Anja Kroke

University of Applied Sciences Fulda, Fulda, Hesse, Germany

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Publications (108)319.16 Total impact

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    ABSTRACT: OBJECTIVES:To examine whether maximal velocities of weight, height and fat mass during potentially critical periods of growth were associated with body composition in young adulthood.SUBJECTS/METHODS:Analyses were performed on 277 female and 271 male participants of the DOrtmund Nutritional and Anthropometric Longitudinally Designed (DONALD) study with anthropometric measurements in young adulthood (18-25 years) as well as early life (0-2 years), mid-childhood (3-8 years) or puberty (9-15 years). Maximum growth velocities were calculated using the SuperImposition by Translation And Rotation (SITAR) routine or polynomial functions and related to adult fat mass index (FMI) and fat-free mass index (FFMI).RESULTS:In early life, faster weight gain was associated with a moderately higher FMI and FFMI in young adulthood in women only (Ptrend=0.01). In mid-childhood and puberty, weight and fat mass velocities were related to adult FMI and FFMI in both sexes (Ptrend⩽0.002): relative differences between the highest and lowest tertiles of these growth velocities ranged 33-69% for adult FMI and 6-12% for adult FFMI. A higher mid-childhood height velocity was related to a modestly higher adult FMI in women only (Ptrend=0.0005).CONCLUSIONs:Faster gain in weight and body fat during mid-childhood and puberty appear to be particularly relevant for adult fat mass.European Journal of Clinical Nutrition advance online publication, 9 July 2014; doi:10.1038/ejcn.2014.131.
    European journal of clinical nutrition. 07/2014;
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    ABSTRACT: Objective: To examine the association of habitual animal and plant protein intake during the potentially critical period of puberty with body composition in young adulthood. Design and Methods: Multivariable regression analyses were performed on data from 140 female and 122 male participants of the DONALD Study with ≥2 3-day weighed dietary records during puberty (girls 9-14 years; boys 10-15 years) and anthropometric measurements in young adulthood (18-25 years). Fat free mass index (FFMI) and fat mass index (FMI) were estimated from four skinfolds. Results: In women, a higher pubertal animal protein consumption was independently related to higher levels of FFMI (ptrend = 0.001), but not to FMI (ptrend = 0.5). Adjusted means of FFMI in energy-adjusted tertiles of animal protein intake were 15.3 (95% confidence interval: 15.0, 15.5), 15.4 (15.1, 15.7), 16.2 (15.9, 16.6) kg/m². In men, a higher animal protein intake was related to a higher FFMI (ptrend = 0.04) and a lower FMI (ptrend = 0.001) only after adjusting FFMI for current FMI levels and vice-versa. Plant protein was not associated with body composition among either sex. Conclusions: Our results show that a higher pubertal animal protein consumption may yield a higher fat-free mass in young adulthood.
    Obesity 06/2013; · 3.92 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Recent studies provide evidence that insulin-like-growth-factor I (IGF-I) and its binding proteins (IGFBP) IGFBP-2 and IGFBP-3 are related to the risk of several common cancers. It remains to be clarified whether their concentrations can be programmed by protein intake from different sources during growth. This study addressed the hypothesis that animal protein intakes during infancy, mid-childhood, and adolescence differ in their relevance for the growth-hormone (GH)-IGF-I axis in young adulthood. Data from the Dortmund Nutritional and Anthropometric Longitudinally Designed Study participants with at least 2 plausible 3-d weighed dietary records during adolescence (age: girls, 9-14 y; boys, 10-15 y; n = 213), around the adiposity rebound (age 4-6 y; n = 179) or early life (age 0.5-2 y; n = 130), and one blood sample in young adulthood were included in the study. Mean serum concentrations of IGF-I, IGFBP-1, IGFBP-2, and IGFBP-3 were compared between tertiles of habitual animal protein intake using multivariable regression analysis. Habitually higher animal protein intakes in females during puberty were related to higher IGF-I (P-trend = 0.005) and IGFBP-3 (P-trend = 0.01) and lower IGFBP-2 (P-trend = 0.04), but not to IGFBP-1 in young adulthood. In turn, IGF-I concentrations in young adulthood were inversely related to animal protein intakes in early life among males only (P-trend = 0.03), but not to animal protein intake around adiposity rebound (P-trend > 0.5). Our data suggest that, among females, a habitually higher animal protein intake during puberty may precipitate an upregulation of the GH-IGF-I axis, which is still discernible in young adulthood. By contrast, among males, higher animal protein intakes in early life may exert a long-term programming of the GH-IGF-I axis.
