccine in males. A total of 4,065 healthy males aged 16-26 years were enrolled into a randomized, placebo-controlled, double-blind trial. Subjects were randomized 1:1 to receive qHPV vaccine or placebo at day 1, month 2, and month 6. Safety and tolerability were assessed via the collection of reported adverse experiences (AEs). All serious AEs (vaccine- or procedure-related or not) and all deaths occurring during the study were recorded. Safety analyses were conducted in all subjects who received at least one dose of vaccine or placebo. The proportion of subjects who reported at least one injection-site AE was higher in the qHPV vaccine group versus the placebo group (60.1% vs 53.7%, respectively), however most of these AEs were mild/moderate in intensity. The incidence of at least one systemic AE was comparable between the vaccine and placebo groups (31.7% vs 31.4%, respectively). There were no vaccine-related serious AEs or deaths. The occurrence of AEs did not increase with each successive injection, and among trial participants who were seropositive for at least one vaccine HPV type at enrollment, the profile of adverse events was similar to that of the entire study cohort. The qHPV vaccine was generally well tolerated in males aged 16-26 years and had a favorable safety profile.
Human vaccines 07/2011; 7(7):768-75. · 3.14 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Previous analyses from a randomised trial in women aged 24-45 years have shown the quadrivalent human papillomavirus (qHPV) vaccine to be efficacious in the prevention of infection, cervical intraepithelial neoplasia (CIN), and external genital lesions (EGLs) related to HPV 6/11/16/18. In this report, we present end-of-study efficacy, safety, and immunogenicity data with a median follow-up time of 4.0 years.
We enrolled 3819 24-45-year-old women with no history of cervical disease or genital warts in the past 5 years. Women received quadrivalent vaccine or placebo at day 1, and at months 2 and 6. Ascertainment of CIN/EGL was accomplished through Pap testing, genital inspection, and cervicovaginal sampling (every 6 months). The main analysis was conducted in a per-protocol efficacy population (that received three doses, was naive to the relevant HPV types at day 1, and remained free of infection through month 7). Efficacy was also estimated in other naive and non-naive populations.
Vaccine efficacy against the combined incidence of persistent infection, CIN/EGL related to HPV6/11/16/18 in the per-protocol population was 88.7% (95% CI: 78.1, 94.8). Efficacy for women who were seropositive and DNA negative for the relevant vaccine HPV type at the time of enrolment who received at least 1 dose was 66.9% (95% CI: 4.3, 90.6). At month 48, 91.5, 92.0, 97.4, and 47.9% of vaccinated women were seropositive to HPV 6/11/16/18, respectively. No serious vaccine-related adverse experiences were reported.
The qHPV vaccine demonstrated high efficacy, immunogenicity, and acceptable safety in women aged 24-45 years, regardless of previous exposure to HPV vaccine type.
British Journal of Cancer 05/2011; 105(1):28-37. · 5.08 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: High-risk human papillomavirus (hrHPV) is the primary cause of cervical cancer. As Chlamydia trachomatis is also linked to cervical cancer, its role as a potential co-factor in the development of cervical intraepithelial neoplasia (CIN) grade 2 or higher was examined.
The placebo arms of two large, multinational, clinical trials of an HPV6/11/16/18 vaccine were combined. A total of 8441 healthy women aged 15-26 years underwent cervicovaginal cytology (Papanicolaou (Pap) testing) sampling and C trachomatis testing at day 1 and every 12 months thereafter for up to 4 years. Protocol-specified guidelines were used to triage participants with Pap abnormalities to colposcopy and definitive therapy. The main outcome measured was CIN.
