Nipun B Merchant

Vanderbilt University, Nashville, Michigan, United States

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Publications (104)435.51 Total impact

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    ABSTRACT: During pancreaticoduodenectomy (PD) for ductal adenocarcinoma, a frozen section (FS) neck margin is typically assessed, and if positive, additional pancreas is removed to achieve an R0 margin. We analyzed the association of this practice with improved overall survival (OS).
    Annals of surgery. 09/2014; 260(3):494-503.
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    ABSTRACT: The NCCN Guidelines for Pancreatic Adenocarcinoma discuss the diagnosis and management of adenocarcinomas of the exocrine pancreas and are intended to assist with clinical decision-making. These NCCN Guidelines Insights summarize major discussion points from the 2014 NCCN Pancreatic Adenocarcinoma Panel meeting. The panel discussion focused mainly on the management of borderline resectable and locally advanced disease. In particular, the panel discussed the definition of borderline resectable disease, role of neoadjuvant therapy in borderline disease, role of chemoradiation in locally advanced disease, and potential role of newer, more active chemotherapy regimens in both settings.
    Journal of the National Comprehensive Cancer Network: JNCCN 08/2014; 12(8):1083-93. · 5.11 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The incidence of secondary malignancies is increased in patients with malignant and premalignant conditions. Although neuroendocrine tumors (NET) are uncommon, their incidence is increasing. We evaluated the rate of additional malignancies in patients with NET.
    Annals of Surgical Oncology 07/2014; · 4.12 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: In this multi-institutional study of patients undergoing pancreaticoduodenectomy for pancreatic adenocarcinoma, we sought to identify factors associated with perioperative transfusion requirement as well as the association between blood transfusion and perioperative and oncologic outcomes.
    Journal of gastrointestinal surgery : official journal of the Society for Surgery of the Alimentary Tract. 06/2014;
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    ABSTRACT: Background. Hepatic endometriosis/uterus-like mass is rare and may be overlooked during hepatic cyst workups. We report a case of uterus-like mass, misdiagnosed as hepatic abscess. Case Report: A 47-year-old woman developed abdominal pain and vomiting. Infectious colitis with hepatic abscess was diagnosed, and remained antibiotic-refractory. Fine-needle aspiration and core biopsies showed benign contents. The patient presented to our institution with symptoms and normal blood work. Laparoscopic excision demonstrated a 1.4-cm cyst composed of endometrial glands (estrogen receptor+ and progesterone receptor+) and stroma (CD10+) with smooth muscle actin (SMA+), arranged in an organoid fashion. The patient, status-post hysterectomy, had no history or symptoms of endometriosis. Conclusion. This rare case illustrates the merit of considering uterus-like mass/endometriosis in the differential diagnosis of antibiotic-refractory hepatic cysts. Cyst heterogeneity may confound needle biopsy. We report the first instance of a hepatic uterus-like mass, with a review of related entities, postulated histogenesis, and important clinical associations.