    Journal of Nutrition 05/2013; · 4.20 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Breastfeeding may lower chronic disease risk by long-term effects on hormonal status and adiposity, but the relations remain uncertain. To prospectively investigate the association of breastfeeding with the growth hormone- (GH) insulin-like growth factor- (IGF) axis, insulin sensitivity, body composition and body fat distribution in younger adulthood (18-37 years). Data from 233 (54% female) participants of a German cohort, the Dortmund Nutritional and Anthropometric Longitudinally Designed (DONALD) Study, with prospective data on infant feeding were analyzed. Multivariable linear as well as quantile regression were performed with full breastfeeding (not: ≤2, short: 3-17, long: >17 weeks) as exposure and adult IGF-I, IGF binding proteins (IGFBP) -1, -2, -3, homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance (HOMA-IR), fat mass index, fat-free mass index, and waist circumference as outcomes. After adjustment for early life and socio-economic factors, women who had been breastfed longer displayed higher adult IGFBP-2 (ptrend = 0.02) and lower values of HOMA-IR (ptrend = 0.004). Furthermore, in women breastfeeding duration was associated with a lower mean fat mass index (ptrend = 0.01), fat-free mass index (ptrend = 0.02) and waist circumference (ptrend = 0.004) in young adulthood. However, there was no relation to IGF-I, IGFBP-1 and IGFBP-3 (all ptrend>0.05). Associations for IGFBP-2 and fat mass index were more pronounced at higher, for waist circumference at very low or high percentiles of the distribution. In men, there was no consistent relation of breastfeeding with any outcome. Our data suggest that breastfeeding may have long-term, favorable effects on extremes of adiposity and insulin metabolism in women, but not in men. In both sexes, breastfeeding does not seem to induce programming of the GH-IGF-axis.
    PLoS ONE 01/2013; 8(11):e79436. · 3.53 Impact Factor
  • Anja Kroke
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    ABSTRACT: Although diet and nutrition are considered important for health their relation to disease development, especially with respect to chronic diseases, often remains to be clarified. Recent comprehensive research efforts have substantially contributed to this clarification. However, methodological limitations of the underlying data have also become apparent. Random and systematic measurement errors of the applied assessment instruments are one considerable problem. For the most frequently used dietary assessment instrument, the food frequency questionnaire, statistical approaches for measurement error reduction have been developed. Future studies should work with novel assessment approaches. To this end, repeated 24-h recalls combined with questionnaires and, if applicable, with biomarkers are recommended.
    Public Health Forum 09/2012; 20(3):24.e1–24.e4.
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    ABSTRACT: Nutritive and bioactive components of human milk could be involved in programming metabolic systems that affect bone growth throughout the life course. Bone properties in childhood and adolescence might differ, depending on breastfeeding duration. Thus, breastfeeding could be a relevant factor in the context of primary osteoporosis prevention. The prospective association between breastfeeding duration and bone properties was investigated using the data of 284 participants of the Dortmund Nutritional and Anthropometric Longitudinally Designed Study. Breastfeeding duration was assessed during infancy. Bone properties were measured by peripheral quantitative computed tomography (pQCT) at ages 5-23 years. Cortical volumetric bone mineral density, cortical bone mineral content, strength strain index, total cross-sectional area of the bone and cross-sectional area of the cortical bone were determined at the 65% site of the radius. Linear regression analyses were performed to check for differences in pQCT parameters of subjects who had not or shortly been breastfed (0-16 weeks) and subjects who had been breastfed for a long duration (≥17 weeks). Multivariable models adjusted for age, gender, forearm length, muscle cross-sectional area, body mass index standard deviation score (SDS), height SDS and socio-economic status did not yield associations between breastfeeding duration and pQCT parameters. These findings suggest neither protective nor adverse effects of prolonged breastfeeding on bone health in childhood and adolescence. Influences of early nutrition on bone growth might be overridden by current effects of mechanical loads on bone physiology.
