[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The use of appropriate adjuvants that support the generation of robust and long-lasting antitumor immune responses is crucial for tumor immunotherapy owing to the immunosuppressive environment of the growing tumor. However, the most commonly used adjuvant, aluminum hydroxide, is ineffective for generating such immune responses and therefore not suitable for cancer immunotherapy. It is now shown that plain hollow mesoporous silica nanospheres markedly improve the antitumor immunity, the Th1 and Th2 immunity, and the CD4(+) and CD8(+) effector memory T cell population in bone marrow in vivo and may thus be used as immunoadjuvants to treat cancer in humans.
Angewandte Chemie International Edition 09/2015; DOI:10.1002/anie.201506179 · 11.26 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Surface-mediated gene transfer systems using biocompatible calcium phosphate (CaP)-based composite layers have attracted attention as a tool for controlling cell behaviors. In the present study we aimed to demonstrate the potential of CaP-based composite layers to mediate area-specific dual gene transfer and to stimulate cells on an area-by-area basis in the same well. For this purpose we prepared two pairs of DNA-fibronectin-apatite composite (DF-Ap) layers using a pair of reporter genes and pair of differentiation factor genes. The results of the area-specific dual gene transfer successfully demonstrated that the cells cultured on a pair of DF-Ap layers that were adjacently placed in the same well showed specific gene expression patterns depending on the gene that was immobilized in theunderlying layer. Moreover, preliminary real-time PCR results indicated that multipotential C3H10T1/2 cells may have a potential to change into different types of cells depending on the differentiation factor gene that was immobilized in the underlying layer, even in the same well. Because DF-Ap layers have a potential to mediate area-specific cell stimulation on their surfaces, they could be useful in tissue engineering applications.
International Journal of Molecular Sciences 04/2015; 16(4):8294-309. DOI:10.3390/ijms16048294 · 2.86 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Biomimetic calcium phosphate (CaP) precipitation processes using supersaturated CaP solutions are useful in surface functionalization of biomedical materials. We applied our laser-assisted biomimetic (LAB) process to successfully achieve rapid single-step CaP precipitation on the surface of titanium metal, which is an important metallic biomaterial, by applying pulsed laser irradiation to the titanium substrate immersed in a supersaturated CaP solution. Precipitation occurred via the combined effect of laser surface modification and ambient heating. Moreover, we demonstrated immobilization of various contents of osteogenic substances (zinc and fibronectin components) on the titanium surface together with CaP by supplementing the CaP solution with these substances. The LAB process is expected to be a facile and effective surface functionalization technique for titanium-based biomaterials to provide them with osteoconductivity because of CaP and stimulatory effects on bone formation due to osteogenic substances.
Colloids and Interface Science Communications 01/2015; 4. DOI:10.1016/j.colcom.2015.03.003
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Composites of gatifloxacin (GFLX)-loaded poly (lactic-co-glycolic) acid (PLGA) and β-tricalcium phosphate (βTCP) containing 0, 1, and 10 wt % GFLX (0, 1, and 10 wt % GFLX composites), and GFLX-loaded PLGA containing 1, 5, and 10 wt % GFLX (1, 5, and 10wt % GFLX-PLGA) as controls were fabricated and characterized in vitro and in vivo. On in vitro evaluation, the 10 wt % GFLX composite released GFLX over at least 28 days in Hanks' balanced solution and exhibited clinically sufficient bactericidal activities against Streptococcus milleri and Bacteroides fragilis from 1 h to 10 days. The 0, 1, and 10 wt % GFLX composites and 10 wt % GFLX-PLGA were implanted in bone defects created by debridement of osteomyelitis lesions induced by S. milleri and B. fragilis in the mandible of rabbits (n = 5). Four weeks after implantation of the 10 wt % GFLX composite, inflammation in the debrided area disappeared in all the rabbits, while inflammation remained in all the rabbits after implantation of the 0 wt % GFLX composite and 10 wt % GFLX-PLGA, and in three rabbits after implantation of the 1 wt % GFLX composite. Bone formation appears to be less intense for the 10 wt % GFLX composite than for the 1 wt % GFLX composite probably owing to the rapid degradation of the 10 wt % GFLX composite. These findings show that the GFLX composite is effective for the local treatment of osteomyelitis.