Soo Jae Lee

Konkuk University Medical Center, Changnyeong, South Gyeongsang, South Korea

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Publications (35)72.49 Total impact

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    ABSTRACT: Protein tyrosine nitration is considered as an important indicator of nitrosative stresses and as one of the main factors for pathogenesis of inflammation and neuronal degeneration. In this study, we investigated various nitrosative modifications of bovine carbonic anhydrase II (CAII) through qualitative and semi-quantitative analysis using the combined strategy of Fourier transformation ion cyclotron resonance mass spectrometry (FT-ICR MS) and ion-trap tandem mass spectrometry (IT-MS/MS). FT-ICR MS and its spectra were used for the search of the pattern of nitrosative modifications. Identification of nitrosatively modified tyrosine sites were executed through IT-MS/MS. In addition, we also tried to infer the reason for the site-specific nitrosative modifications in CAII. In view of the above purpose, we have explored- i) the side chain accessibility, ii) the electrostatic environment originated from the acidic/basic amino acid residues neighboring to the nitrosatively modified site and iii) the existence of competing amino acid residues for nitration.
    Bulletin- Korean Chemical Society 01/2014; 35(3). · 0.84 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: This study compared lung tumor growth in PRDX6 over-expressing transgenic (Tg) mice and normal mice. These mice expressed elevated levels of Prdx6 mRNA and protein in multiple tissues. In vivo model, Tg mice displayed a greater increase in the growth of lung tumor compared with normal mice. Glutathione peroxidase and calcium-independent phospholipase 2 (iPLA2) activities in tumor tissues of Tg mice were much higher than in tumor tissues of normal mice. Higher tumor growth in PRDX6 over-expressing Tg mice was associated with the increase of activating protein-1 (AP-1) DNA binding activity. Moreover, expressions of proliferating cell nuclear antigen, Ki-67, vascular endothelial growth factor, c-Jun, c-Fos, metalloproteinase-9, cyclin-dependent kinases, and cyclines were much higher in the tumor tissues of PRDX6 over-expressing Tg mice than in tumor tissues of normal mice. However, expressions of apoptotic regulatory proteins including caspase-3 and Bax were slightly less in the tumor tissues of normal mice. In tumor tissues of PRDX6 over-expressing Tg mice, activation of mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) was much higher than in normal mice. In cultured lung cancer cells, PRDX6 siRNA suppressed glutathione peroxidase and iPLA2 activities and cancer cell growth, but enforced over-expression of PRDX6 increased cancer cell growth associated with increased their activities. In vitro, among the tested MAPK inhibitors, c-Jun NH2-terminal kinase (JNK) inhibitor clearly suppressed growth of lung cancer cells and AP-1 DNA binding, glutathione peroxidase and iPLA2 activities in normal and PRDX6 over-expressing lung cancer cells. These data indicate that over-expression of PRDX6 promotes lung tumor growth via increased glutathione peroxidase and iPLA2 activities through the up-regulation of the AP-1 and JNK pathways.
    Free Radical Biology and Medicine 05/2013; · 5.27 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: We investigated whether direct tissue matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization (MALDI) mass spectrometry (MS) analysis on lipid may assist with the histopathologic diagnosis of non-small cell lung cancers (NSCLCs). Twenty-one pairs of frozen, resected NSCLCs and adjacent normal tissue samples were initially analyzed using histology-directed, MALDI MS. 2,5-dihydroxybenzoic acid/α-cyano-4-hydroxycinnamic acid were manually deposited on areas of each tissue section enriched in epithelial cells to identify lipid profiles, and mass spectra were acquired using a MALDI-time of flight instrument. A lipid profile that could differentiate cancer and adjacent normal samples with a median accuracy of 92.9% was discovered. Several phospholipids including phosphatidylcholines (PC) {34:1} were overexpressed in lung cancer. Squamous cell carcinomas and adenocarcinomas were found to have different lipid profiles. Discriminatory lipids correctly classified the histology of 80.4% of independent NSCLC surgical tissue samples (41 out of 51) in validation set. MALDI MS image of 11 discriminatory lipids validated their differential expression according to the histologic type in cancer cells of bronchoscopic biopsy samples. PC {32:0} [M+Na](+) (m/z 756.68) and ST-OH {42:1} [M-H](-) (m/z 906.89) were overexpressed in adenocarcinomas. Thus, lipid profiles accurately distinguish tumor from adjacent normal tissue and classify non-small cell lung cancers according to the histologic type.