    Maternal and Child Nutrition 08/2012; · 2.11 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Vegetables and fruit provide a significant part of human nutrition, as they are important sources of nutrients, dietary fibre, and phytochemicals. However, it is uncertain whether the risk of certain chronic diseases can be reduced by increased consumption of vegetables or fruit by the general public, and what strength of evidence has to be allocated to such an association. Therefore, a comprehensive analysis of the studies available in the literature and the respective study results has been performed and evaluated regarding obesity, type 2 diabetes mellitus, hypertension, coronary heart disease (CHD), stroke, cancer, chronic inflammatory bowel disease (IBD), rheumatoid arthritis (RA), chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), asthma, osteoporosis, eye diseases, and dementia. For judgement, the strength of evidence for a risk association, the level of evidence, and the number of studies were considered, the quality of the studies and their estimated relevance based on study design and size. For hypertension, CHD, and stroke, there is convincing evidence that increasing the consumption of vegetables and fruit reduces the risk of disease. There is probable evidence that the risk of cancer in general is inversely associated with the consumption of vegetables and fruit. In addition, there is possible evidence that an increased consumption of vegetables and fruit may prevent body weight gain. As overweight is the most important risk factor for type 2 diabetes mellitus, an increased consumption of vegetables and fruit therefore might indirectly reduces the incidence of type 2 diabetes mellitus. Independent of overweight, there is probable evidence that there is no influence of increased consumption on the risk of type 2 diabetes mellitus. There is possible evidence that increasing the consumption of vegetables and fruit lowers the risk of certain eye diseases, dementia and the risk of osteoporosis. Likewise, current data on asthma, COPD, and RA indicate that an increase in vegetable and fruit consumption may contribute to the prevention of these diseases. For IBD, glaucoma, and diabetic retinopathy, there was insufficient evidence regarding an association with the consumption of vegetables and fruit. This critical review on the associations between the intake of vegetables and fruit and the risk of several chronic diseases shows that a high daily intake of these foods promotes health. Therefore, from a scientific point of view, national campaigns to increase vegetable and fruit consumption are justified. The promotion of vegetable and fruit consumption by nutrition and health policies is a preferable strategy to decrease the burden of several chronic diseases in Western societies.
    European Journal of Nutrition 06/2012; 51(6):637-63. · 3.13 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Nutrition-related health problems such as obesity are frequent among children and adolescents of Turkish descent living in Germany, yet data on their dietary habits are scarce. One reason might be the lack of validated assessment tools for this target group. We therefore aimed to validate protein and K intakes from one 24 h recall against levels estimated from one 24 h urine sample in children and adolescents of Turkish descent living in Germany. Cross-sectional analyses comprised estimation of mean differences, Pearson correlation coefficients, cross-classifications and Bland-Altman plots to assess the agreement between the nutritional intake estimated from a single 24 h recall and a single 24 h urine sample collected on the previous day. Dortmund, Germany. Data from forty-three study participants (aged 5-18 years; 26% overweight) with a traditional Turkish background were included. The 24 h recall significantly overestimated mean protein and K intake by 10·7 g/d (95% CI of mean difference: 0·6, 20·7 g/d) and 344 mg/d (95% CI 8, 680 mg/d), respectively. Correlations between intake estimates were r = 0·25 (P = 0·1) and 0·31 (P = 0·05). Both methods classified 70% and 69% of the participants into the same/adjacent quartile of protein and K intake and misclassified 7% and 7%, respectively, into the opposite quartile. Bland-Altman plots indicated a wide scattering of differences in both protein and K intake. Among children and adolescents of traditional Turkish descent living in Germany, one 24 h recall may only be valid for categorizing subjects into high, medium or low consumers.
    Public Health Nutrition 04/2012; 15(4):640-7. · 2.25 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Early onset of puberty may confer adverse health consequences. Thus, modifiable factors influencing the timing of puberty are of public health interest. Childhood overweight as a factor in the earlier onset of menarche has been supported by prospective evidence; nonetheless, its overall contribution may have been overemphasized, since secular trends toward a younger age at menarche have not been a universal finding during the recent obesity epidemic. Current observational studies suggest notable associations between dietary intakes and pubertal timing beyond contributions to an energy imbalance: children with the highest intakes of vegetable protein or animal protein experience pubertal onset up to 7 months later or 7 months earlier, respectively. Furthermore, girls with high isoflavone intakes may experience the onset of breast development and peak height velocity approximately 7-8 months later. These effect sizes are on the order of those observed for potentially neuroactive steroid hormones. Thus, dietary patterns characterized by higher intakes of vegetable protein and isoflavones and lower intakes of animal protein may contribute to a lower risk of breast cancer or a lower total mortality.
