Carlo Palazzi

Ospedale Madonna Delle Grazie, Matera, Matera, Basilicate, Italy

Are you Carlo Palazzi?

Claim your profile

Publications (78)211.14 Total impact

  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Introduction: Hepatitis C virus (HCV)-related arthritis is an uncommon disease belonging to the autoimmune disorders due to the chronic stimulus exerted by the virus on the immune system. It shows two clinical subsets: a symmetrical polyarthritis resembling rheumatoid arthritis but less aggressive and an intermittent mono-oligoarthritis involving the lower limbs.Areas covered: We extensively review the current literature using the largest electronic databases (MEDLINE, EMBASE and COCHRANE) with regard to HCV-related arthritis (HCVrA) and studies focusing on the co-existence of HCV and other kinds of arthritides.Expert opinion: The therapeutic approach to HCVrA remains largely empirical, because few studies have been published on this topic. Mainstream treatment based on the administration of hydroxychloroquine and low doses of corticosteroid is still largely preferred. Cyclosporine represents a useful alternative due to its antiviral properties. Anti-TNF agents are safe, but their hypothetic use appears excessive for a mild disorder such as HCVrA. IFN-α (and more recently pegylated IFN-α) when administered as a component of the combined (IFN-α + ribavirin) anti-HCV therapy can promote the appearance or the worsening of several autoimmune HCV-related disorders, including arthritis. New and forthcoming antiviral molecules will be used in the near future for a revolutionary IFN-free treatment.
    Expert Opinion on Pharmacotherapy 08/2014; · 2.86 Impact Factor
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Psoriatic arthritis (PsA), which affects musculoskeletal structures, skin and nails, is a heterogeneous chronic inflammatory disease with a wide clinical spectrum and variable course. Patients with PsA are more likely than healthy individuals to have metabolic syndrome or cardiovascular disease. To include these comorbidities, 'psoriatic disease' has been suggested as an umbrella term. The management of PsA has changed tremendously over the past decade owing to early diagnosis and improvement in treatment strategies, including, early referral from dermatologists and primary-care physicians to rheumatologists, early initiation of therapy, treating to the target of remission or low disease activity, and advances in pharmacological therapy. Outcome assessment is also improving, because of validated instruments for clinical disease manifestations. The commercialization of TNF blockers, including adalimumab, etanercept, golimumab and infliximab, is representative of a revolution in the treatment of PsA. A new anti-TNF agent, certolizumab pegol, and a fully human monoclonal antibody against IL-12 and IL-23, ustekinumab, are approved for the treatment of active PsA. The efficacy of ustekinumab suggests that inhibiting the type 17 T helper pathway might be an alternative to blocking TNF. PsA management must now use improved measures to predict patient outcomes and define remission, and develop better-targeted therapies.
    Nature Reviews Rheumatology 07/2014; · 9.75 Impact Factor
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: The ASAS (Assessment in SpondyloArtrhritis international Society) classification criteria for axial and peripheral spondyloarthritis permit to classify patients with age at disease onset less than 45 years. Nevertheless, these two forms of spondyloarthritis may begin after the age of 45. With the longer duration of the life expectancy, patients with this late-onset form of spondyloarthritis may be more frequently recognized in the near future. A small percentage (ranging from 3.5 to 6 %) of patients with axial SpA, as defined by the modified New York criteria, have onset of their disease after 45 years of age. Relatively more frequent is the late onset form of peripheral spondyloarthritis with the characteristics of undifferentiated spondyloarthritis. Its clinical spectrum is as broad as it is in children and very young adults. Psoriatic arthritis frequently begins over the age of 45 and occasionally after the age of 60. Some old studies had suggested than elderly-onset psoriatic arthritis is more severe than younger-onset disease, but a recent study found no such difference, and further studies are needed.
    Current Rheumatology Reports 12/2013; 15(12):374.