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Surface-mediated nonviral gene transfer systems using biocompatible apatite-based composite layers have potential use in tissue engineering applications. Herein, we investigated a relatively efficient system based on a DNA-lipid-apatite composite layer (DLp-Ap layer): an apatite (Ap) layer with immobilized DNA and lipid (Lp) complexes (DLp complexes). DLp-Ap layers were fabricated on substrates using supersaturated calcium phosphate coprecipitation solutions supplemented with DLp complexes, and the molecular compositions of the DLp-Ap layers were controlled by varying the net DNA concentrations and Lp/DNA ratios in the coprecipitation solutions. Increases in both the DNA concentration and Lp/DNA ratio in the coprecipitation solution increased the DLp complex content of the resulting DLp-Ap layer. However, a higher DLp complex content did not always provide increased gene transfer efficiency to the CHO-K1 cells, because there was a threshold content of approximately 10μg/cm(2). In addition, DLp-Ap layers with similar DLp complex contents exhibited different gene transfer efficiencies, most likely due to the different Lp/DNA ratios in the layers. Notably, the optimized Lp/DNA ratios in the coprecipitation solutions for maximizing the gene transfer efficiency were lower than those of the conventional particle-mediated lipofection systems. These findings will serve as a useful design guide for the preparation of DLp-Ap layers with high gene transfer efficiency.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: In the original version of the manuscript  there was an inadvertent error. The words "25 °C for 48 h" should be replaced with "25 °C for 24 h". The authors carried out the coating experiments at 25 °C for 1, 3, 6, 12, 24 and 48 h. The apatite coatings formed at 25 °C for 24 and 48 h were found to be identical in physicochemical nature, which was revealed by SEM, EDX, XRD and chemical analysis. Thus, in the animal experiments, the authors used apatite-coated Ti pins fabricated at 25 °C for 24 h. Several corrections are thus required in the abstract, the main text, the figure legends, and the figures (Table 1). The authors would like to apologize for any inconvenience this may have caused to readers of the journal. [...].
International Journal of Molecular Sciences 06/2014; 15(6):9789-9792. DOI:10.3390/ijms15069789 · 2.86 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The purpose of the present study was to fabricate fibroblast growth factor (FGF)-2-apatite composite layers on titanium (Ti) pins in one step at 25 °C using a supersaturated calcium phosphate (CaP) solution, and to evaluate the physicochemical characteristics and biological effects of the coated Ti pins compared with coated Ti pins fabricated at 37 °C. Ti pins were immersed in a supersaturated CaP solution containing 0.5, 1.0, or 2.0 µg/mL FGF-2 at 25 °C for 24 h (25F0.5, 25F1.0, and 25F2.0) or containing 4.0 µg/mL FGF-2 at 37 °C for 48 h (37F4.0). Except for the 25F0.5, the chemical compositions and the mitogenic activity levels of FGF-2 of the composite layers formed by these two methods were similar, except for the Ca/P molar ratio, which was markedly smaller at 25 °C (1.55-1.56 ± 0.01-0.02, p = 0.0008-0.0045) than at 37 °C (1.67 ± 0.11). Thus, either the apatite was less mature or the amount of amorphous calcium phosphate was higher in the composite layer formed at 25 °C. In vivo, the pin tract infection rate by visual inspection for 37F4.0 (45%) was lower than that for 25F1.0 (80%, p = 0.0213), and the rate of osteomyelitis for 37F4.0 (35%) was lower than that for 25F0.5 (75%, p = 0.0341). The extraction torque for 37F4.0 (0.276 ± 0.117 Nm) was higher than that for 25F0.5 (0.192 ± 0.117 Nm, p = 0.0142) and that for 25F1.0 (0.176 ± 0.133 Nm, p = 0.0079). The invasion rate of S. aureus for 37F4.0 (35%) was lower than that for 25F0.5 (75%, p = 0.0110). On the whole, the FGF-2-apatite composite layer formed at 25 °C tended to be less effective at improving fixation strength in the bone-pin interface and resisting pin tract infections. These results suggest that the chemistry of the calcium phosphate matrix that embeds FGF-2, in addition to FGF-2 content and activity, has a significant impact on composite infection resistance and fixation strength.