    Lung cancer (Amsterdam, Netherlands) 11/2011; 76(2):197-203. · 3.14 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Preeclapsia (PE) is a severe disorder that occurs during pregnancy, leading to maternal and fetal morbidity and mortality. PE affects about 3-8% of all pregnancies. In this study, we conducted liquid chromatography- mass spectrometry/mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) to analyze serum samples depleted of the six most abundant proteins from normal and PE-affected pregnancies to profile serum proteins. A total of 237 proteins were confidently identified with <1% false discovery rate from the two groups of duplicate analysis. The expression levels of those identified proteins were compared semiquantitatively by spectral counting. To further validate the candidate proteins with a quantitative mass spectrometric method, selective reaction monitoring (SRM) and enzyme linked immune assay (ELISA) of serum samples collected from pregnant women with severe PE (n = 8) or normal pregnant women (n = 5) was conducted. α2- HS-glycoprotein (AHSG), retinol binding protein 4 (RBP4) and α-1-microglobulin/bikunin (AMBP) and Insulin like growth factor binding protein, acid labile subunit (IGFBP-ALS) were confirmed to be differentially expressed in PE using SRM (P<0.05). Among these proteins, AHSG was verified by ELISA and showed a statistically significant increase in PE samples when compared to controls.
    Experimental and Molecular Medicine 06/2011; 43(7):427-35. · 2.57 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Protein tyrosine nitration (PTN) is a post-translational modification that is related to several acute or chronic diseases. PTN introduces a nitro group in the ortho position of the phenolic hydroxyl group of tyrosine residues. PTN has been shown to be involved in the pathogenesis of inflammatory responses, cancers, and neurodegenerative and age-related disorders. Furthermore, it has been proposed that PTN regulates signal cascades related to nitric oxide (NO·) production and NO-mediated processes. Although nitrated proteins as markers of oxidative stress are confirmed by immunological assays in various affected cells or tissues, it is not known how many different types of proteins in living cells are nitrated. Since protein nitration is a low-abundance post-translational modification, development of an effective enrichment method for nitrated proteins is needed to detect nitrated peptides or proteins from the limited amount of pathophysiological samples. In the present study, we developed an enrichment method using specific chemical tagging. Nitroproteome profiling using chemical tagging and mass spectrometry was validated by model proteins. Furthermore, we successfully identified numerous nitrated proteins from the Huh7 human hepatoma cell line.
    Analytical Chemistry 01/2011; 83(1):157-63. · 5.82 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Nano-size MgO-based sorbents that were promoted with ceria and iron oxide were prepared using the coprecipitation method. The sulfur removing capacity and the role of ceria and iron oxide promoters were investigated using a fixed-bed reactor and X-ray diffraction (XRD). The ceria played an important role in the catalytic oxidation of SO2 to SO3 which could be easily absorbed by the MgO. In order for sulfate absorption to occur, SO2 must be oxidized to SO3 before absorption to a pure MgO. The iron oxide exhibited a lowering of the regeneration temperature of the sulfated sorbent under a residue fluid catalytic cracking (RFCC) condition. These results can be explained by the presence of iron oxide particles that interact strongly with MgO support. The MgO-based sorbent that was promoted with ceria and iron oxide showed excellent characteristics in that it could satisfy a large amount of SO2 absorption and fast regeneration.
    Journal of Nanoelectronics and Optoelectronics 07/2010; 5(2):147-152. · 0.48 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Nitric oxide generates reactive nitrosative species, such as peroxynitrite (ONOO(-)) that may be involved in a number of diseases. ONOO(-) can mediate protein tyrosine nitration which causes structural changes of affected proteins and leads to their inactivation. Various proteomics and immunological methods including mass spectrometry combined with both liquid and 2-D PAGE, and immunodetection have been employed to identify and characterize nitrated proteins from pathological samples. This review presents the pahtobiological roles of the pathogenic posttranslational modification in neurodegenerative diseases and atherosclerosis.
    Archives of Pharmacal Research 09/2009; 32(8):1109-18. · 1.54 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The analysis and detection of 3-nitrotyrosine are biologically and clinically important because protein tyrosine nitration is known to be involved in a number of biological phenomena such as cellular signal transduction, pathogenesis of inflammatory responses, and age-related disorders. However, the main obstacles in the study are low abundance of nitrated species and lack of efficient enrichment methods. Here in, we suggest a new chemical approach to analyze nitrated peptides using mass spectrometry by incorporating specific tagging groups in the peptides through simple chemical transformations. Nitro groups on tyrosine side chains of nitrated peptides were subjected to reduction to give rise to amine which was further converted to metal-chelating motif. Mass analyses verified that Ni(2+)-NTA magnetic agarose beads selectively captured and isolated the modified peptides, i.e., nitrated peptides, by strong and specific metal chelating interactions. We further demonstrated the utility of our approach by detection of nitrated peptides in complex samples such as tryptic peptide mixtures of bovine serum albumin (BSA) and a HeLa cell lysate.