At baseline, 2629 (31.1%) tested positive for hrHPV DNA and 354 (4.2%) tested positive for C trachomatis. Among those with HPV16/18 infection (n = 965; 11.4%) or without HPV16/18 infection (n = 7382, 87.5%), the hazard ratios (HRs) associated with development of any CIN grade 2 according to baseline C trachomatis status were 1.82 (95% CI: 1.06 to 3.14) and 1.74 (95% CI 1.05 to 2.90), respectively. The results were comparable when only the 12 most common hrHPV infections were considered, but the excess risk disappeared when the outcome was expanded to include CIN grade 3 or worse.
Further studies based on larger cohorts with longitudinal follow-up in relation to the C trachomatis acquisition and a thorough evaluation of temporal relationships of infections with hrHPV types, C trachomatis and cervical neoplasia are needed to demonstrate whether and how in some situations C trachomatis sets the stage for cervical carcinogenesis. Trial registration NCT00092521 and NCT00092534.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: We evaluated the overall agreement between colposcopically directed biopsies and the definitive excisional specimens within the context of three clinical trials. A total of 737 women aged 16-45 who had a cervical biopsy taken within 6 months before their definitive therapy were included. Per-protocol, colposcopists were to also obtain a representative cervical biopsy immediately before definitive therapy. Using adjudicated histological diagnoses, the initial biopsies and the same day biopsies were correlated with the surgically excised specimens. The overall agreement between the biopsies taken within 6 months of definitive therapy, and the definitive therapy diagnoses was 42% (weighted kappa = 0.34) (95% CI: 0.29-0.39). The overall underestimation of cervical intraepithelial neoplasia grade 2/3 or adenocarcinoma in situ (CIN2-3/AIS) and CIN3/AIS was 26 and 42%, respectively. When allowing for one degree of variance in the correlation, the overall agreement was 92% for CIN2-3/AIS. The overall agreement between the same day biopsy and definitive therapy specimen was 56% (weighted kappa = 0.41) (95% CI: 0.36-0.47), and the underestimation of CIN2-3/AIS was 57%. There were significant associations in the agreement between biopsies and excisional specimen diagnoses when patients were stratified by age, number of biopsies, lesion size, presence of human papillomavirus (HPV)16/18 and region. Of 178 diagnostic endocervical curettages performed, 14 (7.9%) found any HPV disease. Colposcopic accuracy improved when CIN2 and CIN3/AIS were grouped as a single predictive measure of high-grade disease. Colposcopy functioned well when allowed a one-degree difference between the biopsy and the surgical histologic interpretations, as done in clinical practice. Taking more than one biopsy improved colposcopic accuracy and could improve patient management.
International Journal of Cancer 03/2011; 128(6):1354-62. · 6.20 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The primary objective of this report is to describe the detection of adenocarcinoma in situ (AIS) and associated human papillomavirus (HPV) type distribution that was observed in the context of two phase 3 clinical trials of a quadrivalent HPV6/11/16/18 vaccine. In this intention-to-treat analysis, we include all women who had at least one follow-up visit postenrollment. Healthy women (17,622) aged 15-26 with no history of HPV disease and a lifetime number of less than five sex partners (average follow-up of 3.6 years) were randomized (1:1) to receive vaccine or placebo at day 1, months 2, and 6. Women underwent colposcopy and biopsy according to a Papanicolaou triage algorithm. All tissue specimens were tested for 14 HPV types and were adjudicated by a pathology panel. During the trials, 22 women were diagnosed with AIS (six vaccine and 16 placebo). There were 25 AIS lesions in total, with HPV16/18 present in 96% (24 of 25 with 15 of 25 as single infections). Only two of 22 women had concomitant cytology results suggesting glandular abnormality. Colposcopic impressions (25 total) were either negative or indicated squamous lesions only. Of women with AIS, all six in the vaccine cohort and seven of 16 in the placebo cohort were infected at baseline with the same HPV type that was detected in the AIS lesion. Concurrent squamous lesions were detected in 20 of these 22 women. In summary, our findings show that AIS evades colposcopic and cervical cytologic detection. As most AIS lesions were HPV16/18-related, prophylactic HPV vaccination should reduce the incidence of invasive adenocarcinoma.
