Giuseppe M Marinari

Università degli Studi di Genova, Genova, Liguria, Italy

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Publications (45)131.42 Total impact

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    ABSTRACT: Alexithymia is the inability to express feelings with words and comprises a psychological construct frequently found in obese individuals. In eating disordered patients who show a tendency to lose control over food intake, personality traits with alexithymic characteristics have been demonstrated. The present cross-sectional study investigated the relationships between alexithymia and eating behaviour in severely obese patients. This study analysed 150 obese patients undergoing bariatric surgery and 132 subjects at more than 1 year after biliopancreatic diversion (BPD), when body weight has steadily normalised and any preoccupation with weight, food and diet has been completely abandoned. Obese and operated subjects completed the Toronto Alexithymia Scale (TAS), and eating behaviour was assessed via a semi-structured interview exploring binge eating disorder (BED), night eating and emotional eating, as well as by utilisation of the Three Factor Eating Questionnaire (TFEQ). Although alexithymic patients showed deranged eating behaviour, as evaluated by the TFEQ scores, the frequency of BED, night eating and emotional eating was similar in alexithymic (TAS > 60) and non-alexithymic patients. However, the prevalence of alexithymia was similar in obese and BPD subjects, whereas, in the operated subjects, TFEQ scores were lower (P < 0.005) than those in obese patients. These data suggest that, in severely obese patients, alexithymia does not influence eating behaviour; in severely obese patients, the tendency to lose control over food intake apparently represents a psychological construct that is substantially independent from alexithymia.
    Journal of Human Nutrition and Dietetics 12/2010; 23(6):616-9. · 1.97 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: This study aims to evaluate the role of simple carbohydrates and alcohol intake in determining weight of stabilization at long-term following malabsorptive bariatric surgery. Sixty patients at more than 2 years following biliopancreatic diversion (BPD) were submitted to an alimentary interview for evaluating the daily consumption of simple sugar, fruits, ice-cream, sweets, and caloric and alcoholic beverages. Eating behavior was assessed by Three Factors Eating Questionnaire. The mean estimated daily energy consumption intake was 2,852 kcal, with a mean daily intake of simple carbohydrates of 89 g that represented 12% of the total energy intake. The current body weight was positively and independently related to the preoperative body weight and to simple carbohydrate and alcohol intake and negatively related to physical activity, while no association with total energy consumption and eating behavior was found. These findings confirm that following BPD the body weight is independent of energy intake and eating behavior. Furthermore, these data suggest that in post-BPD subjects the simple carbohydrates and alcohol absorption is fully preserved, and that the operated subjects could regulate their body weight by reducing simple carbohydrates and alcoholic intake and increasing physical activity.
    Obesity Surgery 03/2010; 20(9):1278-80. · 3.10 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Macroscopic clinical evidence of tissue damaging following bariatric surgery pushed plastic surgeons to presume microscopic alterations as well. Five preliminary cases studied randomly, and compared with healthy tissues, confirmed these initial suspects. A deeper and wider study has then been structured. Preliminary results are so evident to encourage us to carry on an estimated 2-3 years multidisciplinary study. What we want to study is if histological post-bariatric alterations are confirmed, and if these can be considered responsible for higher complication rate in body contouring following bariatric surgery.
    Obesity Surgery 05/2008; 18(10):1305-7. · 3.10 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Roux-en-Y gastric bypass (RYGBP) and biliopancreatic diversion (BPD) are highly beneficial operations for type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) in obese patients, leading to complete T2DM resolution in 75-90 and 97-99% of cases, respectively. In both RYGBP and BPD, the foregut is excluded from the food stream and the distal small bowel receives the food stimulation, while following BPD fat intestinal absorption is also extremely limited. This study was carried out to identify clinical features that could give insight on the different mechanisms of action on diabetes resolution. The files of 443 severely obese patients with T2DM undergoing BPD from May 1976 to May 2007 were examined, and the presence of T2DM (fasting serum glucose >125 mg/ml) at 1-2 months, at 1 year, at 10 years, and at > or =20 years following the operation was recorded. The percentage of patients cured (fasting serum glucose reduced to < or =110 mg/dl, on free diet and with no therapy) was 74% at 1 month, 97% at 1 and 10 years, and 91% at > or =20 years, the 26% of uncured patients at 1 month being those with most severe preoperative T2DM. As the early results after BPD resemble those reported after RYGBP, it can be hypothesized that the duodenal exclusion and the distal small bowel stimulation are the first mechanisms acting in BPD, immediately after the operation, that only subsequently the myocellular fat depletion, which cannot be immediate, takes over, and that the minimal fat absorption is the mechanism accounting for the long-term results of BPD.