    Analytical Chemistry 08/2009; 81(16):6620-6. · 5.82 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: In this study, we investigated the efficiencies by which the pET and pQE expression systems produce unnatural recombinant proteins by residue-specific incorporation of unnatural amino acids, a method through which it was found that type of gene expression system tremendously influences the production yield of unnatural proteins in Escherichia coli. Green fluorescent protein (GFP) and a single-chain Fv antibody against c-Met were utilized as model recombinant proteins while L-homopropargylglycine (Hpg), a methionine analogue that incorporates into the methionine residues of a recombinant protein, was used as model unnatural amino acid. The pET system produced an almost negligible amount of Hpg-incorporated unnatural protein compared to the amount of methionine-incorporated natural protein. However, comparable amounts of unnatural and natural protein were produced by the pQE expression system. The amount of unnatural GFP protein produced through pET expression was not increased despite the over-expression of methionyl tRNA synthetase, which can enhance the activation rate of methionyl-tRNA with a methionine analogue. Incorporation of Hpg decreased the productivity of active GFP by approximately 2.5 fold, possibly caused by the inefficient folding of Hpg-incorporated GFP. Conversely, the productivity of functional anti-c-Met sc-Fv was not influenced by incorporation of Hpg. We confirmed through LC-MS and LCMS/MS that Hpg was incorporated into the methionine residues of the recombinant proteins produced by the pQE expression system.
    Biotechnology and Bioprocess Engineering 06/2009; 14:257-265. · 1.28 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Malignant glioma is the most common primary brain tumor in adults and the median survival for patients is less than a year. Despite aggressive treatments including surgical resection, radiotherapy, and chemotherapy, only modest improvement has been achieved in the survival of patients with glioma. In this study, the antitumor activity of cytokine-induced killer (CIK) cells against human glioma cancer was evaluated in vitro and in vivo. Human peripheral blood mononuclear cells were cultured with IL-2-containing medium in anti-CD3 antibody-coated flasks for 5 days, followed by incubation in IL-2-containing medium for 9 days. The number of cells increased more than 200-fold and the viability was >90%. The resulting populations were consisted of 96% CD3(+), 2% CD3(-)CD56(+), 68% CD3(+)CD56(+), 2% CD4(+), <1% CD4(+)CD56(+), 80% CD8(+), and 49% CD8(+)CD56(+). This heterogeneous cell population was called as CIK cells. At an effector-target cell ratio of 30:1, CIK cells destroyed 43% of U-87 MG human glioma cells, as measured by the (51)Cr-release assay. In addition, CIK cells at doses of 0.3, 1, and 3 million cells per mouse inhibited 23%, 40%, and 50% of U-87 MG tumor growth in nude mouse xenograft assays, respectively. This study suggests that CIK cells may be used as an adoptive immunotherapy for glioma cancer patients.
    Archives of Pharmacal Research 06/2009; 32(5):781-7. · 1.54 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Concise total synthesis of obovatol (1) was achieved from the commercially available eugenol (5) via linear 4 steps in 40% overall yield. The key features of the synthesis involve the chemoselective orthobromination of phenol in the presence of isolated double bond and the efficient Cu-catalyzed Ullmann coupling of two aromatic moieties for the diaryl ether skeleton.
    Archives of Pharmacal Research 01/2009; 31(12):1559-63. · 1.54 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: A SnO2-based recoverable thick-film gas sensor was developed in this study for the detection of dichloromethane (DCM) of ppb level at 350°C. The response of the SnO2 sensor decreased gradually during multiple cycles of detection and recovery, while the response of the SnO2-based sensor, promoted simultaneously with Mo and Ni, was maintained during multiple cycles without deactivation. In particular, the Mo3·Ni3(I) sensor, which was prepared by the physical mixing of 3wt% MoO3 and Ni/SnO2 (Ni3(I)) prepared by impregnation of SnO2 with 3wt% NiO, showed a very high sensor response of about 50% in the detection of DCM of 0.5ppm at 350°C, unlike the SnO2 sensor which showed a sensor response of about 1.2%. This result was due to the effects of textural property of the pure material and the promoter. The MoO3 promoter played an important role in the improvement of the recovery ability of sensor, and the NiO promoter played an important role in the enhancement of the response level of the sensor. In addition, the response of the Mo3·Ni3(I) sensor increased almost linearly in the concentration range between 0.1ppm and 0.5ppm. Moreover, the sensor showed the response of 30% even at a very low concentration of DCM of 0.1ppm (100ppb).