    Nutrition Reviews 03/2012; 70(3):133-52. · 4.60 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The aim of the present study was to examine the association of pre-pubertal dietary energy density (ED) with both age and body fatness at the start of the pubertal growth spurt (age at take-off, ATO). Analyses included 219 DOrtmund Nutritional and Anthropometric Longitudinally Designed Study participants with sufficient height measurements to estimate ATO who provided 3 d weighed dietary records at baseline, i.e. 2 and 3 years before ATO (mean age 6·9 (SD 1·2) years). Mean energy intakes and amounts of foods/drinks consumed at baseline were derived from the records. ED (kJ/g) was calculated based on (1) all foods and drinks (ED_all), (2) foods and energy-containing drinks (ED_energy), (3) foods and milk as a drink, but no other beverages (ED_milk) and (4) foods only, solid or liquid (ED_food). Using multiple regression analyses, the association between the ED variables and ATO was investigated. Furthermore, Z-scores of BMI and fat mass index (FMI) at ATO were considered as outcomes to reflect body fatness at puberty onset. The results showed that ED at baseline was not associated with ATO, regardless of the ED method used. For example, mean ATO in the lowest v. highest tertile of ED_food was 9·3 (95 % CI 9·0, 9·5) v. 9·4 (95 % CI 9·1, 9·7) years, P(trend) = 0·8 (adjusted for sex, maternal age, birth weight, dietary protein, dietary fibre, baseline BMI Z-score). Similarly, ED was not independently associated with BMI or FMI Z-score at ATO (P(trend) = 0·3-0·9). In conclusion, dietary ED in childhood did not influence timing or body fatness at ATO in this cohort of healthy, free-living children.
    The British journal of nutrition 08/2011; 106(3):345-9. · 3.45 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: To investigate whether the development of body composition into adolescence differs among children with an early, average, or late pubertal growth spurt (age at take-off [ATO]). Mixed-effect polynomial models were applied to serial anthropometric measurements spanning from 4 years before to 4 years after ATO in 215 DONALD participants. Sex-specific trajectories of fat mass index (FMI, FM/m(2) ), fat-free mass index (FFMI, FFM/m(2) ), and their z-scores were compared among those with an early, average, or late ATO. Compared with girls with a late ATO (reference group), those with an early or average ATO experienced a significant increase in FFMI z-scores [β (standard error) for linear trends in early and average ATO group: +0.15 (0.05) FFMI z-scores/year (P = 0.001) and +0.11 (0.04) FFMI z-scores/year (P = 0.005), respectively, adjusted for early life factors]. Similar differences were observed in boys [adjusted β (standard error): +0.20 (0.06) FFMI z-scores/year (P = 0.0004) and +0.07 (0.05) FFMI z-scores/year (P = 0.1), respectively]. Graphical illustration of the predicted trajectories revealed that differences in relative FFMI emerged from ATO onward. For FMI, comparison with late maturers showed a more pronounced quadratic trend (kg/m(2) /years(2) ) (P = 0.01) among early-maturing girls and a reduced linear trend in FMI z-scores/year (P = 0.04) among early-maturing boys. This longitudinal study suggests that children who experience an early pubertal growth spurt accrue progressively more fat-free mass during the first years of puberty than late-maturing peers of the same age. Higher levels of adiposity commonly observed in adults with early puberty onset are, thus, likely to develop subsequently in later adolescence.
    American Journal of Human Biology 03/2011; 23(2):216-24. · 2.34 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: To date, only a few nutritional assessment methods have been validated against the biomarker of urinary-N excretion for use in children and adolescents. The aim of the present study was to validate protein intake from one day of a weighed dietary record against protein intake estimated from a simultaneously collected 24 h urine sample. Cross-sectional analyses including 439 participants of the Dortmund Nutritional and Longitudinally Designed (DONALD) Study from four age groups (3-4, 7-8, 11-13 and 18-23 years). Mean differences, Pearson correlation coefficients (r), cross-classifications and Bland-Altman plots were used to assess agreement between methods. Weighed dietary records significantly underestimated mean protein intake by -6.4 (95 % CI -8.2, -4.7) g/d or -11 %, with the difference increasing across the age groups from -0.6 (95 % CI -2.7, 1.5) g/d at age 3-4 years to -13.5 (95 % CI -18.7, -8.3) g/d at age 18-23 years. Correlation coefficients were r = 0.7 for the total study sample and ranged from r = 0.5 to 0.6 in the different age groups. Both methods classified 85 % into the same/adjacent quartile for the whole study group (83-86 % for the different age groups) and 2.5 % into the opposite quartile (1.9-3.1 % for the different age groups). Bland-Altman plots for the total sample indicated that differences in protein intake increased across the range of protein intake, while this bias was not obvious within the age groups. Protein intake in children and adolescents can be estimated with acceptable validity by weighed dietary records. In this age-heterogeneous sample, validity was lower among adolescents and young adults.