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Introduction: Tumor necrosis factor (TNF) blockers have represented a real revolution in the treatment of rheumatoid arthritis and spondyloarthritides (SpAs). In the case of psoriatic arthritis (PsA), anti-TNF agents are much more effective than conventional disease modifying antirheumatic drugs on all manifestations of the disease, that is, axial involvement, peripheral arthritis, peripheral enthesitis, dactylitis and skin lesions. A complete understanding of their safety is fundamental in clinical practice. Areas covered: This article addresses the safety of anti-TNF therapy in PsA. A systematic literature review was performed using the largest electronic databases (MEDLINE, EMBASE and COCHRANE). The reported data were derived from randomized controlled trials, open-observational studies and meta-analyses. Useful information derived from the experiences in rheumatoid arthritis has also been reported. Expert opinion: Anti-TNF therapies are as safe as conventional disease-modifying antirheumatic drugs in the management of psoriatic arthritis when the candidate patients are accurately selected. An adverse event could still occur when the patient is managed according to current national and/or international recommendations; therefore, tight controls aimed to detect adverse events early is mandatory.
    Expert Opinion on Drug Safety 11/2013; · 2.62 Impact Factor
  • The Journal of Rheumatology 08/2013; 40(8):1251-3. · 3.26 Impact Factor
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: OBJECTIVES: This paper aims to estimate the prevalence of Behçet's disease (BD) in the city of Potenza, the regional capital of Basilicata (or Lucania) Region, in southern Italy. METHODS: Patients with BD living in Potenza for at least 12 months prior to diagnosis were identified through the following sources: general practitioners, community-based specialists, San Carlo Hospital specialists, the Basilicata centralised index and the Basilicata database for rare diseases. All identified patients were contacted by phone and were recalled to our outpatient clinic for re-evaluation. Patients were classified as having complete BD if they met the International Study Group (ISG) criteria for BD. RESULTS: By surveying a population of 69.060 subjects, 13 patients with a diagnosis of BD were identified. All were white and Italian by descendent. Eleven out of these satisfied the ISG criteria and allowed us to obtain a prevalence rate of 15.9 per 100.000 (95%CI 8.9-28.5), which is the highest ever found value in Europe. CONCLUSIONS: This cross-sectional population-based study suggests that BD is more frequent in the southern part than in the northern part of Italy and confirms that the prevalence of the disease increases in a north-to-south manner within the European continent.
    Clinical and experimental rheumatology 04/2013; · 2.66 Impact Factor
  • Rheumatology (Oxford, England) 01/2013; · 4.24 Impact Factor
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: The spondyloarthritis (SpA) complex includes ankylosing spondylitis (AS), reactive arthritis, psoriatic arthritis, arthritis related to inflammatory bowel disease and forms that do not meet established criteria for these definite categories which are designated as undifferentiated SpA. In the early 1990s, two sets of classification criteria were suggested with the purpose to cover the whole clinical spectrum of SpA: the Amor criteria and the European Spondylarthropathy Study Group (ESSG) criteria...
    Reumatismo 01/2013; 65(1):1-3.
  • Clinical and experimental rheumatology 11/2012; · 2.66 Impact Factor
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: TNF blockers have revolutionized the management of spondyloarthritis (SpA). To date, four anti-TNFα agents (etanercept, infliximab, adalimumab, golimumab) have been approved for the management of ankylosing spondylitis (AS) and psoriatic arthritis (PsA). The first objective in the management of AS and PsA with TNF inhibitors is to reduce disease activity to clinical remission or low disease activity. After remission has been achieved, this state should be maintained as long as possible. However, the financial burden associated with the cost of anti-TNF agents as well as concerns about their long-term safety suggest reducing the dosage of the drug or discontinuing the therapy in the hopes of drug-free remission. The aim of this review is to examine what has, till now, been published on this topic in axial SpA, which includes AS and non-radiographic axial SpA (nr-axSpA), peripheral SpA and PsA. Discontinuation of therapy in axial SpA is not possible in the majority of patients, while on the contrary, reducing the dosage often is. In some patients with peripheral SpA and PsA it is also possible to discontinue therapy and to achieve drug-free remission.