    International Journal of Surgical Pathology 05/2014; · 0.76 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Background and Objectives Two pivotal randomized controlled trials (RCTs), the Intergroup (INT-0116) and Medical Research Council Adjuvant Gastric Infusional Chemotherapy (MAGIC) trials, demonstrated a survival benefit of multimodality therapy in patients with resectable gastric cancer. The purpose of this study was to determine utilization rates of these treatment regimens in the United States and to identify factors associated with receipt of evidence-based care.Methods We performed a retrospective cohort study of patients with Stage IB–IV (M0) gastric adenocarcinoma who underwent resection from 1991 to 2009 using the linked SEER–Medicare database.ResultsOnly 19.1% of patients received post-operative chemoradiation therapy (CRT), and 1.9% received peri-operative chemotherapy; most patients underwent surgery alone (60.9%). Patients with more advanced stage, younger age, and fewer comorbidities were more likely to receive evidence-based care. We found no association between National Cancer Institute (NCI) designation and delivery of multimodality therapy. However, patients who underwent medical oncology consultation were much more likely to receive evidence-based treatment (OR 3.10, 95% CI 2.35–4.09).Conclusions Rates of peri-operative chemotherapy and post-operative CRT in patients with resected gastric cancer remain remarkably low, despite high-quality RCT evidence demonstrating their benefit. Furthermore, NCI designation does not appear to be associated with administration of evidence-based treatment. J. Surg. Oncol. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
    Journal of Surgical Oncology 05/2014; · 2.64 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The papanicolaou society of cytopathology (PSC) has developed a set of guidelines for pancreatobiliary cytology including indications for endoscopic ultrasound (EUS) guided fine-needle aspiration (FNA) biopsy, techniques of EUS-FNA, terminology and nomenclature for pancreatobiliary cytology, ancillary testing, and postprocedure management. All documents are based on the expertise of the authors, a review of the literature, discussions of the draft document at several national and international meetings over an 18 month period and synthesis of online comments of the draft document on the PSC web site [www.papsociety.org]. This document selectively presents the results of these discussions and focuses on the follow-up and treatment options for patients after procedures performed for obtaining cytology samples for the evaluation of biliary strictures and solid and cystic masses in the pancreas. These recommendations follow the six-tiered terminology and nomenclature scheme proposed by Committee III. Diagn. Cytopathol. 2014;42:363–371. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
    Diagnostic Cytopathology 04/2014; 42(4). · 1.49 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Normal pancreatic epithelium progresses through various stages of pancreatic intraepithelial neoplasms (PanINs) in the development of pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC). Transcriptional regulation of this progression is poorly understood. In mouse, the hepatic nuclear factor 6 (Hnf6) transcription factor is expressed in ductal cells and at lower levels in acinar cells of the adult pancreas, but not in mature endocrine cells. Hnf6 is critical for terminal differentiation of the ductal epithelium during embryonic development and for pancreatic endocrine cell specification. We previously showed that, in mice, loss of Hnf6 from the pancreatic epithelium during organogenesis results in increased duct proliferation and altered duct architecture, increased periductal fibrosis and acinar-to-ductal metaplasia. Here we show that decreased expression of HNF6 is strongly correlated with increased severity of PanIN lesions in samples of human pancreata and is absent from >90% of PDAC. Mouse models in which cancer progression can be analyzed from the earliest stages that are seldom accessible in humans support a role for Hnf6 loss in progression from early- to late-stage PanIN and PDAC. In addition, gene expression analyses of human pancreatic cancer reveal decreased expression of HNF6 and its direct and indirect target genes compared with normal tissue and upregulation of genes that act in opposition to HNF6 and its targets. The negative correlation between HNF6 expression and pancreatic cancer progression suggests that HNF6 maintains pancreatic epithelial homeostasis in humans, and that its loss contributes to the progression from PanIN to ductal adenocarcinoma. Insight on the role of HNF6 in pancreatic cancer development could lead to its use as a biomarker for early detection and prognosis.Laboratory Investigation advance online publication, 17 March 2014; doi:10.1038/labinvest.2014.47.