    Obesity Surgery 05/2008; 18(8):1035-8. · 3.10 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Because of the rearrangement of the gastrointestinal tract, biliopancreatic diversion (BPD) could lead to an increased risk of colorectal cancer caused by possible carcinogenetic action of the unabsorbed food and bile acid on colonic mucosa. The incidence of colorectal cancer in 1,898 obese subjects submitted to BPD from May 76 to July 2002 with a minimum follow-up of 5 years was retrospectively evaluated. Among 28,811 person-years, seven cases of colorectal cancer were detected, for an overall incidence of 29.4 per 100,000, which is not different from that observed in the general Italian population, and lower than that reported for obese and type 2 diabetes patients. Logistic regression model suggests that occurrence of colorectal cancer is positively related to the time elapsed from BPD. This study indicates that BPD does not carry any increased risk for colorectal cancer. The complete postoperative restoration of insulin sensibility could exert a valuable protective action.
    Obesity Surgery 03/2008; 18(2):212-5. · 3.10 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The authors' aim in this study was to gain insight on the eating behaviors of severely obese patients seeking bariatric surgery. The authors compared anthropometric and alimentary interview data on 50 patients applying for biliopancreatic diversion with data obtained from 50 severely obese individuals enrolling in a behavior modification weight-loss program. The severely obese patients seeking bariatric surgery were metabolically more compromised than were their counterparts enrolled in the conservative treatment group, whereas the latter more often reported compromised eating behaviors. These unexpected results could reflect changes in the widespread attitudes toward bariatric surgery-that unlike in the past, it is now considered a safe and effective method to treat a serious disease.
    Behavioral Medicine 02/2008; 33(4):145-50. · 1.03 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The objectives were to evaluate QT interval (QTc) and QT-interval dispersion (QTd) in severely obese individuals and to determine the effects of biliopancreatic diversion (BPD) and weight loss after BPD on ventricular repolarization parameters. Background: People with severe obesity (SO) have a 50% to 100% increased risk of death associated with a 1.6-fold increased risk of sudden death. BPD surgery induces rapid and considerable weight loss through severe lipid malabsorption, thus achieving long-term weight control. A total of 85 subjects with SO (age, 42 +/- 12 years; 66 females; mean body weight, 120 +/- 29 kg; BMI, 45 +/- 11 kg/m(2)) of 330 who had a bariatric surgical consultation between January 2001 and July 2002 were enrolled. Inclusion criteria were sinus rhythm, unremarkable 12 leads surface electrocardiogram, no atrioventricular blocks and/or bundle branch blocks, normal serum electrolyte profile, and no medical therapies exerting known effects on QTc. Exclusion criteria were previous diagnosis of coronary artery disease, known cardiovascular disease, atrial fibrillation or any other known cardiac arrhythmias, cancer, or renal dysfunction. A total of 86% of patients had QTc >440 ms and/or QTd >60 ms. Subjects with SO showed a mean maximum QTc of 446 +/- 28 ms and a mean QTd of 52 +/- 20 ms. A close correlation was found between QTc and QTd (p < 0.0001; R(2) = 0.33). One month after BPD, mean QTc was 420 ms and remained stable at follow-up; QTd was 32 ms at 1 and 6 months and became 35 ms at 1 year. Ventricular repolarization abnormalities are significantly increased in subjects with SO. Reduction of QT abnormalities after BPD is independent of weight loss and is caused by the 100% reduction of glucose plasma shortly after surgery. This effect may be related to surgical interruption of the entero-insular axis.
    Obesity 06/2007; 15(6):1448-54. · 3.92 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Bariatric operations are the most powerful means of curing type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2D) and the other major components of the metabolic syndrome. Despite the very frequent occurrence of metabolic disturbances in patients with BMI from 30 to 35, there is a general reluctance to operate on these patients, as their disease is considered less severe. 7 T2D obese patients with mean BMI < 35 underwent BPD between 1976 and 1996 at the Azienda Ospedaliera Universitaria San Martino of Genoa, Italy. Mean age was 49 years, mean body weight 91 kg, and mean waist circumference 115 (M) and 98 (F) cm. The mean follow-up was 13 (10-18) years. All 7 patients had abnormally high values of serum triglyceride, serum cholesterol, and arterial pressure. In all patients, serum glucose was normalized at 1,2, and 3 years. In 5 patients, a slight increase of serum glucose above 125 mg/dl was observed at or around 5 years, the values being maintained at all subsequent times, with no one value higher than 160 mg ever being recorded. The other 2 patients showed full resolution of diabetes at all follow-up times. Both serum cholesterol and triglyceride values fell to normal 1 year after BPD, and remained within the normal range in all 7 patients during the entire follow-up observation. Arterial pressure normalized in 6 cases and was improved in 1 case. No patient had excessive weight loss at any postoperative time. T2D patients with BMI < 35 have very severe metabolic disturbances. Surgical therapy for these patients is warranted, and it should be performed as soon as possible, before the rapid evolution of the pattern leads them to a point where even the most effective metabolic surgery operation could be insufficient to yield complete and permanent control of their diabetes.