    Sensors and Actuators B-chemical - SENSOR ACTUATOR B-CHEM. 01/2009; 138(2):446-452.
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    ABSTRACT: To improve the deactivation of the sorbent for the removal of SO2 in residue fluid catalytic cracking plants, a Ce−Fe−MgO sorbent with excellent sulfur removal capacity and regeneration ability was modified by adding new promoters such as Ti, Al, and Zr. The sorbents were prepared by a coprecipitation method, and their sulfur removal capacities and regeneration abilities were measured in a fixed-bed reactor during multiple cycles. In particular, the sulfur removal capacity of the CeFeMgTi sorbent showed a high absorption value (41.2 g of sulfur/g of absorbent × 100) and excellent regeneration ability during multiple cycles. These results can be explained by the difference in their crystal structures and the physical and textural properties.
    Industrial & Engineering Chemistry Research - IND ENG CHEM RES. 01/2009; 48(5):2691-2696.
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    ABSTRACT: To improve the poor SO2 absorption rate of CeFeMgTi sorbent with high sulfur removal capacity and fast regeneration, a new sorbent, CeFeMgTi-sol was prepared by the modified co-precipitation method and tested in a packed bed reactor at RFCC conditions (sulfation of MgO to MgSO4 in the presence of low concentration of SO2 at 973 K, regeneration of MgSO4 to MgO and H2S in the presence of H2 at 803 K). The CeFeMgTi-sol sorbent showed excellent SO2 absorption and sulfur removal capacity (46.2 sulfur g/g absorbent×100). It was found that the SO2 absorption rates were related to the structure of the Mg and Ti and the textural properties such as surface area and pore volume. In the case of the fresh state of CeFeMgTi sorbent, CeO2, MgO and MgTiO3 structures were observed. But the new CeFeMgTisol sorbent before SO2 absorption, showed a separated MgO and TiO2 peak only. These differences in the sorption rates were discussed by the difference in the XRD pattern, surface area and pore volume.
    Korean Journal of Chemical Engineering 01/2009; 26(5):1286-1290. · 1.06 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: A recoverable SnO2-based gas sensor, promoted simultaneously with three components such as Mo, Sb, and Ni (Mo5Sb1·Ni(I)), was developed in this study for the detection of DMMP. The Mo5Sb1·Ni(I) sensor showed not only excellent sensor response in the detection of a very low concentration of DMMP (ppb level) in a flow system, but also complete recovery. In particular, the Mo5Sb1·Ni2(I) sensor developed in this study showed a high sensor response of about 70% in the detection of 0.5 ppm DMMP at 350 °C, and the sensor response was maintained during multiple cycles of detection and recovery. Moreover, the sensor showed the sensor response of 42% in the detection of even very low concentrations of DMMP of 0.1 ppm. These results were due to the effects of promoters such as Mo, Sb, and Ni. Mo and Sb promoters play an important role in the improvement of the recovery ability of sensor, and Ni promoter plays an important catalytic role in the enhancement of the response level of sensors.
    Sensors and Actuators B: Chemical. 01/2009;
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    ABSTRACT: An O-alkylation reaction of hydroquinone with excess methanol was carried out by using alkaline metal ion-exchanged zeolite catalysts at various phases of methanol in a slurry type reactor. The amount of methanol, used as a methylating agent and also a solvent, significantly affected the reaction rate. When the amount of methanol was decreased from 2 mol to 0.6 mol, the reaction rate was increased more than nine times. These changes in the reaction rate could be explained by the pressure change and the phase transition of the reactant, methanol, depending on the temperature and the elimination of a diffusion limitation of reactants through the zeolite pores in a gas phase condition. Thus, higher than 89% selectivity to 4-methoxyphenol was obtained at 80% conversion of hydroquinone at a gas phase reaction condition using 1 mol of methanol for 2 hours.