    Laboratory Investigation 03/2014; · 3.96 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The Papanicolaou Society of Cytopathology has developed a set of guidelines for pancreaticobiliary cytology including indications for endoscopic ultrasound (EUS) and fine-needle aspiration (FNA) biopsy, techniques for EUS-FNA, terminology and nomenclature to be used for pancreaticobiliary disease, ancillary testing, and post-biopsy management. All documents are based on expertise of the authors, literature review, discussions of the draft document at national and international meetings, and synthesis of online comments of the draft document. This document selectively presents the results of these discussions. This document summarizes recommendations for the clinical and imaging work-up of pancreatic and biliary tract lesions along with indications for cytologic study of these lesions. Prebrushing and FNA requirements are also discussed. Diagn. Cytopathol. 2014. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
    Diagnostic Cytopathology 02/2014; · 1.49 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Secondary bile acids (BAs) such as deoxycholic acid (DCA) promote the development of several gastrointestinal malignancies, but how they mediate this effect is unclear. In this study, we offer evidence of a mechanism involving ectodomain shedding of the EGFR ligands amphiregulin (AREG) and TGF-α which rely upon the cell surface protease TACE/ADAM-17. Specifically, we show that AREG participates in DCA-induced EGFR and STAT3 signaling, cell cycle progression and tumorigenicity in human colorectal cancer (CRC) and pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC). TACE and AREG, but not TGF-α, were overexpressed in both CRC and PDAC tissues compared to normal tissues. Exposure of CRC and PDAC cells to DCA resulted in co-localization of Src and TACE to the cell membrane, resulting in AREG-dependent activation of EGFR, MAPK and STAT3 signaling. Src or TACE inhibition was sufficient to attenuate DCA-induced AREG, but not TGF-α shedding. We also examined a role for the bile acid transporter TGR5 in DCA-mediated EGFR and STAT3 signaling. RNAi-mediated silencing of TGR5 or AREG inhibited DCA-induced EGFR, MAPK and STAT3 signaling, blunted cyclin D1 expression and cell cycle progression, and attenuated DCA-induced CRC or PDAC tumorigenicity. Together, our findings define an AREG-dependent signaling pathway that mediates the oncogenic effects of secondary BAs in gastrointestinal cancers, the targeting of which may enhance therapeutic responses in their treatment."
    Cancer Research 02/2014; · 9.28 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Context.-PAM4 is a monoclonal antibody that shows high specificity for pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC) and its neoplastic precursor lesions. A PAM4-based serum immunoassay is able to detect 71% of early-stage patients and 91% with advanced disease. However, approximately 20% of patients diagnosed with chronic pancreatitis (CP) are also positive for circulating PAM4 antigen. The specificity of the PAM4 antibody is critical to the interpretation of the serum-based and immunohistochemical assays for detection of PDAC. Objective.-To determine whether PAM4 can differentiate PDAC from nonneoplastic lesions of the pancreas. Design.-Tissue microarrays of PDAC (N = 43) and surgical specimens from CP (N = 32) and benign cystic lesions (N = 19) were evaluated for expression of the PAM4 biomarker, MUC1, MUC4, CEACAM5/6, and CA19-9. Results.-PAM4 and monoclonal antibodies (MAbs) to MUC1, MUC4, CEACAM5/6, and CA19-9 were each reactive with the majority of PDAC cases; however, PAM4 was the only monoclonal antibody not to react with adjacent, nonneoplastic parenchyma. Although PAM4 labeled 19% (6 of 32) of CP specimens, reactivity was restricted to pancreatic intraepithelial neoplasia associated with CP; inflamed tissues were negative in all cases. In contrast, MUC1, MUC4, CEACAM5/6, and CA19-9 were detected in 90%, 78%, 97%, and 100% of CP, respectively, with reactivity also present in nonneoplastic inflamed tissue. Conclusions.-PAM4 was the only monoclonal antibody able to differentiate PDAC (and pancreatic intraepithelial neoplasia precursor lesions) from benign, nonneoplastic tissues of the pancreas. These results suggest the use of PAM4 for evaluation of tissue specimens, and support its role as an immunoassay for detection of PDAC.