International Journal of Molecular Sciences 06/2014; 15(6):10252-10270. DOI:10.3390/ijms150610252 · 2.86 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: In our previous study, a fibroblast growth factor-2 (FGF-2)–apatite composite layer coated on titanium screws effectively prevented pin tract infection in rabbits because of enhanced wound healing; however, the FGF-2–apatite composite layers did not completely prevent pin tract infection. Thus, we recently developed a poly(ε-caprolactone) (PCL) sponge pad embedded with cefazolin sodium (+CEZ), which has a fast-acting bactericidal effect. The pad is placed on the skin around the screws. The purpose of this study was to determine the anti-infective efficacy of the +CEZ pad on the pin–skin interface of the FGF-2–apatite-coated titanium screws. The +CEZ pads were prepared by mixing PCL and CEZ in 1,4-dioxane, followed by freeze-drying and compaction. They were analyzed regarding their surface structure, in vitro CEZ release profile, and bactericidal activity. The FGF-2–apatite-coated screws were implanted percutaneously in bilateral rabbit proximal tibial metaphyses—with and without the +CEZ pad—for 4 weeks (n = 20). The + CEZ pads consisted of a porous matrix of PCL in which CEZ was embedded. The CEZ-release profile showed an initial burst on Day 1 and a sustained release lasting for 30 days. The +CEZ pad retained its bactericidal activity against Staphylococcus aureus after preincubation on an agar plate for 7 days. Based on visual inspection, the pin tract infection rate was successfully reduced from 72.2% to 15.0% with the +CEZ pad (p < 0.05), which reduced the bacterial count, especially S. aureus (p < 0.05). The histological inflammation rate of the soft tissues was also significantly lower with the +CEZ pad than without it (p < 0.05). The pin tract infection rate was reduced to one-fifth with the +CEZ pad. Using it as described improves infection resistance during percutaneous implantation.
Asia-Pacific Journal of Sports Medicine 04/2014; 1(2):54–61. DOI:10.1016/j.asmart.2014.01.001
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Commonly used aluminum hydroxide (Alum) adjuvant provokes a strong type 2 helper T cell (Th2) response for mediating antibody production, but is rather ineffective for disease prevention that requires type 1 helper T cell (Th1) response for mediating cellular immunity in human vaccination. Here, for the purpose of inducing Th1 anti-tumor immunity, a mesoporous silica (MS)-based adjuvant is prepared. Three kinds of MS particles with nearly identical particle size and surface area but different pore sizes of 4, 7 and 10 nm were prepared. No serious in vitro cytotoxicity was observed for the MS particles at 5, 20, 50 and 100 μg/mL. Pathogen-associated molecular patterns (PAMPs) were immobilized with apatite (Ap) on MS to prepare the MS-based and PAMP-loaded adjuvants (MS-Ap-PAMP adjuvants). Macrophage-like cells cultured in the presence of MS-Ap-PAMP adjuvant with a MS pore size of 10 nm showed the maximum in vitro immunogenic activity. Injection of the MS-Ap-PAMP adjuvant with a MS pore size of 10 nm in combination with liquid-nitrogen-treated tumor tissue (derived from Lewis lung carcinoma cells) to C57BL/6 mice markedly inhibited the development of re-challenged tumor in vivo, while no such antitumor immunity was induced in injection of Alum mixed with PAMP in combination with liquid-nitrogen-treated tumor tissue. The MS-Ap-PAMP adjuvant contributed to the elicitation of a potent systemic Th1 antitumor immunity in vivo.