    Public Health Nutrition 06/2010; 13(6):826-34. · 2.25 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Early puberty onset is associated with hormone-related cancers, but whether diet in childhood influences pubertal timing is controversial. We examined the association of protein intake in early and mid-childhood with the ages at take-off of the pubertal growth spurt (ATO), peak height velocity (APHV), and menarche in girls and voice break in boys using data from the longitudinal Dortmund Nutritional and Anthropometric Longitudinally Designed Study. Among participants who provided 3-d weighed dietary records at 12 mo, 18-24 mo, 3-4 y, and 5-6 y, 112 had sufficient anthropometric measurements between 6 and 13 y to allow estimation of ATO. Life-course plots were used to identify critical periods of total, animal, and vegetable protein intake (percentage of total energy intake) for pubertal timing. At these ages, the association between tertiles of protein intake (T1-T3) and the outcomes was investigated using multiple linear regression analysis. A higher total and animal protein intake at 5-6 y was related to an earlier ATO. In the highest tertile of animal protein intake at 5-6 y, ATO occurred 0.6 y earlier than in the lowest [(mean, 95% CI) T1: 9.6, 9.4-9.9 vs. T2: 9.4, 9.1-9.7 vs. T3: 9.0, 8.7-9.3 y; P-trend = 0.003, adjusted for sex, total energy, breast-feeding, birth year, and paternal university degree]. Similar findings were seen for APHV (P-trend = 0.001) and the timing of menarche/voice break (P-trend = 0.02). Conversely, a higher vegetable protein intake at 3-4 and 5-6 y was related to later ATO, APHV, and menarche/voice break (P-trend = 0.02-0.04). These results suggest that animal and vegetable protein intake in mid-childhood might be differentially related to pubertal timing.
    Journal of Nutrition 03/2010; 140(3):565-71. · 4.20 Impact Factor
  • Gesundheitswesen. 01/2010; 72.
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    ABSTRACT: We examined whether the diet quality of healthy children prior to the pubertal growth spurt was associated with age and body composition at puberty onset. Multivariate regression analyses were performed using data from 222 Dortmund Nutritional and Anthropometric Longitudinally Designed Study participants (mean age +/- SD at baseline: 7.4 +/- 1.3 y) with 3-d weighed dietary records and anthropometric data at baseline, i.e. the visits 2 and 3 y before the onset of pubertal growth spurt [defined as age at take-off (ATO)]. Diet quality at baseline was determined using the nutrient density-based Nutritional Quality Index (NQI) and the food group and nutrient-based Revised Children's Diet Quality Index (RC-DQI). Based on their distribution, 3 NQI or RC-DQI categories were created to indicate lower, moderate, and higher diet quality. Parameters describing body composition at ATO were age- and gender-specific Z-scores of BMI, fat mass/height(2), and fat-free mass/height(2). Children with lower diet quality indicated by lower NQI scores entered puberty approximately 0.4 y earlier than children with higher NQI scores {ATO in lower and higher NQI categories were [mean (95% CI)] 9.2 y (9.0-9.4), and 9.6 y (9.4-9.9), adjusted for sex, maternal overweight, baseline energy intake, and baseline BMI Z-score} (P-value = 0.02). A similar association of the RC-DQI with ATO was largely explained by baseline energy intakes. Our data suggest that diet quality was not independently associated with body composition at ATO. Children with lower diet quality according to a nutrient density-based index appear to enter puberty at an earlier age, independently of prepubertal body composition.