    Archives of pathology & laboratory medicine 02/2014; 138(2):220-8. · 2.78 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma is an aggressive malignancy with a high mortality rate. Proper determination of the extent of disease on imaging studies at the time of staging is one of the most important steps in optimal patient management. Given the variability in expertise and definition of disease extent among different practitioners as well as frequent lack of complete reporting of pertinent imaging findings at radiologic examinations, adoption of a standardized template for radiology reporting, using universally accepted and agreed on terminology for solid pancreatic neoplasms, is needed. A consensus statement describing a standardized reporting template authored by a multi-institutional group of experts in pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma that included radiologists, gastroenterologists, and hepatopancreatobiliary surgeons was developed under the joint sponsorship of the Society of Abdominal Radiologists and the American Pancreatic Association. Adoption of this standardized imaging reporting template should improve the decision-making process for the management of patients with pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma by providing a complete, pertinent, and accurate reporting of disease staging to optimize treatment recommendations that can be offered to the patient. Standardization can also help to facilitate research and clinical trial design by using appropriate and consistent staging by means of resectability status, thus allowing for comparison of results among different institutions. © RSNA and the AGA Institute, 2014 Online supplemental material is available for this article.
    Radiology 01/2014; 270(1):248-60. · 6.34 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma is an aggressive malignancy with a high mortality rate. Proper determination of the extent of disease on imaging studies at the time of staging is one of the most important steps in optimal patient management. Given the variability in expertise and definition of disease extent among different practitioners as well as frequent lack of complete reporting of pertinent imaging findings at radiologic examinations, adoption of a standardized template for radiology reporting, using universally accepted and agreed on terminology for solid pancreatic neoplasms, is needed. A consensus statement describing a standardized reporting template authored by a multi-institutional group of experts in pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma that included radiologists, gastroenterologists, and hepatopancreatobiliary surgeons was developed under the joint sponsorship of the Society of Abdominal Radiologists and the American Pancreatic Association. Adoption of this standardized imaging reporting template should improve the decision-making process for the management of patients with pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma by providing a complete, pertinent, and accurate reporting of disease staging to optimize treatment recommendations that can be offered to the patient. Standardization can also help to facilitate research and clinical trial design by using appropriate and consistent staging by means of resectability status, thus allowing for comparison of results among different institutions.
    Gastroenterology 01/2014; 146(1):291-304.e1. · 12.82 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Our objective was to explore alteration of the epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) signaling pathway in ampullary carcinoma. Immunohistochemical studies were employed to evaluate expression of amphiregulin as well as expression and activation of EGFR. A lab-developed assay was used to identify mutations in the EGFR pathway genes, including KRAS, BRAF, PIK3CA, PTEN, and AKT1. A total of 52 ampullary carcinomas were identified, including 25 intestinal-type and 24 pancreatobiliary-type tumors, with the intestinal type being associated with a younger age at diagnosis (P=0.03) and a better prognosis (P<0.01). Expression of amphiregulin correlated with better differentiation (P<0.01), but no difference was observed between two major histologic types. Expression and activation of EGFR was more commonly seen in the pancreatobiliary type (P<0.01). Mutations were detected in 50% of the pancreatobiliary type and 60% of the intestinal type. KRAS was the most common gene mutated in the pancreatobiliary type (42%) as well as the intestinal type (52%). Other mutations detected included PIK3CA, SMAD4 and BRAF. KRAS mutations at codons 12 and 13 did not adversely affect overall survival. In conclusion, EGFR expression and activation were different between intestinal- and pancreatobiliary-type ampullary carcinoma. KRAS mutation was common in both histologic types; however, the incidence appeared to be lower in the pancreatobiliary type compared with its pancreatic counterpart, pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma. Mutational analysis of the EGFR pathway genes may provide important insights into personalized treatment for patients with ampullary carcinoma.Modern Pathology advance online publication, 1 November 2013; doi:10.1038/modpathol.2013.185.
    Modern Pathology 11/2013; · 5.25 Impact Factor
  • Jason A Castellanos, Nipun B Merchant
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    ABSTRACT: The prognosis of patients diagnosed with pancreatic adenocarcinoma remains dismal. Of the 15-20 % of patients who are candidates for potentially curative resection, 66-92 % will develop recurrent disease. Although guidelines for surveillance in the postoperative setting exist, they are not evidence based, and there is wide variability of strategies utilized. Current surveillance guidelines as suggested by the National Comprehensive Cancer Network (NCCN) include routine history and physical, measurement of serum cancer-associated antigen 19-9 (CA19-9) levels, and computed tomographic imaging at 3- to 6-month intervals for the first 2 years, and annually thereafter. However, the lack of prospective clinical data examining the efficacy of different surveillance strategies has led to a variability of the intensity of follow-up and a lack of consensus on its necessity and efficacy. Recent therapeutic advances may have the potential to significantly alter survival after recurrence, but a careful consideration of current surveillance strategies should be undertaken to optimize existing approaches in the face of high recurrence and low survival rates.