Journal of Biomedical Materials Research Part A 04/2014; DOI:10.1002/jbm.a.34783 · 3.37 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Apatite can mediate gene transfer into cells by serving as a safe and biocompatible immobilization matrix for DNA and transfection reagents. Recently, an apatite layer that immobilized DNA-lipid complexes was prepared by a coprecipitation process in a supersaturated calcium phosphate solution. This composite layer (DNA-lipid-apatite layer) showed a higher gene transfer capability than an apatite layer with superficially adsorbed DNA-lipid complexes (DNA-lipid-adsorbed apatite layer). In this study, the DNA-lipid-apatite layer and the DNA-lipid-adsorbed apatite layer were compared for their physicochemical properties and gene transfer capabilities. The higher gene transfer capability of the DNA-lipid-apatite layer compared with that of the DNA-lipid-adsorbed apatite layer was reconfirmed by a luciferase assay using epithelial-like CHO-K1 cells. Physicochemical structure analyses showed that the DNA-lipid-apatite layer possessed a larger capacity for DNA-lipid complexes than the DNA-lipid-adsorbed apatite layer. The DNA-lipid-apatite layer released DNA-lipid complexes in a slow and sustained manner, whereas the DNA-lipid-adsorbed apatite layer released them in short bursts. Consequently, the release of DNA-lipid complexes from the DNA-lipid-apatite layer was larger in amount and longer in duration than release from the DNA-lipid-adsorbed apatite layer. This difference in release profiles may be responsible for the higher gene transfer capability of the DNA-lipid-apatite layer compared with that of the DNA-lipid-adsorbed apatite layer. The coprecipitation process and the resulting DNA-lipid-apatite layer have many applications in tissue engineering.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Increased fixation strength of the bone-pin interface is important for inhibiting pin loosening after external fixation. In a previous study, an apatite (Ap) layer was formed on anodically oxidized titanium (Ti) pins by immersing them in an infusion fluid-based supersaturated calcium phosphate solution at 37 °C for 48 h. In the present study, an Ap layer was also successfully formed using a one-step method at 25 °C for 48 h in an infusion fluid-based supersaturated calcium phosphate solution, which is clinically useful due to the immersion temperature. After percutaneous implantation in a proximal tibial metaphysis for four weeks in rabbits (n = 20), the Ti pin coated with the Ap layer showed significantly increased extraction torque compared with that of an uncoated Ti screw even with partial osteomyelitis present, owing to dense bone formation on the Ap layer in the cortical and medullary cavity regions. When the infection status was changed from "no osteomyelitis" to "partial osteomyelitis," the extraction torque in the Ap group with "partial osteomyelitis" was almost identical to that for "no osteomyelitis" cases. These results suggest that the Ap layer formed by the room temperature process could effectively improve the fixation strength of the Ti pin for external fixation clinically even with partial osteomyelitis present.
International Journal of Molecular Sciences 12/2013; 14(12):24366-79. DOI:10.3390/ijms141224366 · 2.86 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Proton-beam radiotherapy (PBT) has been shown to be effective to hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) as a nonsurgical local treatment option. However, HCC still remains as one of the most difficult cancers to be cured because of frequent recurrences. Thus, methods to inhibit the recurrence need to be explored. To prevent the HCC recurrence, we here report on a prospective phase I study of 'in situ' tumor vaccination using CalTUMP, a newly developed immunoadjuvant consisting of BCG extract bound to hydroxyapatite and microparticulated tuberculin, following local PBT for HCC.
Patients with locally advanced recurrent HCC, which had been heavily pretreated with various treatments, were enrolled. PBT was performed with the conventional method to the target HCC. Subsequently, CalTUMP was injected into the same irradiated-tumor three times at one-week intervals. Three dose-levels of CalTUMP (1/10, 1/3, and 1/1) were administered to 3 patients each. Vital signs, blood samples, ultrasound, and computed tomographic scans were monitored to evaluate the safety.
Three intratumoral injections of CalTUMP following PBT (median dose: 72.6 GyE) were accomplished in 9 patients. Transient low-grade fever and minor laboratory changes were observed in 7 patients after CalTUMP injections. No other treatment-related adverse events were observed. Median progression-free survival was 6.0 months (range: 2.1-14.2) and 4 patients were progression-free for more than 1 year.