International Journal of Cancer 03/2011; 128(6):1344-53. · 6.20 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: We describe transition probabilities for incident human papillomavirus (HPV) 16/18/31/33/35/45/52/58/59 infections and cervical intraepithelial neoplasia (CIN) 1 lesions.
Women ages 16 to 23 years underwent cytology and cervical swab PCR testing for HPV at approximately 6-month intervals for up to 4 years in the placebo arm of an HPV vaccine trial. The cumulative proportion of incident HPV infections with diagnosed CIN, clearing (infection undetectable), or persisting without CIN, were estimated.
Most incident infections cleared, without detection of CIN, ranging at 36 months from 66.9% for HPV31 to 91.1% for HPV59. There was little variation in the 36-month proportion of incident HPV16, 18, and 31 infections followed by a CIN1 lesion positive for the relevant HPV type (range 16.7%-18.6%), with lower risks for HPV59 (6.4%) and HPV33 (2.9%). Thirty-six-month transition probabilities for CIN2 ranged across types from 2.2% to 9.1%; however, the number of events was generally too small for statistically significant differences to be seen across types for this endpoint, or CIN3.
Some incident HPV types appear more likely to result in diagnosed CIN1 than others. The relative predominance of HPV16, vis-à-vis some other high-risk HPV types (e.g., HPV33) in prevalent CIN2/3, appears more directly associated with relatively greater frequency of incident HPV16 infections within the population, than a higher risk of infection progression to CIN2/3.
Nearly all incident HPV infections either manifest as detectable CIN or become undetectable within 36 months. Some HPV types (e.g., 16 and 33) appear to have similar risk of CIN2/3 despite widely varied incidence.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Infection with human papillomavirus (HPV) and diseases caused by HPV are common in boys and men. We report on the safety of a quadrivalent vaccine (active against HPV types 6, 11, 16, and 18) and on its efficacy in preventing the development of external genital lesions and anogenital HPV infection in boys and men.
We enrolled 4065 healthy boys and men 16 to 26 years of age, from 18 countries in a randomized, placebo-controlled, double-blind trial. The primary efficacy objective was to show that the quadrivalent HPV vaccine reduced the incidence of external genital lesions related to HPV-6, 11, 16, or 18. Efficacy analyses were conducted in a per-protocol population, in which subjects received all three vaccinations and were negative for relevant HPV types at enrollment, and in an intention-to-treat population, in which subjects received vaccine or placebo, regardless of baseline HPV status.
In the intention-to-treat population, 36 external genital lesions were seen in the vaccine group as compared with 89 in the placebo group, for an observed efficacy of 60.2% (95% confidence interval [CI], 40.8 to 73.8); the efficacy was 65.5% (95% CI, 45.8 to 78.6) for lesions related to HPV-6, 11, 16, or 18. In the per-protocol population, efficacy against lesions related to HPV-6, 11, 16, or 18 was 90.4% (95% CI, 69.2 to 98.1). Efficacy with respect to persistent infection with HPV-6, 11, 16, or 18 and detection of related DNA at any time was 47.8% (95% CI, 36.0 to 57.6) and 27.1% (95% CI, 16.6 to 36.3), respectively, in the intention-to-treat population and 85.6% (97.5% CI, 73.4 to 92.9) and 44.7% (95% CI, 31.5 to 55.6) in the per-protocol population. Injection-site pain was significantly more frequent among subjects receiving quadrivalent HPV vaccine than among those receiving placebo (57% vs. 51%, P<0.001).
Quadrivalent HPV vaccine prevents infection with HPV-6, 11, 16, and 18 and the development of related external genital lesions in males 16 to 26 years of age. (Funded by Merck and others; ClinicalTrials.gov number, NCT00090285.).
New England Journal of Medicine 02/2011; 364(5):401-11. · 54.42 Impact Factor