[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: IL-17 plays an important role in the immunopathogenesis of autoimmune diseases, and Syk has been implicated as a critical molecule in the signaling pathways of various immunoreceptors. CCL20 interacts with CCR6 to recruit IL-17-producing cells into skin to promote progression of psoriasis. Herein we investigate how Syk regulates IL-17 signaling to affect CCL20 expression in primary human epidermal keratinocytes. We found that IL-17 can induce CCL20 expression, and activate TAK, IKK, NF-κB, JNK and Syk. Data of TAK inhibitor and Syk siRNA indicate Syk being an upstream molecule of TAK in IL-17-elicited signaling. The promoter activity assay combined with site-directed mutagenesis showed that IL-17-elicited CCL20 upregulation is depending on Syk-mediated NF-κB pathway. Immunoprecipitation also indicated the interaction of Syk with signal molecules of IL-17R, such as TRAF6 and Act1, under IL-17A stimulation. However, the essential signaling events including TRAF6 interaction with Act1 and TRAF6 polyubiquitination under IL-17A stimulation were diminished by Syk siRNA and pharmacologically inhibiting Syk. Taken together, we identify Syk as an upstream signaling molecule in IL-17A-induced Act1-TRAF6 interaction in keratinocytes, and inhibition of Syk can attenuate CCL20 production, which highlight Syk as a potential therapeutic target for inflammatory skin diseases such as psoriasis.Journal of Investigative Dermatology accepted article preview online, 09 September 2014. doi:10.1038/jid.2014.383.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Hypoxia has been shown to induce hypoxia-inducible factor-1alpha (HIF-1α) expression to support many cellular changes required for tumor growth and metastasis. In addition to hypoxia, nutrient deprivation is another stress condition widely existing in solid tumors due to the poor blood supply. Our data showed that nutrient deprivation induces a significant HIF-1α protein expression and potentiates the HIF-1α responses of hypoxia and CoCl₂. This effect is not because of enhancement of HIF-1α stability or transcription. Rather we found it is through the cap-independent but internal ribosome entry site (IRES)-dependent translation. Notably inhibition of autophagy by si-ATG5, 3-methyladenine and chloroquine, but not si-Beclin-1, significantly reverses nutrient deprivation-induced HIF-1α responses. Furthermore, it is interesting to note the contribution of IRES activation for hypoxia-induced HIF-1α expression, however, different from nutrient starvation, si-Beclin 1 but not si-ATG5 can inhibit hypoxia-induced HIF-1α IRES activation and protein expression. Taken together, we for the first time highlight a link from alternative autophagy to cap-independent protein translation of HIF-1α under two unique stress conditions. We demonstrate Beclin 1-independent autophagy is involved to positively regulate nutrient deprivation induced-HIF-1α IRES activity and protein expression, while ATG5-independent autophagy is involved in the HIF-1 IRES activation caused by hypoxia.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The immediate early gene c-Fos is reported to be regulated by Elk-1 and cAMP response element-binding protein (CREB), but whether nuclear factor (NF)-κB is also required for controlling c-Fos expression is unclear. In this study, we determined how NF-κB's coordination with Elk/serum response factor (SRF) regulates c-fos transcription. We report that PMA strongly induced c-Fos expression, but tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α did not. In mouse embryonic fibroblasts, the PMA induction of c-Fos was suppressed by a deficiency in IKKα, IKKβ, IKKγ, or p65. By contrast, in human embryonic kidney 293 cells, PMA induced c-Fos independently of p65. In accordance with these results, we identified an NF-κB binding site in the mouse but not human c-fos promoter. Under PMA stimulation, IKKα/β mediated p65 phosphorylation and the binding of the p65 homodimer to the NF-κB site in the mouse c-fos promoter. Furthermore, our studies demonstrated independent but coordinated functions of the IKKα/β-p65 and extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK)-Elk-1 pathways in the PMA induction of c-Fos. Collectively, these results reveal the distinct requirement of NF-κB for mouse and human c-fos regulation. Binding of the p65 homodimer to the κB site was indispensable for mouse c-fos expression, whereas the κB binding site was not present in the human c-fos promoter. Because of an inability to evoke sufficient ERK activation and Elk-1 phosphorylation, TNF-α induces c-Fos more weakly than PMA does in both mouse and human cells.