    Annals of Surgical Oncology 10/2013; · 4.12 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The tumor-suppressor breast cancer susceptibility gene 1 (BRCA1) is a nuclear-cytoplasmic shuttling protein that when in the nucleus is required for DNA repair whereas when in the cytoplasm is important in activating cell death processes. Although BRCA1 mutations have been shown to be associated with an increased risk of pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC), its role in disease progression is yet to be determined. We hypothesized that BRCA1 expression pattern could be used as a prognostic biomarker. Sixty-seven patients who underwent resections for PDAC were included. A tissue microarray was constructed, stained with antibodies to BRCA1, and scored for intensity and subcellular location. Univariate and multivariate statistical analyses were performed. An increase in cytosolic BRCA1 distribution was associated with higher pathologic stage (P = 0.006). Nuclear-cytosolic BRCA1 distribution was associated with a decrease in recurrence-free survival with a hazards ratio of 1.4 (P = 0.059). Decreased BRCA1 intensity was associated with higher pathologic stage (P = 0.027), but BRCA1 intensity was not associated with overall survival or recurrence-free survival. Our results demonstrate a possible association of BRCA1 expression pattern with pathologic stage, implying a potential role of BRCA1 in PDAC development and progression.
    Pancreas 08/2013; 42(6):977-982. · 2.95 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: INTRODUCTION: Current National Comprehensive Cancer Network guidelines recommend neoadjuvant therapy for borderline resectable pancreatic adenocarcinoma to increase the likelihood of achieving R0 resection. A consensus has not been reached on the degree of venous involvement that constitutes borderline resectability. This study compares the outcome of patients who underwent pancreaticoduodenectomy with or without vein resection without neoadjuvant therapy. METHODS: A multi-institutional database of patients who underwent pancreaticoduodenectomy was reviewed. Patients who required vein resection due to gross vein involvement by tumor were compared to those without evidence of vein involvement. RESULTS: Of 492 patients undergoing pancreaticoduodenectomy, 70 (14 %) had vein resection and 422 (86 %) did not. There was no difference in R0 resection (66 vs. 75 %, p = NS). On multivariate analysis, vein involvement was not predictive of disease-free or overall survival. CONCLUSION: This is the largest modern series examining patients with or without isolated vein involvement by pancreas cancer, none of whom received neoadjuvant therapy. Oncological outcome was not different between the two groups. These data suggest that up-front surgical resection is an appropriate option and call into question the inclusion of isolated vein involvement in the definition of "borderline resectable disease."
    Journal of Gastrointestinal Surgery 04/2013; · 2.36 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND: 53BP1 binds to the tumor suppressor p53 and has a key role in DNA damage response and repair. Low 53BP1 expression has been associated with decreased survival in breast cancer and has been shown to interact with several prognostic factors in non-small cell lung cancer. The role of 53BP1 in pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC) has yet to be determined. We aimed to investigate whether 53BP1 levels interact with established prognostic factors in PDAC. METHODS: 106 patients for whom there was tissue available at time of surgical resection for PDAC were included. A tissue microarray was constructed using surgical specimens, stained with antibodies to 53BP1, and scored for expression intensity. Univariate and multivariate statistical analyses were performed to investigate the association between 53BP1 and patient survival with known prognostic factors for survival. RESULTS: The association of 53BP1 with several established prognostic factors was examined, including stage, tumor grade, surgical margin, peripancreatic extension, lymph node ratio (LNR), and CA 19--9. We found that 53BP1 modified the effects of known prognostic variables including LNR and CA 19--9 on survival outcomes. When 53BP1 intensity was low, increased LNR was associated with decreased OS (HR 4.84, 95% CI (2.26, 10.37), p<0.001) and high CA19-9 was associated with decreased OS (HR 1.72, 95% CI (1.18, 2.51), p=0.005). When 53BP1 intensity was high, LNR and CA19-9 were no longer associated with OS (p=0.958 and p=0.606, respectively). CONCLUSIONS: In this study, 53BP1, a key player in DNA damage response and repair, was found to modify the prognostic value of two established prognostic factors, LNR and CA 19--9, suggesting 53BP1 may alter tumor behavior and ultimately impact how we interpret the value of other prognostic factors.