Intratumoral injection of CalTUMP following PBT was feasible and safe in patients with heavily pre-treated HCC. Further clinical studies to evaluate the efficacy of this in situ tumor vaccination are warranted.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Zn-, and Mg-containing tricalcium phosphates (TCPs) loaded with a hydrothermal extract of a human tubercle bacillus (HTB) were prepared by immersing Zn-TCP and Mg-TCP in HTB-containing supersaturated calcium phosphate solutions. The in vitro and in vivo immunogenic activities of the HTB-loaded Zn-, and Mg-TCPs (Zn-Ap-HTB and Mg-Ap-HTB, respectively) were evaluated as potential immunopotentiating adjuvants for cancer immunotherapy. The Zn-Ap-HTB and Mg-Ap-HTB adjuvants showed no obvious cytotoxicity and more effectively stimulated granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor (GM-CSF) secretion by macrophage-like cells than unprocessed HTB or HTB-loaded TCP (T-Ap-HTB) in vitro. Zn-Ap-HTB and Mg-Ap-HTB mixed with liquid-nitrogen-treated tumor tissue markedly inhibited the in vivo development of rechallenged Lewis lung carcinoma (LLC) cells compared with T-Ap-HTB and the unprocessed HTB mixed liquid-nitrogen-treated tumor tissue. Zn-Ap-HTB and Mg-Ap-HTB contributed to eliciting potent systemic antitumor immunity in vivo.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Submicrospheres composed of amorphous calcium phosphate (ACP) and DNA spontaneously assembled on a substrate via homogeneous calcium phosphate (CaP) nucleation followed by deposition in a highly supersaturated labile CaP solution. The nanocomposite layer of sphere assembly showed higher gene transfer efficiency than a continuous film nanocomposite layer previously fabricated via heterogeneous nucleation in a metastable supersaturated solution.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The synthesis of mesoporous silica/calcium phosphate composite loaded with the immunopotentiator tuberculin purified protein derivative (PPD-MS/CaP) as an effective adjuvant for cancer immunotherapy is reported here. The PPD-MS/CaP adjuvant is prepared by immersing mesoporous silica in a supersaturated calcium phosphate solution supplemented with the immunopotentiator PPD for 24 h. PPD is coprecipitated with calcium phosphate inside and on the surface of mesoporous silica. By loading the immunopotentiator PPD in the PPD-MS/CaP adjuvant, an enhanced activation of antigen-presenting cells, such as GM-CSF secretion by THP-1 differentiated macrophages, is obtained probably due to sustained PPD release and an efficient cellular uptake of PPD. The PPD-MS/CaP adjuvant mixed with liquid-N(2) -treated tumor tissue effectively triggers anti-tumor immune response and markedly inhibits in vivo tumor growth. The PPD-MS/CaP adjuvant is a promising alternative for cancer immune therapy.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: A tissue-engineered endothelial layer was prepared by culturing endothelial cells on a fibroblast growth factor-2 (FGF-2)–l-ascorbic acid phosphate magnesium salt n-hydrate (AsMg)–apatite (Ap) coated titanium plate. The FGF-2–AsMg–Ap coated Ti plate was prepared by immersing a Ti plate in supersaturated calcium phosphate solutions supplemented with FGF-2 and AsMg. The FGF-2–AsMg–Ap layer on the Ti plate accelerated proliferation of human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs), and showed slightly higher, but not statistically significant, nitric oxide release from HUVECs than on as-prepared Ti. The endothelial layer maintained proper function of the endothelial cells and markedly inhibited in vitro platelet adhesion. The tissue-engineered endothelial layer formed on the FGF-2–AsMg–Ap layer is promising for ameliorating platelet activation and thrombus formation on cardiovascular implants.
Science and Technology of Advanced Materials 05/2013; 14(3):035002. DOI:10.1088/1468-6996/14/3/035002 · 3.51 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: A facile method to synthesize mesoporous AlOOH nanofibers using inorganic aluminum salts as the aluminum source and urea as the pore-forming and precipitating agent is reported. The uptake of AlOOH by macrophage-like cells is about 2 times of commercial Alum. The AlOOH adjuvant markedly stimulates the immune responses compared to the commercial Alum adjuvant.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Surface functionalization of highly bioresorbable biomaterials has been a challenging subject. The objective of our research is to establish a calcium phosphate (CaP) coating technique on a bioresorbable bone substitute material: hydroxyapatite and collagen nanocomposite for surface functionalization using supersaturated solutions. A coating technique using a metastable supersaturated solution was inapplicable to the nanocomposite. In contrast, CaP coating was successfully prepared on the nanocomposite by using labile supersaturated solutions when the solution concentration was adjusted to a certain range.