PLoS ONE 12/2013; 8(12):e84062. DOI:10.1371/journal.pone.0084062 · 3.53 Impact Factor
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[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Parthanatos is a programmed necrotic demise characteristic of ATP consumption due to NAD(+) depletion by PARP1-dependent poly(ADP-ribosyl)ation on target proteins. However, how the bioenergetics is adaptively regulated during parthanatos, especially under the condition of macroautophagy deficiency, remains poorly characterized. Here, we demonstrated that the parthanatic inducer MNNG triggered ATP depletion followed by recovery in mouse embryonic fibroblasts (MEFs). Notably, Atg5(-/-) MEFs showed great susceptibility to MNNG with disabled ATP-producing capacity. Moreover, the differential energy-adaptive responses in WT and Atg5(-/-) MEFs were unequivocally worsened by inhibition of AMPK, SIRT1, and mitochondrial activity. Importantly, Atg5(-/-) MEFs disclosed diminished SIRT1 and mitochondrial activity essential to the energy restoration during parthanatos. Strikingly, however, parthanatos cannot be exasperated by bafilomycin A1 and MNNG neither provokes LC3 lipidation and p62 elimination, suggesting that parthanatos does not induce autophagic flux. Intriguingly, we reported unexpectedly that PD98059, even at low concentration insufficient to inhibit MEK, can promote mitochondrial activity and facilitate energy-restoring process during parthanatos, without modulating DNA damage responses as evidenced by PARP1 activity, p53 expression, and γH2AX induction. Therefore, we propose that Atg5 deficiency confers an infirmity to overcome the energy crisis during parthanatos and further underscore the deficits in mitochondrial quality control, but not incapability of autophagy induction, that explain the vulnerability in Atg5-deficient cells. Collectively, our results provide a comprehensive energy perspective for an improved treatment to alleviate parthanatos-related tissue necrosis and disease progression and also provide a future direction for drug development on the basis of PD98059 as an efficacious compound against parthanatos.
Biochimica et Biophysica Acta 12/2013; DOI:10.1016/j.bbamcr.2013.12.001 · 4.66 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Toll-like receptors (TLRs) are a major family of pattern recognition receptors, and they play a crucial role in innate immune responses. Activation of TLR4 signaling at the plasma membrane by its ligand lipopolysaccharide (LPS) stimulates a proinflammatory pathway dependent on the E3 ubiquitin ligase TRAF6 (tumor necrosis factor receptor-associated factor 6) and the kinase TAK1 (transforming growth factor β-activated kinase 1), whereas TLR4 signaling at endosomes stimulates the production of type I interferons (IFNs) through a pathway that depends on TRAF3 and the kinase TBK1 (TANK-binding kinase-1). We found that the nonreceptor tyrosine kinase Syk partially mediated the endocytosis of TLR4, but it also played a dual role in TLR4-mediated signaling. LPS-dependent stimulation of TLR4 in Syk-deficient macrophages led to enhanced activation of TAK1 and increased production of proinflammatory cytokines compared to that in wild-type macrophages. In contrast, Syk-deficient macrophages exhibited decreased TLR4-dependent activation of TBK1 signaling and production of type I IFNs. We found that Syk was present in both TRAF6- and TRAF3-containing signaling complexes; however, the LPS-dependent, lysine 63-linked ubiquitination of TRAF6 and TRAF3 was oppositely regulated by Syk. We identified the domains of Syk that interacted with TRAF3, TRAF6, TAK1, and TBK1, factors activated by multiple TLRs, which suggests that Syk may act as a common regulator of various TLR responses. Together, our results demonstrate the opposing regulatory roles of Syk in TLR-mediated TRAF6 and TRAF3 signaling pathways, which suggests that Syk may fine-tune the innate immune response to lessen inflammation.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Decoy receptor 3 (DcR3) is a soluble receptor of Fas ligand (FasL), LIGHT (TNFSF14) and TNF-like molecule 1A (TL1A) and plays pleiotropic roles in many inflammatory and autoimmune disorders and malignant diseases. In cutaneous biology, DcR3 is expressed in primary human epidermal keratinocytes and is upregulated in skin lesions in psoriasis, which is characterized by chronic inflammation and angiogenesis. However, the regulatory mechanisms of DcR3 over-expression in skin lesions of psoriasis are unknown. Here, we demonstrate that DcR3 can be detected in both dermal blood vessels and epidermal layers of psoriatic skin lesions. Analysis of serum samples showed that DcR3 was elevated, but FasL was downregulated in psoriatic patients compared with normal individuals. Additional cell studies revealed a central role of epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) in controlling the basal expression of DcR3 in keratinocytes. Activation of EGFR by epidermal growth factor (EGF) and transforming growth factor (TGF)-α strikingly upregulated DcR3 production. TNF-αenhanced DcR3 expression in both keratinocytes and endothelial cells compared with various inflammatory cytokines involved in psoriasis. Additionally, TNF-α-enhanced DcR3 expression in keratinocytes was inhibited when EGFR was knocked down or EGFR inhibitor was used. The NF-κB pathway was critically involved in the molecular mechanisms underlying the action of EGFR and inflammatory cytokines. Collectively, the novel regulatory mechanisms of DcR3 expression in psoriasis, particularly in keratinocytes and endothelial cells, provides new insight into the pathogenesis of psoriasis and may also contribute to the understanding of other diseases that involve DcR3 overexpression.