    BMC Cancer 03/2013; 13(1):155. · 3.33 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma is the most aggressive of all epithelial malignancies. In contrast to the favorable trends seen in most other common malignancies, the five-year survival of patients with this disease remains only 6%, a statistic that has changed minimally for decades. Only two drugs have been approved by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) for use in pancreatic cancer in the last 15 years, and there are no established strategies for early detection. Clin Cancer Res; 19(3); 1-3. ©2012 AACR.
    Clinical Cancer Research 01/2013; · 7.84 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: We investigated a series of pancreaticoduodenectomy and duodenal biopsies with a panel of immunohistochemical markers to identify duodenal mucosal invasion by pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC), including markers of poor prognosis and targets of promising novel immunotherapies. Eighteen consecutive pancreaticoduodenectomy specimens with duodenal mucosal invasion by PDAC were examined for expression of MUC1, MUC4, MUC5AC, MUC6, mesothelin, MUC2, CDX2, and DPC4 on formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded sections of duodenal-ampullary-pancreatic junctions. Expression of all but MUC6 was also assessed in duodenal biopsies from 12 patients with duodenal mucosal invasion by PDAC. The duodenal mucosa expressed MUC1 (crypts), MUC2 (goblet cells), MUC6 (Brunner glands), CDX2, and DPC4. PDACs in the duodenal mucosa from the resection (n=16-18) and biopsy (n=12) specimens were marked as follows: MUC1 100% (30/30), MUC4 83% (24/29), MUC5AC 83% (25/30), mesothelin 82% (23/28), MUC2 7% (2/30), and CDX2 36% (10/28). Loss of DPC4 expression was seen in 16 of 29 (55%) cases. Reactive mucosa adjacent to PDAC expressed MUC4, MUC5AC and mesothelin in 65% (17/26), 19% (5/27), and 19% (5/26) of cases, respectively. While MUC5AC and mesothelin had high diagnostic accuracy for detection of PDAC, MUC2, CDX2 and DPC4 expression demonstrated negative correlation with PDAC, with absent expression being highly specific for PDAC. Immunohistochemical labeling for PDAC biomarkers may aid the diagnosis of PDAC in duodenal biopsy, especially in situations where diagnosis of a pancreatic mass is challenging.
    International journal of clinical and experimental pathology 01/2013; 6(11):2476-86. · 2.24 Impact Factor

Publication Stats

2k Citations
435.51 Total Impact Points

Institutions

  • 2005–2014
    • Vanderbilt University
      • • Department of Cancer Biology
      • • Division of Surgical Oncology
      • • Department of Surgery
      Nashville, Michigan, United States
  • 2012
    • University of Cincinnati
      • Department of Surgery
      Cincinnati, OH, United States
  • 2011
    • Sinai Hospital
      Baltimore, Maryland, United States
    • The University of Arizona
      • Division of Epidemiology and Biostatistics
      Tucson, AZ, United States
  • 2009
    • University of Wisconsin, Madison
      • Department of Surgery
      Madison, MS, United States
  • 1997–2001
    • Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center
      • Department of Surgery
      New York City, NY, United States