    Obesity Surgery 03/2007; 17(2):185-92. · 3.10 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The authors evaluated body image attitudes in post-obese persons following bariatric surgery who require cosmetic and body contouring operations. We studied 20 morbidly obese women prior to biliopancreatic diversion (BPD) (OB group), 20 post-obese women at >2 years following BPD (POST group), 10 post-obese women following BPD who required cosmetic procedures (POST-A group), 10 post-obese women after BPD and subsequent cosmetic surgery (POST-B group), and 20 healthy lean controls. Attitudes to weight and shape were evaluated by means of the Body Uneasiness Test (BUT). In comparison with the obese patients in the POST group, lower BUT scores were observed, while in the POST-A group the values were very similar to those observed in the non-operated obese individuals. In the individuals having received cosmetic surgery, the BUT findings were similar to those recorded in the POST group patients, the values approaching data found in the controls. Despite a fully satisfactory weight loss and maintenance, the post-BPD individuals requiring aesthetic surgery showed some disparagement of body image; in these subjects, cosmetic and body contouring procedures may actually improve body weight and shape attitudes towards normality.
    Obesity Surgery 01/2007; 17(1):68-73. · 3.10 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The benefits of bariatric surgery in adult obese patients are well known, but data are lacking regarding the outcome of the surgery in adolescents. The aim of this study was to retrospectively assess the operative morbidity and mortality, percentage of loss of initial excess weight, and the incidence of long-term complications and reoperations in a cohort of obese patients who underwent biliopancreatic diversion (BPD) before their 18th birthday. A total of 76 adolescent subjects underwent BPD between 1976 and 2005. Of these 78 patients, 7 had Prader-Willi syndrome and 1 had Turner syndrome and were excluded from the study. The patient population comprised 52 girls and 16 boys. Their mean age was 16.8 years, mean body weight at operation was 125 kg (mean body mass index 46 kg/m2). Operative mortality was nil. The mean follow-up was 11 years (range 2-23). The mean percentage of loss of initial excess weight at each patient's longest follow-up was 78%. Before surgery, 33 patients were hypertensive (49%), 11 were dyslipidemic (16%), 3 were hyperglycemic, and 2 had type 2 diabetes. At the longest follow-up period after surgery, only 6 patients were hypertensive, and none were dyslipidemic or diabetic. A total of 19 reoperations were performed in 14 patients (20%), including 7 revisions. Eleven patients developed protein malnutrition 1-10 years after BPD. The long-term mortality rate was 4%. At 4 to 23 years after BPD, 18 of the women had given birth to 28 healthy babies. Three women had had a complicated pregnancy. Adolescents can undergo malabsorptive bariatric surgery with excellent long-term weight loss results and an incidence of long-term complications similar to that observed during the 30-year evolution of BPD in our experience.
    Surgery for Obesity and Related Diseases 01/2007; 3(4):465-8. · 4.12 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The authors investigated the weight loss and maintenance in type 2 diabetic obese patients undergoing biliopancreatic diversion (BPD). Two series of diabetic and non-diabetic obese patients matched for gender, age and baseline body mass index (BMI) were evaluated prior to BPD, on the occasion of the regular follow-up visit at 1, 2 and 3 years following the operation, and at the fifth postoperative year. At each follow-up point, body weight (BW), BMI, and serum glucose concentration were measured. In all type 2 diabetic patients, the serum glucose level fell to within the normal range at the first postoperative year and remained within normal limits without any medication throughout all the follow-up period. In preoperatively diabetic subjects, mean values of BW and BMI were closely similar to those of non-diabetic subjects at all follow-up points, and the stabilization weight was independently related to age and to initial BW values. In obese patients with type 2 diabetes, the glucose level steadily normalized in every case following BPD, and values remained unchanged throughout the follow-up period. After the operation, the type 2 diabetic obese patients experienced the same stable weight reduction as their non-diabetic counterparts.