Biochimica et Biophysica Acta 05/2013; DOI:10.1016/j.bbadis.2013.05.020 · 4.66 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress is induced in infectious and inflammatory conditions, but its role in inflammatory responses still remains elusive. In this study we found tunicamycin (TM) and brefeldin A (BFA), two ER stressors, could attenuate lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-elicited inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) gene expression in murine RAW264.7 macrophages, and this effect was not resulting from the effects on IKK or MAPKs activation. However, ER stressors could block NF-κB binding to the iNOS promoter in late-phase signaling evoked by LPS. Results indicated that inhibition of RelB nuclear translocation and p300 expression are involved in the anti-inflammatory actions of ER stressors. We also found that ER stressors could block LPS- and IFN (α, β, and γ)-mediated STAT1 phosphorylation. Our results suggest that activation of MKP-1 via a Ca/calmodulin/calcineurin pathway accounts for the inhibitory effect of ER stressors on IFN signaling. MKP-1 was downregulated by IFN-γ and is a newly identified protein phosphatase targeting STAT1. Taken together, these results indicate that multiple mechanisms are involved in the inhibition of LPS-induced iNOS gene expression by ER stressors. These include downregulation of RelB and p300, upregulation of MKP-1, and inhibition of the JAK/STAT signaling pathway.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: PKC plays a pivotal role in mediating monocyte adhesion; however, the underlying mechanisms of PKC-mediated cell adhesion are still unclear. In this study, we elucidated the signaling network of phorbol ester PMA-stimulated human monocyte adhesion. Our results with pharmacological inhibitors suggested the involvement of AMPK, Syk, Src and ERK in PKC-dependent adhesion of THP-1 monocytes to culture plates. Biochemical analysis further confirmed the ability of PMA to activate these kinases, as well as the involvement of AMPK-Syk-Src signaling in this event. Direct protein interaction between AMPK and Syk, which requires the kinase domain of AMPK and linker region of Syk, was observed following PMA stimulation. Notably, we identified Syk as a novel downstream target of AMPK; AICAR can induce Syk phosphorylation at Ser178 and activation of this kinase. However, activation of AMPK alone, either by stimulation with AICAR or by overexpression, is not sufficient to induce monocyte adhesion. Studies further demonstrated that PKC-mediated ERK signaling independent of AMPK activation is also involved in cell adhesion. Moreover, AMPK, Syk, Src and ERK signaling were also required for PMA to induce THP-1 cell adhesion to endothelial cells as well as to induce adhesion response of human primary monocytes. Taken together, we propose a bifurcated kinase signaling pathway involved in PMA-mediated adhesion of monocytes. PKC can activate LKB1/AMPK, leading to phosphorylation and activation of Syk, and subsequent activation of Src and FAK. In addition, PKC-dependent ERK activation induces a coordinated signal for cytoskeleton rearrangement and cell adhesion. For the first time we demonstrate Syk as a novel substrate target of AMPK, and shed new light on the role of AMPK in monocyte adhesion, in addition to its well identified functions in energy homeostasis.