    Journal of Nutrition 11/2009; 140(1):95-102. · 4.20 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Early age at puberty onset may predispose an individual to many currently prevalent diseases, including cancer and adiposity. The objective was to investigate whether early life exposures influence the timing of puberty, as defined by both early and late markers, in healthy German girls and boys. Term participants (n = 215; 49.8% female) of the DONALD (DOrtmund Nutritional and Anthropometric Longitudinally Designed) Study, with sufficient repeated anthropometric measurements between 6 and 13 y to allow estimation of age at take-off of the pubertal growth spurt (ATO) and information on a variety of early life exposures, including birth weight, breastfeeding status, velocity of weight gain, and parental characteristics, were studied. Age at peak height velocity (APHV) and menarche were also considered. Children who weighed between 2500 and <3000 g at birth were approximately 7 mo younger at ATO than were the other children (beta +/- SE: -0.56 +/- 0.20 y; P = 0.006). Children who had gained weight rapidly between birth and 24 mo (increase in weight SD score >0.67) experienced ATO 4 mo earlier than those who had gained weight normally (-0.34 +/- 0.15 y; P = 0.02). Rapid weight gain was also associated with an earlier APHV (P = 0.0006) and, in girls, with an earlier menarche (P = 0.002). Adjustment for body mass index SD score or body fat percentage 1, 2, or 3 y before ATO did not account for these effects. In both boys and girls, intrauterine and early postnatal growth factors appear to influence both early and later markers of puberty onset independently of prepubertal body composition.
    American Journal of Clinical Nutrition 10/2009; 90(6):1559-65. · 6.50 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The term 'beer belly' expresses the common belief that beer consumption is a major determinant of waist circumference (WC). We studied the gender-specific associations between beer consumption and WC (partially in relation to body weight and hip circumference (HC) change). Within the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC)-Potsdam study (7876 men, 12 749 women), cross-sectional associations were investigated applying general linear models. Prospective analyses of baseline beer consumption and an 8.5-year WC change were assessed using multivariate general linear models and polytomous logistic regression. To test the site-specific effect of beer consumption on WC, an adjustment for concurrent changes in body weight and HC was carried out. In addition, the relationship between change in beer consumption and change in WC was studied. A positive association in men and no association in women were seen between beer consumption and WC at baseline. Men consuming 1000 ml/d beer were at 17% higher risk for WC gain compared with very light consumers. Significantly lower odds for WC gain (odds ratio=0.88; 95% confidence interval 0.81, 0.96) were found in beer-abstaining women than in very-light-drinking women. The adjustment for concurrent body weight and HC change diminished effect estimates notably, explaining most of the association between beer and change in WC. Decreasing beer consumption was related to higher relative odds for WC loss, although not statistically significant. Beer consumption leads to WC gain, which is closely related to concurrent overall weight gain. This study does not support the common belief of a site-specific effect of beer on the abdomen, the beer belly.
    European journal of clinical nutrition 07/2009; 63(9):1143-9. · 3.07 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The present paper describes the systematic development of an FFQ to assess the intake of fatty acids and antioxidants in school-aged children. In addition, a validation study applying 24 h dietary recalls was performed. Using the variance-based Max_r method, a list of eighty-two foods was compiled from data obtained by 3 d weighed dietary records. The foods were used to design an FFQ, the comprehensibility of which was evaluated in a feasibility study. In addition, the FFQ was validated in a subset of 101 children from the German Infant Nutritional Intervention Study (GINI PLUS) against one 24 h dietary recall. The feasibility study attested a good acceptance of the FFQ. Mean intake of foods compared well between the FFQ and the 24 h dietary recall, although intake data generated from the FFQ tended to be higher. This difference became less apparent at the nutrient level, although the estimated average consumption of arachidonic acid and EPA using the FFQ still exceeded values recorded with the 24 h recall method by 45 % and 29 %, respectively. On the basis of the systematic selection process of the food list, the established practicability of the FFQ and the overall plausibility of the results, the use of this FFQ is justified in future epidemiological studies.