    Obesity Surgery 12/2006; 16(11):1440-4. · 3.10 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Although rare, patients with biliopancreatic diversion for morbid obesity will be subject to obstruction of the biliopancreatic limb. This condition is commonly due to postoperative adhesions and intussusception and usually presents with misleading clinical and radiographic features that can delay the diagnosis and the treatment. We recently encountered a patient with obstruction of the biliopancreatic limb due to involvement from Crohn disease. We report this case to highlight the clinical and imaging findings of this rare condition.
    Emergency Radiology 04/2006; 12(3):116-8.
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    ABSTRACT: Intramyocellular content of lipid (IMCL) appears to be important in the pathogenesis of insulin resistance, and the improvement of insulin activity observed following biliopancreatic diversion (BPD) for obesity has to be related to reduction of IMCL. This study evaluates the possibility of detecting changes after BPD in IMCL by means of H1 magnetic resonance spectroscopy. The investigation was carried out in obese patients undergoing BPD prior to and at 1 month following the operation. Insulin sensitivity was assessed according to the homeostatic model of assessment (HOMA), and IMCL was determined by the spectroscopy of the tibialis anterior muscle. At 1 month following BPD, an improvement in insulin action was observed in all subjects, and in nearly all cases the IMCL signal decreased. The data from this study indicate that magnetic resonance spectroscopy can detect IMCL changes following BPD and is fully suitable for longitudinal studies on muscle metabolic status.
    Obesity Surgery 11/2005; 15(9):1233-7. · 3.10 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Gastric bypass and biliopancreatic diversion (BPD) are known to have a beneficial effect on glucose metabolism superior to that of the other bariatric operations. Thanks to its excellent weight loss results and to its specific actions, BPD has proven able to guarantee permanent normalization of serum glucose, triglyceride, and cholesterol levels in the vast majority, if not the totality, of operated patients. However, clinical studies on the duration of these effects in large patient populations are still lacking. The files of 312 BPD obese patients with type 2 diabetes operated on from June 1984 to January 1993 were examined. Pre- and postoperative serum glucose, triglyceride, and cholesterol levels, along with arterial pressure measurements, were considered. After BPD, fasting serum glucose concentration fell within normal values in all but two of the operated subjects and remained in the physiological range in all but six up until 10 years. Serum triglyceride and total cholesterol steadily normalized in all subjects with abnormally high preoperative values, and arterial hypertension disappeared in the vast majority of the preoperatively hypertensive patients. BPD proved able to reverse all the major components of the metabolic syndrome in nearly all the operated subjects, with results being strictly maintained over a 10-year follow-up period. This outcome, which far exceeds those following similar weight loss at short or long term obtained by any other means, confirms the existence of specific actions of BPD on the major components of metabolic syndrome.
    Diabetes Care 11/2005; 28(10):2406-11. · 7.74 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The authors evaluated the predictive efficacy of preoperative resting energy expenditure (REE) on long-term weight loss maintenance following vertical banded gastroplasty (VBG). In the long-term following VBG, low energy expenditure could lead to regain of weight, and thereby REE data might be a reliable predictor of long-term weight outcomes. A prospective study was conducted, taking into account the relationship between preoperative REE values and the results at 3 and 5 years following VBG in terms of both weight loss and success of the operation. Long-term weight loss and outcome following VBG appeared to be completely independent of the preoperative REE. Preoperative REE cannot predict long-term weight outcome following VBG.
    Obesity Surgery 01/2005; 15(6):809-12. · 3.10 Impact Factor
  • Surgery for Obesity and Related Diseases 01/2005; 1(3):317-28. · 4.12 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Preoperative clinical and biochemical data and intraoperative liver biopsy of 1,000 obese patients submitted to biliopancreatic diversion (BPD) were analyzed, and correlations investigated. Of 2,645 patients submitted to BPD between May 1976 and November 2002, the last 1,000 consecutive obese patients with no history of alcohol consumption or infectious hepatitis were selected. Clinical data included: age, body weight, BMI, waist-to-hip ratio (W/H), arterial blood pressure, serum glucose, triglycerides, cholesterol, albumin/gamma-globulin ratio, total, conjugated and unconjugated bilirubin, gamma-GT, alkaline phosphatase, AST, ALT, and prothrombin time. The degree of steatosis, inflammation and fibrosis on intraoperative wedge liver biopsy was determined and scored. Liver steatosis >70% and presence of bridging fibrosis were analyzed separately. Mean BMI was 48 kg/m(2). 263 patients had steatosis of >70%, and 79 had bridging fibrosis. Regression analysis showed an association between steatosis and AST, ALT, AST/ALT ratio, body weight, W/H, serum glucose, serum tryglicerides, BMI, gamma-GT, age, and unconjugated bilirubin. Inflammation was significantly greater in older patients. Patients with bridging fibrosis had significantly higher values of serum glucose, AST, gamma-GT, serum cholesterol and were significantly older. Bridging fibrosis was associated with diabetes, W/H >1, hypertension, albumin/gamma-globulin ratio <1. Severe steatosis and bridging fibrosis seem to be associated with the metabolic syndrome. No reliable biochemical data could identify patients with severe chronic liver damage with sufficient sensitivity to avoid liver biopsy for diagnosis and staging of the disease.