PLoS ONE 07/2012; 7(7):e40999. DOI:10.1371/journal.pone.0040999 · 3.53 Impact Factor
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[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: In an effort to achieve better cancer therapies, we elucidated the combination cancer therapy of STI571 (an inhibitor of Bcr-Abl and clinically used for chronic myelogenous leukemia) and TNF-related apoptosis-inducing ligand (TRAIL, a developing antitumor agent) in leukemia, colon, and prostate cancer cells.
Colon cancer (HCT116, SW480), prostate cancer (PC3, LNCaP) and leukemia (K562) cells were treated with STI571 and TRAIL. Cell viability was determined by MTT assay and sub-G1 appearance. Protein expression and kinase phosphorylation were determined by Western blotting. c-Abl and p73 activities were inhibited by target-specific small interfering (si)RNA. In vitro kinase assay of c-Abl was conducted using CRK as a substrate.
We found that STI571 exerts opposite effects on the antitumor activity of TRAIL. It enhanced cytotoxicity in TRAIL-treated K562 leukemia cells and reduced TRAIL-induced apoptosis in HCT116 and SW480 colon cancer cells, while having no effect on PC3 and LNCaP cells. In colon and prostate cancer cells, TRAIL caused c-Abl cleavage to the active form via a caspase pathway. Interestingly, JNK and p38 MAPK inhibitors effectively blocked TRAIL-induced toxicity in the colon, but not in prostate cancer cells. Next, we found that STI571 could attenuate TRAIL-induced c-Abl, JNK and p38 activation in HCT116 cells. In addition, siRNA targeting knockdown of c-Abl and p73 also reduced TRAIL-induced cytotoxicity, rendering HCT116 cells less responsive to stress kinase activation, and masking the cytoprotective effect of STI571.
All together we demonstrate a novel mediator role of p73 in activating the stress kinases p38 and JNK in the classical apoptotic pathway of TRAIL. TRAIL via caspase-dependent action can sequentially activate c-Abl, p73, and stress kinases, which contribute to apoptosis in colon cancer cells. Through the inhibition of c-Abl-mediated apoptotic p73 signaling, STI571 reduces the antitumor activity of TRAIL in colon cancer cells. Our results raise additional concerns when developing combination cancer therapy with TRAIL and STI571 in the future.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: NOD2 of the NLRs and TLR4 of the TLRs are major pattern-recognition receptors, which sense different microbial pathogens and have important roles in innate immunity. Herein, we investigated the roles of NOD2 in TLR4-mediated signalling and gene regulation in RAW264.7 macrophages. We found that MDP (a NOD2 ligand) increased LPS-induced expressions of TNF-α, IL-1β, IL-6, iNOS and COX-2. MDP did not affect LPS-induced activation of MAPKs or IKK, while it potentiated LPS-induced NF-κB activation. Meanwhile TLR4 activation increased NOD2 mRNA expression, and upregulated NOD2 upon MDP treatment is a positive regulator of TLR4-mediated signalling. Intriguingly we found that NOD2 silencing led to increases in LPS-induced signal transduction and inflammatory responses, and a decrease in LPS-elicited homologous tolerance. We thus propose that NOD2 in the absence of MDP treatment might also play a negative regulatory role in the action of TLR4. Further, we demonstrated that both CARD and LRR domains of the NOD2 protein were responsible for the negative regulatory action on TLR4. In summary, it is the first time to demonstrate that NOD2 have dual effects on TLR4 signalling and exert a novel ligand-independent action. Elucidating molecular mechanisms by which NOD2 exerts its ligand-independent action on TLR4 requires further investigation.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Toll-like receptors (TLRs) are a major family of pattern recognition receptors (PRRs) and play a crucial role in innate immune system. Even though non-receptor spleen tyrosine kinase (Syk) is a key signaling molecule of immunoreceptor tyrosine-based activation motifs-containing immunoreceptors, its role in TLRs signaling is not clearly understood. Herein, we investigated the role of Syk in TLR-mediated signaling and gene regulation. In bone marrow-derived macrophages (BMDMs) and RAW 264.7 macrophages, treatment of poly(I:C), LPS and CpG, which are specific ligands of TLR3, TLR4 and TLR9, respectively, can increase the mRNA levels of several pro-inflammatory cytokines and mediators, including IFNbeta, TNFalpha, MIP2, IL-6, IL-12beta, iNOS and