    Public Health Nutrition 06/2009; 13(1):38-46. · 2.25 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: It is unclear which exposures may cause or modify the adverse effect of rapid weight gain on fat mass development in term children whose birth weight is appropriate-for-gestational age (AGA). To determine which intrauterine or postnatal exposures increase the risk of or modify the effect of rapid weight gain on body fat percentage (BF%) and body mass index (BMI) trajectories between 2 and 6 y of age. Term AGA singletons (n = 370) from the German Multicenter Allergy Study (MAS-90), a longitudinal birth cohort study, with repeated anthropometric measurements until 6 y, and data on breastfeeding status, exposure to smoking during pregnancy, and maternal anthropometric and socioeconomic characteristics were included in this analysis. A shorter gestation [multivariate-adjusted odds ratio (OR): 5.12; 95% CI: 2.22, 11.82; P = 0.0001], being firstborn (OR: 2.01; 95% CI: 1.10, 3.69; P = 0.02), and having been bottle-fed (OR: 3.02; 95% CI: 1.68, 5.43; P = 0.0002) all significantly increased a child's risk of gaining weight rapidly, whereas a larger BMI at birth was protective (OR: 0.54; 95% CI: 0.38, 0.77; P = 0.0006). Multilevel model analyses showed that rapid growers exposed to tobacco in utero subsequently gained more BF% between 2 and 6 y than did rapid growers who had not been exposed (beta +/- SE: 0.78 +/- 0.28%/y; P = 0.005). Similarly, change in BF% was greater in rapid growers with an overweight mother than in those with a normal-weight mother (1.01 +/- 0.30%/y; P = 0.0007). The occurrence of rapid weight gain between birth and 2 y and the magnitude of its effect on BF% development in AGA children is influenced by both intrauterine and postnatal exposures.
    American Journal of Clinical Nutrition 06/2008; 87(5):1356-64. · 6.50 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: To investigate the effect of breastfeeding in healthy boys and girls on their trajectories of percent body fat (%BF) and BMI standard deviation scores (BMI-SDS) throughout childhood. Analyses of the DOrtmund Nutritional and Anthropometric Longitudinally Designed (DONALD) Study included data from 219 male and 215 female term participants, born between 1984 and 1999, with repeated anthropometric measurements between 0.5 and 7 years and prospective data on duration of breastfeeding. Among boys with an overweight mother (OW-M), analyses adjusted for potential confounders revealed that not or shortly breastfed (< or =17 weeks) boys did not experience the age-dependent decrease in %BF seen in all children with normal weight mothers (NW-Ms). In contrast, boys fully breastfed for >17 weeks were protected against the adverse effect of maternal overweight (effect of long breastfeeding vs. no/short breastfeeding among boys with OW-Ms: 0.46%/year; s.e. 0.18; P = 0.01). There was also a suggestion of an interaction between maternal overweight and breastfeeding for the BMI-SDS trajectory (0.08 SDS/year; s.e. 0.04; P = 0.07). Among boys with NW-Ms mothers and the corresponding subgroups of girls, breastfeeding had little effect on the development of %BF or BMI-SDS throughout childhood. Our study suggests that breastfeeding could offset a potential programming effect for childhood adiposity among boys with OW-Ms, to whom advice to breast-feed should thus be specifically targeted.
    Obesity 03/2008; 16(2):389-95. · 3.92 Impact Factor

Publication Stats

3k Citations
319.16 Total Impact Points

Institutions

  • 2009–2014
    • University of Applied Sciences Fulda
      • Department of Nutritional, Food and Consumer Sciences
      Fulda, Hesse, Germany
  • 2006–2013
    • University of Bonn
      • Institute of Nutrition and Food Science (IEL)
      Bonn, North Rhine-Westphalia, Germany
  • 2004–2012
    • Research Institute of Child Nutrition
      Dortmund, North Rhine-Westphalia, Germany
    • University of Cologne
      Köln, North Rhine-Westphalia, Germany
  • 2010
    • University Hospital Essen
      Essen, North Rhine-Westphalia, Germany
  • 1997–2009
    • German Institute of Human Nutrition
      • • Department of Epidemiology
      • • Department of Clinical Nutrition
      Potsdam, Brandenburg, Germany
  • 2003
    • Freie Universität Berlin
      Berlín, Berlin, Germany
    • International Agency for Research on Cancer
      Lyons, Rhône-Alpes, France
  • 2002
    • Catalan Institute of Oncology
      • Cancer Epidemiology Research Programme (PREC)
      Badalona, Catalonia, Spain
    • Universität Bremen
      Bremen, Bremen, Germany
  • 1999–2002
    • German Cancer Research Center
      • Division of Cancer Epidemiology
      Heidelberg, Baden-Wuerttemberg, Germany