    Korean Journal of Chemical Engineering 01/2009; 26(3):649-653. · 1.06 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: A novel potassium-based dry sorbent (KZrI) was developed for CO2 capture at a low temperature range between 50 °C and 200 °C. The CO2 absorption and regeneration properties of this novel regenerable potassium-based dry sorbent were measured in a fixed-bed reactor during multiple absorption/regeneration cycles at low temperature conditions (CO2 absorption at 50–100 °C and regeneration at 130–200 °C). The total CO2 capture capacity of the KZrI sorbent was maintained during the multiple CO2 absorption/regeneration cycles. The XRD patterns and FTIR analyses of the sorbents after CO2 absorption showed the KHCO3 phase only except for the ZrO2 phase used as support. Even after 10 cycles, any other new structures resulting from the by-product during CO2 absorption were not observed. This phase could be easily converted into the original phase during regeneration, even at a low temperature (130 °C). The KZrI sorbent developed in this study showed excellent characteristics in CO2 absorption and regeneration in that it satisfies the requirements of a large amount of CO2 absorption (91.6 mg CO2/g sorbent) and the complete regeneration at a low temperature condition (1 atm, 150 °C) without deactivation.
    Journal of Molecular Catalysis B Enzymatic 01/2009; 56:179-184. · 2.82 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Research on the Bonghan system has recently prompted great interest in the theory proposed by Bong Han Kimin in the early 1960s. In order to study the biochemical characteristics of the Bonghan system, we analyzed Bonghan ducts (BHD) on the surface of rabbit intestines and characterized the liquid in the BHD at the level of the proteome. Proteomic analysis was performed using nano LC-ESI MS/MS. Using a solution digestion technique, we identified 70 different proteins in the liquid of the BHD. We used gel-based digestion to analyze the BHD itself and our results showed the presence of 207 proteins. We used these proteins to analyze gene ontology (GO) to yield insights into biological processes, molecular functions and cellular compartmentalization. Remarkably, GO clustering showed high concentrations of proteins involved in metabolism. These proteins are not usually found in blood, lymph or blood vessels, and thus can be useful for characterizing BHD. It is worth studying their association with stem cells, especially mesenchymal stem cells, cancer cells and myeloid cells.
    Journal of acupuncture and meridian studies. 12/2008; 1(2):97-109.
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    ABSTRACT: Based on our pharmacophore model of the aryl diketoacids (ADKs), we designed and prepared a series of novel ADK analogues, which showed potent inhibitory activities against the NS5B polymerase in the submicromolar range. Pharmacophore-guided docking study revealed that the antiviral activities of the ADKs are highly dependent upon the aryl linker as well as the size and position of the aromatic substituent. It is of another importance that, unlike previously reported ADKs, three ADK analogues synthesized in this study effectively blocked Hepatitis C Virus (HCV) replication in the replicon systems.
    Bioorganic & medicinal chemistry letters 08/2008; 18(16):4661-5. · 2.65 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: To improve the sulfidation and regeneration properties of Zn−Ti-based desulfurization sorbents, sorbents with 5 wt % of the promoters, iron or cerium oxide, were prepared and tested in a packed reactor under intermediate temperature conditions (H2S absorption at 480 °C, regeneration at 580 °C). These sorbents showed excellent sulfur-removing capacities without deactivation even after 10 cycles of absorption and regeneration. Their regeneration properties were also improved by the iron and cerium promoters. In the case of the iron promoter, heat was released when the metal sulfide was converted to the metal oxide, which improved the regeneration property of the Zn−Ti-based sorbent. In the case of the cerium promoter, there was no reaction with hydrogen sulfide gases, and the spent Zn−Ti-based sorbent was easily regenerated by virtue of the OSC (oxygen storage capacity) property of the cerium promoter, which easily converted the S of ZnS to SO2.
    Industrial & Engineering Chemistry Research - IND ENG CHEM RES. 06/2008; 47(14).

Publication Stats

349 Citations
72.49 Total Impact Points


  • 2011
    • Konkuk University Medical Center
      Changnyeong, South Gyeongsang, South Korea
  • 2007–2011
    • Konkuk University
      • Department of Bioscience and Technology
      Sŏul, Seoul, South Korea
  • 2009
    • Daegu Gyeongbuk Institute of Science and Technology
      Daikyū, Daegu, South Korea
  • 2008
    • Yeungnam University
      • School of Chemical Engineering
      Onyang, South Chungcheong, South Korea
  • 2006–2008
    • Kyungpook National University
      • Department of Energy Chemical Engineering
      Daikyū, Daegu, South Korea