COX-2. The gene upregulation caused by TLR was inhibited by Syk inhibitor (SykI) and JNK inhibitor (SP600125). Accordingly we found the abilities of TLR3, TLR4 and TLR9 ligands to induce Syk and JNK activation, as evidenced by increased Syk autophosphorylation on Y519/Y520, JNK phosphorylation and both kinase activities. We also found that TLRs-mediated JNK activation, but not IKK, p38 and ERK activation as well as IkappaB degradation in BMDM and RAW 264.7 cells, was blocked by SykI. Nevertheless TLR-mediated JNK activation as well as the increased protein expression of iNOS and COX-2 remained unchanged when Syk protein was knockdown by siRNA approach. With in vitro kinase assay we found two commercial Syk inhibitors (SykI, and BAY61-3606) have direct inhibition on JNK activity. These findings demonstrate that the non-selective action of SykI on JNK should be taken into consideration upon using them to explore the biological actions of Syk.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Although 15-deoxy-Delta(12,14)-prostaglandin J(2) (15dPGJ(2)) was reported to up-regulate death receptor 5 (DR5) protein expression and sensitize TRAIL-induced cytotoxicity, its action mechanism remains unclear. Using HCT116 colon cancer cells, we found that sensitization of TRAIL-induced cytotoxicity by 15dPGJ(2) resulted from up-regulation of DR5 via gene transcription but was not associated with PPAR-gamma activation. Moreover, 15dPGJ(2) induced GRP78, XBP1, and C/EBP homologous transcription factor (CHOP) expression in HCT116 cells, confirming that 15dPGJ(2) is an endoplasmic reticulum stress inducer. Knockdown of the CHOP gene by siRNA attenuated DR5 up-regulation and the sensitized cytotoxicity in colon cancer HCT116 and SW480. With deletion plasmids of DR5 promoters, we found that the CHOP-binding site was involved in activating the DR5 gene by 15dPGJ(2). A mechanistic study showed the contributions of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and intracellular calcium in CHOP and DR5 gene up-regulation. 15dPGJ(2) was also found to induce DR5 in two prostate cancer cell lines, LNCaP and PC3. Although in LNCaP DR5 up-regulation was accompanied by CHOP expression by 15dPGJ(2), no significant increase in CHOP expression or DR5 promoter activity was observed in PC3 cells. Intriguingly, 15dPGJ(2) induced ROS and calcium production in PC3 cells. This inability to induce CHOP was not due to the p53-null in PC3 cells, as similar extents of increase in CHOP protein were found due to 15dPGJ(2) in both wild-type and p53-null HCT116 cells. In summary, the effect of up-regulation of DR5 by 15dPGJ(2) in colon cancer cells is independent of PPAR-gamma and p53 but relies on CHOP induction through gene transcription involving ROS and calcium.
Molecular Cancer Therapeutics 11/2008; 7(10):3429-40. DOI:10.1158/1535-7163.MCT-08-0498 · 6.11 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Death receptor-mediated tumor cell death, either alone or in combination with other anticancer drugs, is considered as a new strategy for anticancer therapy. In this study, we have investigated the effects and molecular mechanisms of 5-aminoimidazole-4-carboxamide riboside [AICAR; a pharmacologic activator of AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK)] in sensitizing tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-related apoptosis-inducing ligand (TRAIL)- and TNFalpha-induced apoptosis of human colon cancer HCT116 cells. The cytotoxic action of AICAR requires AMPK activation and may occur at various stages of apoptotic pathways. AICAR cotreatment with either TRAIL or TNFalpha enhances activities of caspase-8, caspase-9, and caspase-3; down-regulates the antiapoptotic protein Bcl-2; increases the cleavage of Bid and results in the decrease of mitochondrial membrane potential; potentiates activation of p38 and c-Jun NH(2)-terminal kinase; and inhibits nuclear factor-kappaB activity. In addition, this sensitized cell apoptosis was neither observed in p53-null HCT116 cells nor affected by the cotreatment with mevalonate. In summary, we have developed a novel strategy of combining AICAR with TRAIL for the treatment of colon cancer cells. The sensitization effect of AICAR in cell apoptosis was mediated through AMPK pathway, requires p53 activity, and involves mitochondria-dependent apoptotic cascades, p38 and c-Jun NH(2)-terminal kinase.
Molecular Cancer Therapeutics 06/2007; 6(5):1562-71. DOI:10.1158/1535-7163.MCT-06-0800 · 6.11 Impact Factor