    Obesity Surgery 08/2004; 14(7):952-8. · 3.10 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Assess insulin sensitivity and metabolic status of obese patients with stable weight loss at long term following biliopancreatic diversion (BPD). The study was carried out in 36 nondiabetic severely obese patients undergoing BPD. Serum concentration of glucose, insulin and leptin were determined prior to and at 2 y following the operation. Insulin sensitivity was calculated according to the homeostatic model assessment (HOMA IR). At 2 y following BPD, weight loss in all subjects corresponded to a marked drop in serum leptin concentration and improvement of insulin sensitivity within physiological range. Following the operation, HOMA IR values were positively correlated with serum leptin concentration independently of body mass index values. The stable weight loss following BPD at long term is accompanied by a complete reversal of the preoperative insulin resistance. Serum leptin concentration and HOMA IR data were positively related only postoperatively, suggesting that the action of factors that could influence the relation between leptin and insulin action in the obese status can be reverted.
    International Journal of Obesity 06/2004; 28(5):671-3. · 5.22 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Ghrelin is a recently discovered hormone that is produced mainly by the stomach and that increases food intake in rodents and humans. It has been postulated that the weight loss after gastric bypass surgery for obesity might be related to changes in serum ghrelin concentration. Serum leptin and ghrelin concentrations were measured in a group of obese patients before biliopancreatic diversion (BPD) and 2 and 12 months postoperatively. Insulin sensitivity was determined from serum glucose and insulin levels according to the homeostatic model of assessment for insulin resistance (HOMA IR). A sharp drop was observed in body weight, in BMI values, in HOMA IR data, and in serum leptin concentration at 2 and 12 months after BPD, whereas a significant increase of serum ghrelin level was observed at 12 months, when food intake had returned to preoperative levels. A negative correlation between the postoperative changes of serum ghrelin concentration and those of HOMA IR values was observed at 2 and 12 months after BPD. No evidence upholding a relationship between serum ghrelin concentration and food intake after BPD was seen; the postoperative changes likely reflected the achievement of a new state of energy balance. The negative relationship observed between post-BPD changes in HOMA IR values and changes in serum ghrelin concentration supported the role of insulin in the modulation of ghrelin production.
    Obesity research 05/2004; 12(4):684-7. · 4.95 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Biliopancreatic diversion (BPD) is the most effective bariatric procedure in terms of weight loss. However, analysis of the quality of life (QoL) has never been reported. The BAROS, giving a score to each operated patient on weight loss, improvement in medical conditions, QoL, complications and reoperations, has proven to be a standard reference for evaluating bariatric surgery outcomes. In order to apply the BAROS to BPD, we sent a questionnaire to 1,800 BPD patients who had been operated between 1984 and 1998. The response-rate was 51.2%. Out of 1,709 questionnaires which actually reached their destination, we had 858 fully compiled returned. There were 615 women. 596 patients had had an ad hoc stomach (AHS) BPD, and 262 had had an ad hoc stomach ad hoc alimentary limb (AHS-AHAL) BPD. According to the scoring key, 3.5% were classified as a failure, 11% were fair results, 22.8% good, 39.5% very good, and 23.2% excellent results. Considering AHS BPD and AHS-AHAL BPD separately,while the mean excess weight percent loss was 70.5+/-23 and 64.7+/-17 respectively, the failure rate was 6% in the first group and 2% in the AHAL group, while 11% and 6% of cases respectively were fair results, 24% and 20% good, 36% and 47% very good, 23% and 25% excellent results. The BAROS evaluation of BPD highlights the importance of its flexibility: the new policy of adapting the procedure to individual characteristics caused a drop in the failure rate and an increase in good, very good and excellent results.
    Obesity Surgery 04/2004; 14(3):325-8. · 3.10 Impact Factor