    Autoimmunity reviews 08/2012; · 6.37 Impact Factor
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Therapies for psoriatic arthritis were inadequate until a short time ago. Nonsteroidal antiinflammatory drugs are helpful in relieving symptoms but do not prevent joint damage. Traditional disease-modifying antirheumatic drugs are used to control symptoms, but there is no evidence that they prevent or significantly slow the progression of structural damage in peripheral joints. The introduction of tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) blocking agents has opened new horizons. These drugs lessen signs and symptoms of inflammation, enhance functional capacity and quality of life, and inhibit structural joint damage. On the other hand, TNF-α blockers are very costly and not easily available to all patients, whether they rely on a national health system or on private insurance. Pharmacoeconomic studies on these drugs so far have shown that they are cost-effective on both the musculoskeletal and skin manifestations of psoriatic disease, offering good value for money.
    Journal of Rheumatology Supplement 07/2012; 89:103-5.
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Since the 1970s, asymptomatic involvement of several musculoskeletal structures was described in patients with psoriatic arthritis (PsA). We recently designated this clinical condition as occult PsA. This concept addresses an "underground" inflammatory process that can eventually cause structural damage. The percentage of PsA cases occurring in an occult manner remains to be determined but it does not seem small. From a teaching perspective, we suggest differentiating occult PsA into 3 subsets: real occult PsA, characterized by a continuous asymptomatic course; temporary occult PsA, in which the clinical course remains asymptomatic for a period; and limited occult PsA, which occurs asymptomatically in some areas of the body but is clinically evident in others. Some serum biomarkers could identify patients to be studied with imaging techniques to discover real occult PsA. Since an asymptomatic course was also reported for other spondyloarthropathies, the concept of occult arthritis could be expanded to the whole field of such conditions.
    Journal of Rheumatology Supplement 07/2012; 89:22-3.
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: This article summarizes the state of radiological assessment of axial involvement in psoriatic arthritis (PsA). The definition and measurement of axial disease in PsA remain problematic and this situation in turn could affect the choice of approach to evaluate radiological findings of the spine. At present, the radiological assessment has been evaluated by using scoring systems borrowed from ankylosing spondylitis (AS). In particular, the Bath AS Radiology Index (BASRI) and the modified Stoke AS Spine Score (m-SASSS) have been validated for axial PsA. A recent study showed that BASRI and m-SASSS were valid instruments; however, neither score encompassed all radiological features of PsA. Therefore, a new index for assessing radiological axial involvement in PsA was developed--the PsA Spondylitis Radiology Index (PASRI). This new index encompassed a greater range of the spinal radiological features of PsA, providing a greater score range, and it correlated well with anthropometric and patient-reported outcomes. Recently, a study assessed the sensitivity to change of BASRI, m-SASSS, and PASRI, and showed that these 3 instruments provided a moderate sensitivity to change but high specificity to detect the true changes.
    Journal of Rheumatology Supplement 07/2012; 89:54-6.
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: The spondyloarthritis (SpA) complex embraces ankylosing spondylitis (AS), reactive arthritis (ReA), psoriatic arthritis (PsA), arthritis related to inflammatory bowel disease (IBD), and forms that do not fulfil established criteria, which are labelled as undifferentiated SpA (uSpA). In the early 1990s, 2 sets of classification criteria were suggested to encompass the clinical spectrum of SpA: the Amor criteria and the European Spondylarthropathy Study Group (ESSG) criteria.
    The Journal of Rheumatology 05/2012; 39(6):1110-2. · 3.26 Impact Factor
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: To establish how many children with HLA B27-positive juvenile undifferentiated spondyloarthritis (JuSpA) living in southern Italy develop axial disease after 5 years of disease. All children with B27-positive enthesitis-related arthritis (ERA) consecutively seen in a 7-year period were entered in a special register and were followed prospectively. Each patient was examined at 6-month intervals, even if asymptomatic. In patients with inflammatory spinal pain and/or buttock pain, MRI of the sacroiliac joints and spine was performed. Five years after inclusion, sacroiliac joint plain radiographs were obtained and read blindly after being mixed with those of control subjects. Thirteen children, 9 boys and 4 girls, with B27-positive ERA and one girl with B27-positive isolated SpA dactylitis were seen in the study period. Their median age at disease onset and at our first examination were 10 (range 2-16) and 12 years (range 3-16), respectively. During follow-up, only one patient had axial symptoms, i.e. alternate buttock pain. MRI revealed moderate bone oedema at both sacroiliac joints. After five years of disease, no patient showed reduced spinal movement. No sign of sacroiliitis was seen in any patient and control on plain films. A new MRI of the sacroiliac joints of the patient who showed bone oedema in the first years of disease was normal. This study confirms that the onset of axial involvement in Italian Caucasian HLA-B27 positive children with ERA is rare in the first five years of disease.
    Clinical and experimental rheumatology 02/2012; 30(2):290-6. · 2.66 Impact Factor
  • Source
    Arthritis & Rheumatology 01/2012; 64(5):1641. · 7.48 Impact Factor
  • Source
    The Journal of Rheumatology 01/2012; 39(1):184. · 3.26 Impact Factor
  • Source
    S D'Angelo, C Palazzi, I Olivieri
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: The traditional management of psoriatic arthritis (PsA) includes NSAIDs, corticosteroids and DMARDs. Advancement in the knowledge of the immunopathogenesis of PsA has been associated with the development of biologic agents which have revolutionized the management of the disease. Among biologics drugs, there are the 4 currently availablee anti-TNFα blocking agents (etanercept, infliximab, adalimumab and golimumab) which are more effective than traditional DMARDs on symptoms/signs of inflammation, quality of life, function, and in inhibiting the progression of the structural joint damage. Despite of the high cost, TNF inhibitors are costeffective on both the musculoskeletal and skin manifestations of psoriatic disease.
    Reumatismo 01/2012; 64(2):113-21.
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Hepatitis C virus infection (HCV) is one of the best mimes in medicine. About 40-70% of patients suffering from this disorder develop at least one extra-hepatic disorder that can have a rheumatic nature (arthralgias, arthritis, vasculitis and sicca syndrome) and must be differentiated from the primitive rheumatic diseases. In addition, HCV infection can also alter the laboratory tests. Several alterations of first line laboratory tests can be usually found in both chronic HCV infection and chronic inflammatory rheumatic disorders. In the present review we analyze the interference of HCV in tests more specifically used in rheumatology: rheumatoid factor and other autoantibodies (ANA, anti-ENA, ANCA, anti-DNA, antiphospholipid, anti-CCP). In patients suffering from HCV infection, the diagnosis of connective tissue diseases (CTD) or rheumatoid arthritis (RA) should be made only when the detected symptoms or laboratory data are not inducible by HCV, otherwise only a diagnosis of "possible CTD" or "possible RA" should be considered.
    Autoimmunity reviews 11/2011; 11(9):659-63. · 6.37 Impact Factor
  • The Journal of Rheumatology 07/2011; 38(7):1228-30. · 3.26 Impact Factor

Publication Stats

430 Citations
211.14 Total Impact Points

Institutions

  • 2005–2014
    • Ospedale Madonna Delle Grazie, Matera
      Matera, Basilicate, Italy
  • 2013
    • Università degli Studi del Molise
      • Department of Health Sciences (S.Pe.S.)
      Campobasso, Molise, Italy
  • 2005–2012
    • Santo Spirito Hospital, Casale Monferrato
      Casale, Piedmont, Italy
  • 2003–2012
    • Azienda Ospedaliera San Carlo Borromeo Milano
      Milano, Lombardy, Italy
  • 2006–2009
    • Ospedale San Carlo di Potenza
      Potenza, Basilicate, Italy
  • 2004
    • Casa di Cura Malzoni - Villa dei Platani
      Avellino, Campania, Italy
  • 2002
    • Ospedale Santo Spirito
      Roma, Latium, Italy
  • 1996
    • Università degli Studi G. d'Annunzio Chieti e Pescara
      Chieta, Abruzzo, Italy
  • 1995
    • Spedali Civili di Brescia
      Brescia, Lombardy, Italy